Abstract

We present a new method to control the Carrier-Envelope Phase of ultra-short laser pulses by using the linear Electro-Optic Effect. Experimental demonstration is carried out on a Chirped Pulse Amplification based laser. Phase shifts greater than π radian can be obtained by applying moderate voltage on a LiNbO3 crystal with practically no changes to all other parameters of the pulse with the exception of its group delay. Time response of the Electro-Optic effect makes possible shaping at a high repetition rate or stabilization of the CEP of ultra short CPA laser systems.

© 2011 OSA

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  1. A. Baltuška, T. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature 421(6923), 611–615 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. M. Nisoli, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, C. Vozzi, M. Pascolini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, and G. Tondello, “Effects of carrier-envelope phase differences of few-optical-cycle light pulses in single-shot high-order-harmonic spectra,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(21), 213905 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. A. Baltuška, T. Fuji, and T. Kobayashi, “Controlling the carrier-envelope phase of ultrashort light pulses with optical parametric amplifiers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(13), 133901 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science 288(5466), 635–639 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. S. Witte, R. T. Zinkstok, W. Hogervorst, and K. S. E. Eikema, “Control and precise measurement of carrier-envelope phase dynamics,” Appl. Phys. B 78(1), 5–12 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  6. S. Koke, C. Grebing, H. Frei, A. Anderson, A. Assion, and G. Steinmeyer, “Direct frequency comb synthesis with arbitrary offset and shot-noise-limited phase noise,” Nat. Photonics 4(7), 462–465 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  7. D. Strickland and G. Mourou, “Compression of amplified chirped optical pulses,” Opt. Commun. 56(3), 219–221 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. Nisoli, S. De Silvestri, O. Svelto, R. Szipöcs, K. Ferencz, Ch. Spielmann, S. Sartania, and F. Krausz, “Compression of high-energy laser pulses below 5 fs,” Opt. Lett. 22(8), 522–524 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. S. Bohman, A. Suda, T. Kanai, S. Yamaguchi, and K. Midorikawa, “Generation of 5.0 fs, 5.0 mJ pulses at 1kHz using hollow-fiber pulse compression,” Opt. Lett. 35(11), 1887–1889 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. C. F. Dutin, A. Dubrouil, S. Petit, E. Mével, E. Constant, and D. Descamps, “Post-compression of high-energy femtosecond pulses using gas ionization,” Opt. Lett. 35(2), 253–255 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. M. Kakehata, H. Takada, Y. Kobayashi, K. Torizuka, Y. Fujihira, T. Homma, and H. Takahashi, “Measurements of carrier-envelope phase changes of 100-Hz amplified laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 74(9Suppl.), S43–S50 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  12. C. Grebing, M. Görbe, K. Osvay, and G. Steinmeyer, “Isochronic and isodispersive carrier-envelope phase-shift compensators,” Appl. Phys. B 97(3), 575–581 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  13. Z. Chang, “Carrier-envelope phase shift caused by grating-based stretchers and compressors,” Appl. Opt. 45(32), 8350–8353 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. P. Tournois, “Acousto-optic programmable dispersive filter for adaptive compensation of group delay time dispersion in laser systems,” Opt. Commun. 140(4-6), 245–249 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  15. L. Canova, X. Chen, A. Trisorio, A. Jullien, A. Assion, G. Tempea, N. Forget, T. Oksenhendler, and R. Lopez-Martens, “Carrier-envelope phase stabilization and control using a transmission grating compressor and an AOPDF,” Opt. Lett. 34(9), 1333–1335 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. H. Wang, M. Chini, Y. Wu, E. Moon, H. Mashiko, and Z. Chang, “Carrier–envelope phase stabilization of 5-fs, 0.5-mJ pulses from adaptive phase modulator,” Appl. Phys. B 98(2-3), 291–294 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  17. R. S. Weis and T. K. Gaylord, “Lithium niobate: Summary of physical properties and crystal structure,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 37(4), 191–203 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  18. A. S. Andrushchak, B. G. Mytsyk, N. M. Demyanyshyn, M. V. Kaidan, O. V. Yurkevych, I. M. Solskii, A. V. Kityk, and W. Schranz, “Spatial anisotropy of linear electro-optic effect in crystal materials: I Experimental determination of electro-optic tensor in LiNbO3 by means of interferometric technique,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 47(1), 31–38 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  19. O. Gayer, Z. Sacks, E. Galun, and A. Arie, “Temperature and wavelength dependent refractive index equations for MgO-doped congruent and stoichiometric LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. B 91(2), 343–348 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  20. K. Yonekura, L. Jin, and K. Takizawa, “Measurement of Dispersion of Effective Electro-Optic Coefficients r13E and r33E of Non-Doped Congruent LiNbO3 Crystal,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47(7), 5503–5508 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  21. D. A. Bryan, R. Gerson, and H. E. Tomaschke, “Increased optical damage resistance in lithium niobate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 44(9), 847–849 (1984).
    [CrossRef]

2010

S. Koke, C. Grebing, H. Frei, A. Anderson, A. Assion, and G. Steinmeyer, “Direct frequency comb synthesis with arbitrary offset and shot-noise-limited phase noise,” Nat. Photonics 4(7), 462–465 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Wang, M. Chini, Y. Wu, E. Moon, H. Mashiko, and Z. Chang, “Carrier–envelope phase stabilization of 5-fs, 0.5-mJ pulses from adaptive phase modulator,” Appl. Phys. B 98(2-3), 291–294 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. F. Dutin, A. Dubrouil, S. Petit, E. Mével, E. Constant, and D. Descamps, “Post-compression of high-energy femtosecond pulses using gas ionization,” Opt. Lett. 35(2), 253–255 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Bohman, A. Suda, T. Kanai, S. Yamaguchi, and K. Midorikawa, “Generation of 5.0 fs, 5.0 mJ pulses at 1kHz using hollow-fiber pulse compression,” Opt. Lett. 35(11), 1887–1889 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

L. Canova, X. Chen, A. Trisorio, A. Jullien, A. Assion, G. Tempea, N. Forget, T. Oksenhendler, and R. Lopez-Martens, “Carrier-envelope phase stabilization and control using a transmission grating compressor and an AOPDF,” Opt. Lett. 34(9), 1333–1335 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Grebing, M. Görbe, K. Osvay, and G. Steinmeyer, “Isochronic and isodispersive carrier-envelope phase-shift compensators,” Appl. Phys. B 97(3), 575–581 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. S. Andrushchak, B. G. Mytsyk, N. M. Demyanyshyn, M. V. Kaidan, O. V. Yurkevych, I. M. Solskii, A. V. Kityk, and W. Schranz, “Spatial anisotropy of linear electro-optic effect in crystal materials: I Experimental determination of electro-optic tensor in LiNbO3 by means of interferometric technique,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 47(1), 31–38 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

O. Gayer, Z. Sacks, E. Galun, and A. Arie, “Temperature and wavelength dependent refractive index equations for MgO-doped congruent and stoichiometric LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. B 91(2), 343–348 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. Yonekura, L. Jin, and K. Takizawa, “Measurement of Dispersion of Effective Electro-Optic Coefficients r13E and r33E of Non-Doped Congruent LiNbO3 Crystal,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47(7), 5503–5508 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2006

2004

S. Witte, R. T. Zinkstok, W. Hogervorst, and K. S. E. Eikema, “Control and precise measurement of carrier-envelope phase dynamics,” Appl. Phys. B 78(1), 5–12 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

A. Baltuška, T. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature 421(6923), 611–615 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Nisoli, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, C. Vozzi, M. Pascolini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, and G. Tondello, “Effects of carrier-envelope phase differences of few-optical-cycle light pulses in single-shot high-order-harmonic spectra,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(21), 213905 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

A. Baltuška, T. Fuji, and T. Kobayashi, “Controlling the carrier-envelope phase of ultrashort light pulses with optical parametric amplifiers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(13), 133901 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Kakehata, H. Takada, Y. Kobayashi, K. Torizuka, Y. Fujihira, T. Homma, and H. Takahashi, “Measurements of carrier-envelope phase changes of 100-Hz amplified laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 74(9Suppl.), S43–S50 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science 288(5466), 635–639 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997

P. Tournois, “Acousto-optic programmable dispersive filter for adaptive compensation of group delay time dispersion in laser systems,” Opt. Commun. 140(4-6), 245–249 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Nisoli, S. De Silvestri, O. Svelto, R. Szipöcs, K. Ferencz, Ch. Spielmann, S. Sartania, and F. Krausz, “Compression of high-energy laser pulses below 5 fs,” Opt. Lett. 22(8), 522–524 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1985

R. S. Weis and T. K. Gaylord, “Lithium niobate: Summary of physical properties and crystal structure,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 37(4), 191–203 (1985).
[CrossRef]

D. Strickland and G. Mourou, “Compression of amplified chirped optical pulses,” Opt. Commun. 56(3), 219–221 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1984

D. A. Bryan, R. Gerson, and H. E. Tomaschke, “Increased optical damage resistance in lithium niobate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 44(9), 847–849 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, A.

S. Koke, C. Grebing, H. Frei, A. Anderson, A. Assion, and G. Steinmeyer, “Direct frequency comb synthesis with arbitrary offset and shot-noise-limited phase noise,” Nat. Photonics 4(7), 462–465 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Andrushchak, A. S.

A. S. Andrushchak, B. G. Mytsyk, N. M. Demyanyshyn, M. V. Kaidan, O. V. Yurkevych, I. M. Solskii, A. V. Kityk, and W. Schranz, “Spatial anisotropy of linear electro-optic effect in crystal materials: I Experimental determination of electro-optic tensor in LiNbO3 by means of interferometric technique,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 47(1), 31–38 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Arie, A.

O. Gayer, Z. Sacks, E. Galun, and A. Arie, “Temperature and wavelength dependent refractive index equations for MgO-doped congruent and stoichiometric LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. B 91(2), 343–348 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Assion, A.

S. Koke, C. Grebing, H. Frei, A. Anderson, A. Assion, and G. Steinmeyer, “Direct frequency comb synthesis with arbitrary offset and shot-noise-limited phase noise,” Nat. Photonics 4(7), 462–465 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. Canova, X. Chen, A. Trisorio, A. Jullien, A. Assion, G. Tempea, N. Forget, T. Oksenhendler, and R. Lopez-Martens, “Carrier-envelope phase stabilization and control using a transmission grating compressor and an AOPDF,” Opt. Lett. 34(9), 1333–1335 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baltuška, A.

A. Baltuška, T. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature 421(6923), 611–615 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Baltuška, T. Fuji, and T. Kobayashi, “Controlling the carrier-envelope phase of ultrashort light pulses with optical parametric amplifiers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(13), 133901 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bohman, S.

Bryan, D. A.

D. A. Bryan, R. Gerson, and H. E. Tomaschke, “Increased optical damage resistance in lithium niobate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 44(9), 847–849 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Canova, L.

Chang, Z.

H. Wang, M. Chini, Y. Wu, E. Moon, H. Mashiko, and Z. Chang, “Carrier–envelope phase stabilization of 5-fs, 0.5-mJ pulses from adaptive phase modulator,” Appl. Phys. B 98(2-3), 291–294 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. Chang, “Carrier-envelope phase shift caused by grating-based stretchers and compressors,” Appl. Opt. 45(32), 8350–8353 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, X.

Chini, M.

H. Wang, M. Chini, Y. Wu, E. Moon, H. Mashiko, and Z. Chang, “Carrier–envelope phase stabilization of 5-fs, 0.5-mJ pulses from adaptive phase modulator,” Appl. Phys. B 98(2-3), 291–294 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Constant, E.

Cundiff, S. T.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science 288(5466), 635–639 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

De Silvestri, S.

M. Nisoli, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, C. Vozzi, M. Pascolini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, and G. Tondello, “Effects of carrier-envelope phase differences of few-optical-cycle light pulses in single-shot high-order-harmonic spectra,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(21), 213905 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Nisoli, S. De Silvestri, O. Svelto, R. Szipöcs, K. Ferencz, Ch. Spielmann, S. Sartania, and F. Krausz, “Compression of high-energy laser pulses below 5 fs,” Opt. Lett. 22(8), 522–524 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Demyanyshyn, N. M.

A. S. Andrushchak, B. G. Mytsyk, N. M. Demyanyshyn, M. V. Kaidan, O. V. Yurkevych, I. M. Solskii, A. V. Kityk, and W. Schranz, “Spatial anisotropy of linear electro-optic effect in crystal materials: I Experimental determination of electro-optic tensor in LiNbO3 by means of interferometric technique,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 47(1), 31–38 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Descamps, D.

Diddams, S. A.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science 288(5466), 635–639 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dubrouil, A.

Dutin, C. F.

Eikema, K. S. E.

S. Witte, R. T. Zinkstok, W. Hogervorst, and K. S. E. Eikema, “Control and precise measurement of carrier-envelope phase dynamics,” Appl. Phys. B 78(1), 5–12 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ferencz, K.

Forget, N.

Frei, H.

S. Koke, C. Grebing, H. Frei, A. Anderson, A. Assion, and G. Steinmeyer, “Direct frequency comb synthesis with arbitrary offset and shot-noise-limited phase noise,” Nat. Photonics 4(7), 462–465 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Fuji, T.

A. Baltuška, T. Fuji, and T. Kobayashi, “Controlling the carrier-envelope phase of ultrashort light pulses with optical parametric amplifiers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(13), 133901 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fujihira, Y.

M. Kakehata, H. Takada, Y. Kobayashi, K. Torizuka, Y. Fujihira, T. Homma, and H. Takahashi, “Measurements of carrier-envelope phase changes of 100-Hz amplified laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 74(9Suppl.), S43–S50 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Galun, E.

O. Gayer, Z. Sacks, E. Galun, and A. Arie, “Temperature and wavelength dependent refractive index equations for MgO-doped congruent and stoichiometric LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. B 91(2), 343–348 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gayer, O.

O. Gayer, Z. Sacks, E. Galun, and A. Arie, “Temperature and wavelength dependent refractive index equations for MgO-doped congruent and stoichiometric LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. B 91(2), 343–348 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gaylord, T. K.

R. S. Weis and T. K. Gaylord, “Lithium niobate: Summary of physical properties and crystal structure,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 37(4), 191–203 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Gerson, R.

D. A. Bryan, R. Gerson, and H. E. Tomaschke, “Increased optical damage resistance in lithium niobate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 44(9), 847–849 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Gohle, Ch.

A. Baltuška, T. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature 421(6923), 611–615 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Görbe, M.

C. Grebing, M. Görbe, K. Osvay, and G. Steinmeyer, “Isochronic and isodispersive carrier-envelope phase-shift compensators,” Appl. Phys. B 97(3), 575–581 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Goulielmakis, E.

A. Baltuška, T. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature 421(6923), 611–615 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grebing, C.

S. Koke, C. Grebing, H. Frei, A. Anderson, A. Assion, and G. Steinmeyer, “Direct frequency comb synthesis with arbitrary offset and shot-noise-limited phase noise,” Nat. Photonics 4(7), 462–465 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Grebing, M. Görbe, K. Osvay, and G. Steinmeyer, “Isochronic and isodispersive carrier-envelope phase-shift compensators,” Appl. Phys. B 97(3), 575–581 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hall, J. L.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science 288(5466), 635–639 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hänsch, T. W.

A. Baltuška, T. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature 421(6923), 611–615 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hentschel, M.

A. Baltuška, T. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature 421(6923), 611–615 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hogervorst, W.

S. Witte, R. T. Zinkstok, W. Hogervorst, and K. S. E. Eikema, “Control and precise measurement of carrier-envelope phase dynamics,” Appl. Phys. B 78(1), 5–12 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Holzwarth, R.

A. Baltuška, T. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature 421(6923), 611–615 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Homma, T.

M. Kakehata, H. Takada, Y. Kobayashi, K. Torizuka, Y. Fujihira, T. Homma, and H. Takahashi, “Measurements of carrier-envelope phase changes of 100-Hz amplified laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 74(9Suppl.), S43–S50 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Jin, L.

K. Yonekura, L. Jin, and K. Takizawa, “Measurement of Dispersion of Effective Electro-Optic Coefficients r13E and r33E of Non-Doped Congruent LiNbO3 Crystal,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47(7), 5503–5508 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jones, D. J.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science 288(5466), 635–639 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jullien, A.

Kaidan, M. V.

A. S. Andrushchak, B. G. Mytsyk, N. M. Demyanyshyn, M. V. Kaidan, O. V. Yurkevych, I. M. Solskii, A. V. Kityk, and W. Schranz, “Spatial anisotropy of linear electro-optic effect in crystal materials: I Experimental determination of electro-optic tensor in LiNbO3 by means of interferometric technique,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 47(1), 31–38 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kakehata, M.

M. Kakehata, H. Takada, Y. Kobayashi, K. Torizuka, Y. Fujihira, T. Homma, and H. Takahashi, “Measurements of carrier-envelope phase changes of 100-Hz amplified laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 74(9Suppl.), S43–S50 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kanai, T.

Kityk, A. V.

A. S. Andrushchak, B. G. Mytsyk, N. M. Demyanyshyn, M. V. Kaidan, O. V. Yurkevych, I. M. Solskii, A. V. Kityk, and W. Schranz, “Spatial anisotropy of linear electro-optic effect in crystal materials: I Experimental determination of electro-optic tensor in LiNbO3 by means of interferometric technique,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 47(1), 31–38 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kobayashi, T.

A. Baltuška, T. Fuji, and T. Kobayashi, “Controlling the carrier-envelope phase of ultrashort light pulses with optical parametric amplifiers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(13), 133901 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kobayashi, Y.

M. Kakehata, H. Takada, Y. Kobayashi, K. Torizuka, Y. Fujihira, T. Homma, and H. Takahashi, “Measurements of carrier-envelope phase changes of 100-Hz amplified laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 74(9Suppl.), S43–S50 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Koke, S.

S. Koke, C. Grebing, H. Frei, A. Anderson, A. Assion, and G. Steinmeyer, “Direct frequency comb synthesis with arbitrary offset and shot-noise-limited phase noise,” Nat. Photonics 4(7), 462–465 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Krausz, F.

A. Baltuška, T. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature 421(6923), 611–615 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Nisoli, S. De Silvestri, O. Svelto, R. Szipöcs, K. Ferencz, Ch. Spielmann, S. Sartania, and F. Krausz, “Compression of high-energy laser pulses below 5 fs,” Opt. Lett. 22(8), 522–524 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lopez-Martens, R.

Mashiko, H.

H. Wang, M. Chini, Y. Wu, E. Moon, H. Mashiko, and Z. Chang, “Carrier–envelope phase stabilization of 5-fs, 0.5-mJ pulses from adaptive phase modulator,” Appl. Phys. B 98(2-3), 291–294 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Mével, E.

Midorikawa, K.

Moon, E.

H. Wang, M. Chini, Y. Wu, E. Moon, H. Mashiko, and Z. Chang, “Carrier–envelope phase stabilization of 5-fs, 0.5-mJ pulses from adaptive phase modulator,” Appl. Phys. B 98(2-3), 291–294 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Mourou, G.

D. Strickland and G. Mourou, “Compression of amplified chirped optical pulses,” Opt. Commun. 56(3), 219–221 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Mytsyk, B. G.

A. S. Andrushchak, B. G. Mytsyk, N. M. Demyanyshyn, M. V. Kaidan, O. V. Yurkevych, I. M. Solskii, A. V. Kityk, and W. Schranz, “Spatial anisotropy of linear electro-optic effect in crystal materials: I Experimental determination of electro-optic tensor in LiNbO3 by means of interferometric technique,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 47(1), 31–38 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nisoli, M.

M. Nisoli, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, C. Vozzi, M. Pascolini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, and G. Tondello, “Effects of carrier-envelope phase differences of few-optical-cycle light pulses in single-shot high-order-harmonic spectra,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(21), 213905 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Nisoli, S. De Silvestri, O. Svelto, R. Szipöcs, K. Ferencz, Ch. Spielmann, S. Sartania, and F. Krausz, “Compression of high-energy laser pulses below 5 fs,” Opt. Lett. 22(8), 522–524 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oksenhendler, T.

Osvay, K.

C. Grebing, M. Görbe, K. Osvay, and G. Steinmeyer, “Isochronic and isodispersive carrier-envelope phase-shift compensators,” Appl. Phys. B 97(3), 575–581 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Pascolini, M.

M. Nisoli, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, C. Vozzi, M. Pascolini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, and G. Tondello, “Effects of carrier-envelope phase differences of few-optical-cycle light pulses in single-shot high-order-harmonic spectra,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(21), 213905 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Petit, S.

Poletto, L.

M. Nisoli, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, C. Vozzi, M. Pascolini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, and G. Tondello, “Effects of carrier-envelope phase differences of few-optical-cycle light pulses in single-shot high-order-harmonic spectra,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(21), 213905 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ranka, J. K.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science 288(5466), 635–639 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sacks, Z.

O. Gayer, Z. Sacks, E. Galun, and A. Arie, “Temperature and wavelength dependent refractive index equations for MgO-doped congruent and stoichiometric LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. B 91(2), 343–348 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sansone, G.

M. Nisoli, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, C. Vozzi, M. Pascolini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, and G. Tondello, “Effects of carrier-envelope phase differences of few-optical-cycle light pulses in single-shot high-order-harmonic spectra,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(21), 213905 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sartania, S.

Schranz, W.

A. S. Andrushchak, B. G. Mytsyk, N. M. Demyanyshyn, M. V. Kaidan, O. V. Yurkevych, I. M. Solskii, A. V. Kityk, and W. Schranz, “Spatial anisotropy of linear electro-optic effect in crystal materials: I Experimental determination of electro-optic tensor in LiNbO3 by means of interferometric technique,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 47(1), 31–38 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Scrinzi, A.

A. Baltuška, T. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature 421(6923), 611–615 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Solskii, I. M.

A. S. Andrushchak, B. G. Mytsyk, N. M. Demyanyshyn, M. V. Kaidan, O. V. Yurkevych, I. M. Solskii, A. V. Kityk, and W. Schranz, “Spatial anisotropy of linear electro-optic effect in crystal materials: I Experimental determination of electro-optic tensor in LiNbO3 by means of interferometric technique,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 47(1), 31–38 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Spielmann, Ch.

Stagira, S.

M. Nisoli, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, C. Vozzi, M. Pascolini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, and G. Tondello, “Effects of carrier-envelope phase differences of few-optical-cycle light pulses in single-shot high-order-harmonic spectra,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(21), 213905 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Steinmeyer, G.

S. Koke, C. Grebing, H. Frei, A. Anderson, A. Assion, and G. Steinmeyer, “Direct frequency comb synthesis with arbitrary offset and shot-noise-limited phase noise,” Nat. Photonics 4(7), 462–465 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Grebing, M. Görbe, K. Osvay, and G. Steinmeyer, “Isochronic and isodispersive carrier-envelope phase-shift compensators,” Appl. Phys. B 97(3), 575–581 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Stentz, A.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science 288(5466), 635–639 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Strickland, D.

D. Strickland and G. Mourou, “Compression of amplified chirped optical pulses,” Opt. Commun. 56(3), 219–221 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Suda, A.

Svelto, O.

Szipöcs, R.

Takada, H.

M. Kakehata, H. Takada, Y. Kobayashi, K. Torizuka, Y. Fujihira, T. Homma, and H. Takahashi, “Measurements of carrier-envelope phase changes of 100-Hz amplified laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 74(9Suppl.), S43–S50 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Takahashi, H.

M. Kakehata, H. Takada, Y. Kobayashi, K. Torizuka, Y. Fujihira, T. Homma, and H. Takahashi, “Measurements of carrier-envelope phase changes of 100-Hz amplified laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 74(9Suppl.), S43–S50 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Takizawa, K.

K. Yonekura, L. Jin, and K. Takizawa, “Measurement of Dispersion of Effective Electro-Optic Coefficients r13E and r33E of Non-Doped Congruent LiNbO3 Crystal,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47(7), 5503–5508 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tempea, G.

Tomaschke, H. E.

D. A. Bryan, R. Gerson, and H. E. Tomaschke, “Increased optical damage resistance in lithium niobate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 44(9), 847–849 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Tondello, G.

M. Nisoli, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, C. Vozzi, M. Pascolini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, and G. Tondello, “Effects of carrier-envelope phase differences of few-optical-cycle light pulses in single-shot high-order-harmonic spectra,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(21), 213905 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Torizuka, K.

M. Kakehata, H. Takada, Y. Kobayashi, K. Torizuka, Y. Fujihira, T. Homma, and H. Takahashi, “Measurements of carrier-envelope phase changes of 100-Hz amplified laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 74(9Suppl.), S43–S50 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tournois, P.

P. Tournois, “Acousto-optic programmable dispersive filter for adaptive compensation of group delay time dispersion in laser systems,” Opt. Commun. 140(4-6), 245–249 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Trisorio, A.

Udem, T.

A. Baltuška, T. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature 421(6923), 611–615 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Uiberacker, M.

A. Baltuška, T. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature 421(6923), 611–615 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Villoresi, P.

M. Nisoli, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, C. Vozzi, M. Pascolini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, and G. Tondello, “Effects of carrier-envelope phase differences of few-optical-cycle light pulses in single-shot high-order-harmonic spectra,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(21), 213905 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vozzi, C.

M. Nisoli, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, C. Vozzi, M. Pascolini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, and G. Tondello, “Effects of carrier-envelope phase differences of few-optical-cycle light pulses in single-shot high-order-harmonic spectra,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(21), 213905 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, H.

H. Wang, M. Chini, Y. Wu, E. Moon, H. Mashiko, and Z. Chang, “Carrier–envelope phase stabilization of 5-fs, 0.5-mJ pulses from adaptive phase modulator,” Appl. Phys. B 98(2-3), 291–294 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Weis, R. S.

R. S. Weis and T. K. Gaylord, “Lithium niobate: Summary of physical properties and crystal structure,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 37(4), 191–203 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Windeler, R. S.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science 288(5466), 635–639 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Witte, S.

S. Witte, R. T. Zinkstok, W. Hogervorst, and K. S. E. Eikema, “Control and precise measurement of carrier-envelope phase dynamics,” Appl. Phys. B 78(1), 5–12 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wu, Y.

H. Wang, M. Chini, Y. Wu, E. Moon, H. Mashiko, and Z. Chang, “Carrier–envelope phase stabilization of 5-fs, 0.5-mJ pulses from adaptive phase modulator,” Appl. Phys. B 98(2-3), 291–294 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yakovlev, V. S.

A. Baltuška, T. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature 421(6923), 611–615 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yamaguchi, S.

Yonekura, K.

K. Yonekura, L. Jin, and K. Takizawa, “Measurement of Dispersion of Effective Electro-Optic Coefficients r13E and r33E of Non-Doped Congruent LiNbO3 Crystal,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47(7), 5503–5508 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yurkevych, O. V.

A. S. Andrushchak, B. G. Mytsyk, N. M. Demyanyshyn, M. V. Kaidan, O. V. Yurkevych, I. M. Solskii, A. V. Kityk, and W. Schranz, “Spatial anisotropy of linear electro-optic effect in crystal materials: I Experimental determination of electro-optic tensor in LiNbO3 by means of interferometric technique,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 47(1), 31–38 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zinkstok, R. T.

S. Witte, R. T. Zinkstok, W. Hogervorst, and K. S. E. Eikema, “Control and precise measurement of carrier-envelope phase dynamics,” Appl. Phys. B 78(1), 5–12 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. B

H. Wang, M. Chini, Y. Wu, E. Moon, H. Mashiko, and Z. Chang, “Carrier–envelope phase stabilization of 5-fs, 0.5-mJ pulses from adaptive phase modulator,” Appl. Phys. B 98(2-3), 291–294 (2010).
[CrossRef]

O. Gayer, Z. Sacks, E. Galun, and A. Arie, “Temperature and wavelength dependent refractive index equations for MgO-doped congruent and stoichiometric LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. B 91(2), 343–348 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Witte, R. T. Zinkstok, W. Hogervorst, and K. S. E. Eikema, “Control and precise measurement of carrier-envelope phase dynamics,” Appl. Phys. B 78(1), 5–12 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Kakehata, H. Takada, Y. Kobayashi, K. Torizuka, Y. Fujihira, T. Homma, and H. Takahashi, “Measurements of carrier-envelope phase changes of 100-Hz amplified laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 74(9Suppl.), S43–S50 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. Grebing, M. Görbe, K. Osvay, and G. Steinmeyer, “Isochronic and isodispersive carrier-envelope phase-shift compensators,” Appl. Phys. B 97(3), 575–581 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

D. A. Bryan, R. Gerson, and H. E. Tomaschke, “Increased optical damage resistance in lithium niobate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 44(9), 847–849 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.

R. S. Weis and T. K. Gaylord, “Lithium niobate: Summary of physical properties and crystal structure,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 37(4), 191–203 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.

K. Yonekura, L. Jin, and K. Takizawa, “Measurement of Dispersion of Effective Electro-Optic Coefficients r13E and r33E of Non-Doped Congruent LiNbO3 Crystal,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47(7), 5503–5508 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics

S. Koke, C. Grebing, H. Frei, A. Anderson, A. Assion, and G. Steinmeyer, “Direct frequency comb synthesis with arbitrary offset and shot-noise-limited phase noise,” Nat. Photonics 4(7), 462–465 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nature

A. Baltuška, T. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature 421(6923), 611–615 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun.

D. Strickland and G. Mourou, “Compression of amplified chirped optical pulses,” Opt. Commun. 56(3), 219–221 (1985).
[CrossRef]

P. Tournois, “Acousto-optic programmable dispersive filter for adaptive compensation of group delay time dispersion in laser systems,” Opt. Commun. 140(4-6), 245–249 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lasers Eng.

A. S. Andrushchak, B. G. Mytsyk, N. M. Demyanyshyn, M. V. Kaidan, O. V. Yurkevych, I. M. Solskii, A. V. Kityk, and W. Schranz, “Spatial anisotropy of linear electro-optic effect in crystal materials: I Experimental determination of electro-optic tensor in LiNbO3 by means of interferometric technique,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 47(1), 31–38 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. Lett.

M. Nisoli, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, C. Vozzi, M. Pascolini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, and G. Tondello, “Effects of carrier-envelope phase differences of few-optical-cycle light pulses in single-shot high-order-harmonic spectra,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(21), 213905 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Baltuška, T. Fuji, and T. Kobayashi, “Controlling the carrier-envelope phase of ultrashort light pulses with optical parametric amplifiers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(13), 133901 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science 288(5466), 635–639 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Temporal drift of the carrier wave inside the pulse envelope from shot to shot.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

CPA laser system design.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

The EO configuration chosen for the interaction

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Experimental set-up (see text for the CEP characteristics of the laser beam).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

CEP shift as a function of applied voltage

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

CEP sweep on f-2f interferometer fringes for different periodic modulated applied high voltage.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Calculated parameter η (see text) as a function of the wavelength λ, for a laser pulse duration of 5 fs and a calculated CEP shift of 2π radians

Equations (16)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

T ϕ = n ( ω 0 ) c L ; T g = n g ( ω 0 ) c L
T g T ϕ = [ n g ( ω 0 ) n ( ω 0 ) ] L c
1 v g ( ω 0 ) = n g ( ω 0 ) c = k ω | ω 0 = n(ω 0 ) c + ω 0 c n ω | ω 0
n g ( λ 0 ) = n(λ 0 ) λ 0 n λ | λ 0
T g T ϕ = λ 0 n λ | λ 0 L c
Δ ( 1 / n 2 ) ij = k r ijk E k
r ij T = r ij S + k = 1 6 pik dkj
n o ( E , λ 0 ) = n o ( λ 0 ) 1 2 n o 3 ( λ 0 ) r 13 T ( λ 0 ) E
n e ( E , λ 0 ) = n e ( λ 0 ) 1 2 n e 3 ( λ 0 ) r 33 T ( λ 0 ) E
Δ T = ( T g T ϕ ) [ E ] ( T g T ϕ ) [ 0 ] = ( L + ΔL c ) [ n g ( E,λ 0 ) n ( E,λ 0 ) ] L c [ n g ( 0,λ 0 ) n ( 0,λ 0 ) ]
Δ T = λ 0 ( L+ΔL ) c [ n e ( E,λ ) λ | λ 0 ] + λ 0 L c [ n e λ | λ 0 ]
Δ T = λ 0 ( L+ΔL ) c [ n e λ | λ 0 3 2 n e 2 r 33 E n e λ | λ 0 1 2 n e 3 E r 33 λ | λ 0 ] + λ 0 L c [ n e λ | λ 0 ]
( T g T ϕ ) [ E ] ( T g T ϕ ) [ 0 ] = λ 0 E c [ ( 3 2 n e 2 r 33 T n e λ | λ 0 + n e 3 2 r 33 T λ | λ 0 ) ( L + Δ L ) d 32 n e λ 0 L ]
ΔL = d 32 EL
Δ ϕ CEP 2 π [ 3 2 n e 2 ( λ 0 ) r 33 T ( λ 0 ) n e λ | λ 0 + n e 3 ( λ 0 ) 2 r 33 T λ | λ 0 ] LE
ϕ ( ω ) = ωT ϕ = n e ( E ) c ωL

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