Abstract

Neodymium (Nd) doped amorphous silicon nitride films with various Si concentrations (Nd:SiNx) were fabricated by reactive magnetron co-sputtering followed by thermal annealing. The time dynamics of the energy transfer in Nd:SiNx was investigated, a systematic optimization of its 1.1 μm emission was performed, and the Nd excitation cross section in SiNx was measured. An active Nd:SiNx micro-disk resonator was fabricated and enhanced radiation rate at 1.1 μm was demonstrated due to stimulated emission at the whispering gallery resonant modes. These results provide an alternative approach for the engineering of Si-based optical amplifiers and lasers on a silicon nitride materials platform.

© 2011 OSA

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  1. S. Yerci, R. Li, S. N. Basu, S. Kucheyev, A. Van Buuren, and L. Dal Negro, “Energy transfer and 1.54 μm emission in amorphous silicon nitride films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 031107 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  2. S. Yerci, R. Li, S. O. Kucheyev, A. Van Buuren, S. N. Basu, and L. Dal Negro, “Visible and 1.54 μm emission from amorphous silicon nitride films by reactive cosputtering,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 114–123 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  3. R. Li, S. Yerci, and L. Dal Negro, “Temperature dependence of the energy transfer from amorphous silicon nitride to Er ions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(4), 041111 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. Gopinath, S. V. Boriskina, S. Yerci, R. Li, and L. Dal Negro, “Enhancement of the 1.54 μm Er3+ emission from quasiperiodic plasmonic arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(7), 071113 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  5. T. J. Kippenberg, J. Kalkman, A. Polman, and K. J. Vahala, “Demonstration of an erbium-doped microdisk laser on a silicon chip,” Phys. Rev. A 74(5), 051802 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  6. Y. Gong, M. Makarova, S. Yerci, R. Li, M. J. Stevens, B. Baek, S. W. Nam, R. H. Hadfield, S. N. Dorenbos, V. Zwiller, J. Vuckovic, and L. Dal Negro, “Linewidth narrowing and Purcell enhancement in photonic crystal cavities on an Er-doped silicon nitride platform,” Opt. Express 18(3), 2601–2612 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. V. Lefèvre-Seguin, “Whispering-gallery mode lasers with doped silica microspheres,” Opt. Mater. 11(2-3), 153–165 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  8. S. Yerci, R. Li, and L. Dal Negro, “Electroluminescence from Er-doped Si-rich silicon nitride light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(8), 081109 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  9. D. Olaosebikan, S. Yerci, A. Gondarenko, K. Preston, R. Li, L. Dal Negro, and M. Lipson, “Absorption bleaching by stimulated emission in erbium-doped silicon-rich silicon nitride waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 36(1), 4–6 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. M. Lipson, “Guiding, modulating, and emitting light on silicon-challenges and opportunities,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23(12), 4222–4238 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  11. D. Biggemann and L. R. Tessler, “Near infra-red photoluminescence of Nd3+ in hydrogenated amorphous silicon sub-nitrides a-SiNx:H<Nd>,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 105(1–3), 188–191 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  12. R. Li, J. R. Schneck, J. Warga, L. Ziegler, and L. Dal Negro, “Carrier dynamics and erbium sensitization in silicon-rich nitride nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(9), 091119 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  13. R. D. Kekatpure and M. L. Brongersma, “Quantification of free-carrier absorption in silicon nanocrystals with an optical microcavity,” Nano Lett. 8(11), 3787–3793 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. L. R. Doolittle, “Algorithms for the rapid simulation of Rutherford backscattering spectra,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 9(3), 344–351 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  15. M. J. F. Digonnet, Rare-Earth-Doped Fiber Lasers and Amplifiers, Revised and Expanded (CRC Press, 2001), pp. 43–71.
  16. P. C. Becker, N. A. Olsson, and J. R. Simpson, Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifiers—Fundamentals and Technology (Academic, San Diego, 1999), pp. 87–129.
  17. D. Bréard, F. Gourbilleau, A. Belarouci, C. Dufour, and R. Rizk, “Nd3+ photoluminescence study of Nd-doped Si-rich silica films obtained by reactive magnetron sputtering,” J. Lumin. 121(2), 209–212 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  18. B. Redding, E. Marchena, T. Creazzo, S. Shi, and D. W. Prather, “Comparison of raised-microdisk whispering-gallery-mode characterization techniques,” Opt. Lett. 35(7), 998–1000 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (1)

2010 (5)

B. Redding, E. Marchena, T. Creazzo, S. Shi, and D. W. Prather, “Comparison of raised-microdisk whispering-gallery-mode characterization techniques,” Opt. Lett. 35(7), 998–1000 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Yerci, R. Li, S. O. Kucheyev, A. Van Buuren, S. N. Basu, and L. Dal Negro, “Visible and 1.54 μm emission from amorphous silicon nitride films by reactive cosputtering,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 114–123 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Gopinath, S. V. Boriskina, S. Yerci, R. Li, and L. Dal Negro, “Enhancement of the 1.54 μm Er3+ emission from quasiperiodic plasmonic arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(7), 071113 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Gong, M. Makarova, S. Yerci, R. Li, M. J. Stevens, B. Baek, S. W. Nam, R. H. Hadfield, S. N. Dorenbos, V. Zwiller, J. Vuckovic, and L. Dal Negro, “Linewidth narrowing and Purcell enhancement in photonic crystal cavities on an Er-doped silicon nitride platform,” Opt. Express 18(3), 2601–2612 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Yerci, R. Li, and L. Dal Negro, “Electroluminescence from Er-doped Si-rich silicon nitride light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(8), 081109 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (2)

S. Yerci, R. Li, S. N. Basu, S. Kucheyev, A. Van Buuren, and L. Dal Negro, “Energy transfer and 1.54 μm emission in amorphous silicon nitride films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 031107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Li, S. Yerci, and L. Dal Negro, “Temperature dependence of the energy transfer from amorphous silicon nitride to Er ions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(4), 041111 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

R. Li, J. R. Schneck, J. Warga, L. Ziegler, and L. Dal Negro, “Carrier dynamics and erbium sensitization in silicon-rich nitride nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(9), 091119 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. D. Kekatpure and M. L. Brongersma, “Quantification of free-carrier absorption in silicon nanocrystals with an optical microcavity,” Nano Lett. 8(11), 3787–3793 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (2)

D. Bréard, F. Gourbilleau, A. Belarouci, C. Dufour, and R. Rizk, “Nd3+ photoluminescence study of Nd-doped Si-rich silica films obtained by reactive magnetron sputtering,” J. Lumin. 121(2), 209–212 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Kippenberg, J. Kalkman, A. Polman, and K. J. Vahala, “Demonstration of an erbium-doped microdisk laser on a silicon chip,” Phys. Rev. A 74(5), 051802 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

2003 (1)

D. Biggemann and L. R. Tessler, “Near infra-red photoluminescence of Nd3+ in hydrogenated amorphous silicon sub-nitrides a-SiNx:H<Nd>,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 105(1–3), 188–191 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

V. Lefèvre-Seguin, “Whispering-gallery mode lasers with doped silica microspheres,” Opt. Mater. 11(2-3), 153–165 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

L. R. Doolittle, “Algorithms for the rapid simulation of Rutherford backscattering spectra,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 9(3), 344–351 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Baek, B.

Basu, S. N.

S. Yerci, R. Li, S. O. Kucheyev, A. Van Buuren, S. N. Basu, and L. Dal Negro, “Visible and 1.54 μm emission from amorphous silicon nitride films by reactive cosputtering,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 114–123 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Yerci, R. Li, S. N. Basu, S. Kucheyev, A. Van Buuren, and L. Dal Negro, “Energy transfer and 1.54 μm emission in amorphous silicon nitride films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 031107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Belarouci, A.

D. Bréard, F. Gourbilleau, A. Belarouci, C. Dufour, and R. Rizk, “Nd3+ photoluminescence study of Nd-doped Si-rich silica films obtained by reactive magnetron sputtering,” J. Lumin. 121(2), 209–212 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Biggemann, D.

D. Biggemann and L. R. Tessler, “Near infra-red photoluminescence of Nd3+ in hydrogenated amorphous silicon sub-nitrides a-SiNx:H<Nd>,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 105(1–3), 188–191 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Boriskina, S. V.

A. Gopinath, S. V. Boriskina, S. Yerci, R. Li, and L. Dal Negro, “Enhancement of the 1.54 μm Er3+ emission from quasiperiodic plasmonic arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(7), 071113 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bréard, D.

D. Bréard, F. Gourbilleau, A. Belarouci, C. Dufour, and R. Rizk, “Nd3+ photoluminescence study of Nd-doped Si-rich silica films obtained by reactive magnetron sputtering,” J. Lumin. 121(2), 209–212 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Brongersma, M. L.

R. D. Kekatpure and M. L. Brongersma, “Quantification of free-carrier absorption in silicon nanocrystals with an optical microcavity,” Nano Lett. 8(11), 3787–3793 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Creazzo, T.

Dal Negro, L.

D. Olaosebikan, S. Yerci, A. Gondarenko, K. Preston, R. Li, L. Dal Negro, and M. Lipson, “Absorption bleaching by stimulated emission in erbium-doped silicon-rich silicon nitride waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 36(1), 4–6 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Gong, M. Makarova, S. Yerci, R. Li, M. J. Stevens, B. Baek, S. W. Nam, R. H. Hadfield, S. N. Dorenbos, V. Zwiller, J. Vuckovic, and L. Dal Negro, “Linewidth narrowing and Purcell enhancement in photonic crystal cavities on an Er-doped silicon nitride platform,” Opt. Express 18(3), 2601–2612 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Yerci, R. Li, and L. Dal Negro, “Electroluminescence from Er-doped Si-rich silicon nitride light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(8), 081109 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Gopinath, S. V. Boriskina, S. Yerci, R. Li, and L. Dal Negro, “Enhancement of the 1.54 μm Er3+ emission from quasiperiodic plasmonic arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(7), 071113 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Yerci, R. Li, S. O. Kucheyev, A. Van Buuren, S. N. Basu, and L. Dal Negro, “Visible and 1.54 μm emission from amorphous silicon nitride films by reactive cosputtering,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 114–123 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. Li, S. Yerci, and L. Dal Negro, “Temperature dependence of the energy transfer from amorphous silicon nitride to Er ions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(4), 041111 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Yerci, R. Li, S. N. Basu, S. Kucheyev, A. Van Buuren, and L. Dal Negro, “Energy transfer and 1.54 μm emission in amorphous silicon nitride films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 031107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Li, J. R. Schneck, J. Warga, L. Ziegler, and L. Dal Negro, “Carrier dynamics and erbium sensitization in silicon-rich nitride nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(9), 091119 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Doolittle, L. R.

L. R. Doolittle, “Algorithms for the rapid simulation of Rutherford backscattering spectra,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 9(3), 344–351 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Dorenbos, S. N.

Dufour, C.

D. Bréard, F. Gourbilleau, A. Belarouci, C. Dufour, and R. Rizk, “Nd3+ photoluminescence study of Nd-doped Si-rich silica films obtained by reactive magnetron sputtering,” J. Lumin. 121(2), 209–212 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gondarenko, A.

Gong, Y.

Gopinath, A.

A. Gopinath, S. V. Boriskina, S. Yerci, R. Li, and L. Dal Negro, “Enhancement of the 1.54 μm Er3+ emission from quasiperiodic plasmonic arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(7), 071113 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gourbilleau, F.

D. Bréard, F. Gourbilleau, A. Belarouci, C. Dufour, and R. Rizk, “Nd3+ photoluminescence study of Nd-doped Si-rich silica films obtained by reactive magnetron sputtering,” J. Lumin. 121(2), 209–212 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hadfield, R. H.

Kalkman, J.

T. J. Kippenberg, J. Kalkman, A. Polman, and K. J. Vahala, “Demonstration of an erbium-doped microdisk laser on a silicon chip,” Phys. Rev. A 74(5), 051802 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kekatpure, R. D.

R. D. Kekatpure and M. L. Brongersma, “Quantification of free-carrier absorption in silicon nanocrystals with an optical microcavity,” Nano Lett. 8(11), 3787–3793 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kippenberg, T. J.

T. J. Kippenberg, J. Kalkman, A. Polman, and K. J. Vahala, “Demonstration of an erbium-doped microdisk laser on a silicon chip,” Phys. Rev. A 74(5), 051802 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kucheyev, S.

S. Yerci, R. Li, S. N. Basu, S. Kucheyev, A. Van Buuren, and L. Dal Negro, “Energy transfer and 1.54 μm emission in amorphous silicon nitride films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 031107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kucheyev, S. O.

S. Yerci, R. Li, S. O. Kucheyev, A. Van Buuren, S. N. Basu, and L. Dal Negro, “Visible and 1.54 μm emission from amorphous silicon nitride films by reactive cosputtering,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 114–123 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lefèvre-Seguin, V.

V. Lefèvre-Seguin, “Whispering-gallery mode lasers with doped silica microspheres,” Opt. Mater. 11(2-3), 153–165 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Li, R.

D. Olaosebikan, S. Yerci, A. Gondarenko, K. Preston, R. Li, L. Dal Negro, and M. Lipson, “Absorption bleaching by stimulated emission in erbium-doped silicon-rich silicon nitride waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 36(1), 4–6 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Yerci, R. Li, and L. Dal Negro, “Electroluminescence from Er-doped Si-rich silicon nitride light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(8), 081109 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Gong, M. Makarova, S. Yerci, R. Li, M. J. Stevens, B. Baek, S. W. Nam, R. H. Hadfield, S. N. Dorenbos, V. Zwiller, J. Vuckovic, and L. Dal Negro, “Linewidth narrowing and Purcell enhancement in photonic crystal cavities on an Er-doped silicon nitride platform,” Opt. Express 18(3), 2601–2612 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Yerci, R. Li, S. O. Kucheyev, A. Van Buuren, S. N. Basu, and L. Dal Negro, “Visible and 1.54 μm emission from amorphous silicon nitride films by reactive cosputtering,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 114–123 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Gopinath, S. V. Boriskina, S. Yerci, R. Li, and L. Dal Negro, “Enhancement of the 1.54 μm Er3+ emission from quasiperiodic plasmonic arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(7), 071113 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Yerci, R. Li, S. N. Basu, S. Kucheyev, A. Van Buuren, and L. Dal Negro, “Energy transfer and 1.54 μm emission in amorphous silicon nitride films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 031107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Li, S. Yerci, and L. Dal Negro, “Temperature dependence of the energy transfer from amorphous silicon nitride to Er ions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(4), 041111 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Li, J. R. Schneck, J. Warga, L. Ziegler, and L. Dal Negro, “Carrier dynamics and erbium sensitization in silicon-rich nitride nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(9), 091119 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lipson, M.

Makarova, M.

Marchena, E.

Nam, S. W.

Olaosebikan, D.

Polman, A.

T. J. Kippenberg, J. Kalkman, A. Polman, and K. J. Vahala, “Demonstration of an erbium-doped microdisk laser on a silicon chip,” Phys. Rev. A 74(5), 051802 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Prather, D. W.

Preston, K.

Redding, B.

Rizk, R.

D. Bréard, F. Gourbilleau, A. Belarouci, C. Dufour, and R. Rizk, “Nd3+ photoluminescence study of Nd-doped Si-rich silica films obtained by reactive magnetron sputtering,” J. Lumin. 121(2), 209–212 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Schneck, J. R.

R. Li, J. R. Schneck, J. Warga, L. Ziegler, and L. Dal Negro, “Carrier dynamics and erbium sensitization in silicon-rich nitride nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(9), 091119 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Shi, S.

Stevens, M. J.

Tessler, L. R.

D. Biggemann and L. R. Tessler, “Near infra-red photoluminescence of Nd3+ in hydrogenated amorphous silicon sub-nitrides a-SiNx:H<Nd>,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 105(1–3), 188–191 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Vahala, K. J.

T. J. Kippenberg, J. Kalkman, A. Polman, and K. J. Vahala, “Demonstration of an erbium-doped microdisk laser on a silicon chip,” Phys. Rev. A 74(5), 051802 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Van Buuren, A.

S. Yerci, R. Li, S. O. Kucheyev, A. Van Buuren, S. N. Basu, and L. Dal Negro, “Visible and 1.54 μm emission from amorphous silicon nitride films by reactive cosputtering,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 114–123 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Yerci, R. Li, S. N. Basu, S. Kucheyev, A. Van Buuren, and L. Dal Negro, “Energy transfer and 1.54 μm emission in amorphous silicon nitride films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 031107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Vuckovic, J.

Warga, J.

R. Li, J. R. Schneck, J. Warga, L. Ziegler, and L. Dal Negro, “Carrier dynamics and erbium sensitization in silicon-rich nitride nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(9), 091119 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yerci, S.

D. Olaosebikan, S. Yerci, A. Gondarenko, K. Preston, R. Li, L. Dal Negro, and M. Lipson, “Absorption bleaching by stimulated emission in erbium-doped silicon-rich silicon nitride waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 36(1), 4–6 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Gong, M. Makarova, S. Yerci, R. Li, M. J. Stevens, B. Baek, S. W. Nam, R. H. Hadfield, S. N. Dorenbos, V. Zwiller, J. Vuckovic, and L. Dal Negro, “Linewidth narrowing and Purcell enhancement in photonic crystal cavities on an Er-doped silicon nitride platform,” Opt. Express 18(3), 2601–2612 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Yerci, R. Li, and L. Dal Negro, “Electroluminescence from Er-doped Si-rich silicon nitride light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(8), 081109 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Yerci, R. Li, S. O. Kucheyev, A. Van Buuren, S. N. Basu, and L. Dal Negro, “Visible and 1.54 μm emission from amorphous silicon nitride films by reactive cosputtering,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 114–123 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Gopinath, S. V. Boriskina, S. Yerci, R. Li, and L. Dal Negro, “Enhancement of the 1.54 μm Er3+ emission from quasiperiodic plasmonic arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(7), 071113 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. Li, S. Yerci, and L. Dal Negro, “Temperature dependence of the energy transfer from amorphous silicon nitride to Er ions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(4), 041111 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Yerci, R. Li, S. N. Basu, S. Kucheyev, A. Van Buuren, and L. Dal Negro, “Energy transfer and 1.54 μm emission in amorphous silicon nitride films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 031107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ziegler, L.

R. Li, J. R. Schneck, J. Warga, L. Ziegler, and L. Dal Negro, “Carrier dynamics and erbium sensitization in silicon-rich nitride nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(9), 091119 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zwiller, V.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (5)

S. Yerci, R. Li, S. N. Basu, S. Kucheyev, A. Van Buuren, and L. Dal Negro, “Energy transfer and 1.54 μm emission in amorphous silicon nitride films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 031107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Li, S. Yerci, and L. Dal Negro, “Temperature dependence of the energy transfer from amorphous silicon nitride to Er ions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(4), 041111 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Gopinath, S. V. Boriskina, S. Yerci, R. Li, and L. Dal Negro, “Enhancement of the 1.54 μm Er3+ emission from quasiperiodic plasmonic arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(7), 071113 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Yerci, R. Li, and L. Dal Negro, “Electroluminescence from Er-doped Si-rich silicon nitride light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(8), 081109 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. Li, J. R. Schneck, J. Warga, L. Ziegler, and L. Dal Negro, “Carrier dynamics and erbium sensitization in silicon-rich nitride nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(9), 091119 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

S. Yerci, R. Li, S. O. Kucheyev, A. Van Buuren, S. N. Basu, and L. Dal Negro, “Visible and 1.54 μm emission from amorphous silicon nitride films by reactive cosputtering,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 114–123 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

J. Lumin. (1)

D. Bréard, F. Gourbilleau, A. Belarouci, C. Dufour, and R. Rizk, “Nd3+ photoluminescence study of Nd-doped Si-rich silica films obtained by reactive magnetron sputtering,” J. Lumin. 121(2), 209–212 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mater. Sci. Eng. B (1)

D. Biggemann and L. R. Tessler, “Near infra-red photoluminescence of Nd3+ in hydrogenated amorphous silicon sub-nitrides a-SiNx:H<Nd>,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 105(1–3), 188–191 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett. (1)

R. D. Kekatpure and M. L. Brongersma, “Quantification of free-carrier absorption in silicon nanocrystals with an optical microcavity,” Nano Lett. 8(11), 3787–3793 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B (1)

L. R. Doolittle, “Algorithms for the rapid simulation of Rutherford backscattering spectra,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 9(3), 344–351 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Opt. Mater. (1)

V. Lefèvre-Seguin, “Whispering-gallery mode lasers with doped silica microspheres,” Opt. Mater. 11(2-3), 153–165 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A (1)

T. J. Kippenberg, J. Kalkman, A. Polman, and K. J. Vahala, “Demonstration of an erbium-doped microdisk laser on a silicon chip,” Phys. Rev. A 74(5), 051802 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

M. J. F. Digonnet, Rare-Earth-Doped Fiber Lasers and Amplifiers, Revised and Expanded (CRC Press, 2001), pp. 43–71.

P. C. Becker, N. A. Olsson, and J. R. Simpson, Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifiers—Fundamentals and Technology (Academic, San Diego, 1999), pp. 87–129.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Nd:SiNx PL spectrum of the sample with a Si at.% of 44 excited by a laser beam at 458 nm with a power of 1 mW. The inset shows an energy diagram of transitions in Nd ions. The red arrows indicate the observed transitions. The dashed arrow shows the nonradiative transitions. (b) Normalized PLE spectra with detection wavelength at 1100 nm for samples with refractive index of 2.13 (black), 2.16 (red) and 2.26 (green) corresponding Si concentrations of 45%, 47% and 49%, respectively. (c) Normalized PL decay traces at 600 nm for Nd:SiNx samples fabricated with Nd target powers of 0, 8, 12, 18 and 22 W (increasing in the direction of the arrow). (d) The inverse rise time of the PL at 1.1 µm excited at 458 nm with different excitation photon fluxes for a Nd:SiNx with refractive index 2.13 (45% Si at.). All samples in (a), (b), (c) and (d) are annealed at 1000 °C

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Nd:SiNx PL intensity and effective PL lifetime at 1100 nm for samples (~280 nm thick) with different Nd concentrations (Nd target powers) and annealed at 1000 °C. Nd:SiNx effective PL lifetime at 1100 nm for samples (~800 nm thick) with (b) annealing temperatures of 600, 800, 1000 and 1180 °C (Inset: A representative decay trace of Nd:SiNx PL at 1100 nm, fitted by a two-exponential decay model) and (c) refractive indices of 2.11, 2.13, 2.16, 2.20 and 2.26 (corresponding Si concentrations of 44, 45, 47, 48 and 49%). (d) Nd:SiNx PL intensity at 1100 nm for samples with annealing temperatures of 600, 800, 1000 and 1180 °C and different Si concentrations (45% black, 47% red, 48% green and 49% blue).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) SEM image of a Nd:SiNx microdisk with a diameter of 9.8 μm. (b) PL decay traces of the Nd:SiNx microdisk centered at different wavelengths as indicated in the legend. Inset: PL spectrum of the Nd:SiNx microdisk (colors of the arrows indicates the colors of the corresponding PL decay traces).

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