Abstract

High-contrast imaging systems with a stellar halo suppression level of 10−10 are required for direct detection of Earth-like extra-solar planets. We investigated a novel high-contrast imaging system with an unbalanced nulling interferometer (UNI) followed by phase and amplitude correction (PAC), which not only can reduce starlight but also can suppress the speckle level caused by wavefront aberrations. We successfully demonstrated that wavefront aberrations were sufficiently magnified by the UNI and the magnified aberrations were effectively corrected in amplitude and phase with two deformable mirrors. We confirmed that the suppression level of the speckle pattern with the proposed optics was beyond the limit of the adaptive optics performance.

© 2011 OSA

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  1. R. N. Bracewell, “Detecting nonsolar planets by spinning infrared interferometer,” Nature 274(5673), 780–781 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  2. P. Baudoz, Y. Rabbia, and J. Gay, “Achromatic interferocoronagraphy, I. Theoretical capabilities for ground-based observations,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 141, 319–329 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  3. K. Yokochi, A. V. Tavrov, J. Nishikawa, N. Murakami, L. Abe, M. Tamura, M. Takeda, and T. Kurokawa, “Achromatic deep nulling with a three-dimensional Sagnac interferometer,” Opt. Lett. 34(13), 1985–1987 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. M. Shao, J. K. Wallace, B. M. Levine, and D. Liu, “Visible nulling coronagraph,” Proc. SPIE 5487, 1296–1303 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  5. N. Murakami, K. Yokochi, J. Nishikawa, M. Tamura, T. Kurokawa, M. Takeda, and N. Baba, “Polarization interferometric nulling coronagraph for high-contrast imaging,” Appl. Opt. 49(16), D106–D114 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. O. Guyon, E. A. Pluzhnik, M. J. Kuchner, B. Collins, and S. T. Ridgway, “Theoretical limits on extrasolar terrestrial planet detection with coronagraphs,” Astrophys. J. Suppl. Ser. 167, 81–99 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  7. P. Kalas, J. R. Graham, E. Chiang, M. P. Fitzgerald, M. Clampin, E. S. Kite, K. Stapelfeldt, C. Marois, and J. Krist, “Optical images of an exosolar planet 25 light-years from Earth,” Science 322(5906), 1345–1348 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. C. Marois, B. Macintosh, T. Barman, B. Zuckerman, I. Song, J. Patience, D. Lafrenière, and R. Doyon, “Direct imaging of multiple planets orbiting the star HR 8799,” Science 322(5906), 1348–1352 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. A.-M. Lagrange, D. Gratadour, G. Chauvin, T. Fusco, D. Ehrenreich, D. Mouillet, G. Rousset, D. Rouan, F. Allard, E. Gendron, J. Charton, L. Mugnier, P. Rabou, J. Montri, and F. Lacombe, “A probable giant planet imaged in the β Pictoris disk,” Astron. Astrophys. 493(2), L21–L25 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  10. C. Thalmann, J. Carson, M. Janson, M. Goto, M. McElwain, S. Egner, M. Feldt, J. Hashimoto, Y. Hayano, T. Henning, K. W. Hodapp, R. Kandori, H. Klahr, T. Kudo, N. Kusakabe, C. Mordasini, J.-I. Morino, H. Suto, R. Suzuki, and M. Tamura, “Discovery of the coldest imaged companion of a sun-like star,” Astrophys. J. 707(2), L123–L127 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. J. Kuchner and W. A. Traub, “A coronagraph with a band-limited mask for finding terrestrial planets,” Astrophys. J. 570(2), 900–908 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  12. F. Malbet, J. W. Yu, and M. Shao, “High-dynamic-range imaging using a deformable mirror for space coronography,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 107, 386–398 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  13. A. Give’on, N. J. Kasdin, R. J. Vanderbei, and Y. Avitzour, “On representing and correcting wavefront errors in high-contrast imaging systems,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23(5), 1063–1073 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. R. Galicher, P. Baudoz, G. Rousset, J. Totems, and M. Mas, “Self-coherent camera as a focal plane wavefront sensor: simulations,” Astron. Astrophys. 509, A31 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  15. J. Nishikawa, L. Abe, N. Murakami, and T. Kotani, “Precise wavefront correction with an unbalanced nulling interferometer for exo-planet imaging coronagraphs,” Astron. Astrophys. 489(3), 1389–1398 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  16. N. Murakami, J. Nishikawa, K. Yokochi, M. Tamura, N. Baba, and L. Abe, “Achromatic eight-octant phase-mask coronagraph using photonic crystal,” Astrophys. J. 714(1), 772–777 (2010).
    [CrossRef]

2010 (3)

R. Galicher, P. Baudoz, G. Rousset, J. Totems, and M. Mas, “Self-coherent camera as a focal plane wavefront sensor: simulations,” Astron. Astrophys. 509, A31 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. Murakami, J. Nishikawa, K. Yokochi, M. Tamura, N. Baba, and L. Abe, “Achromatic eight-octant phase-mask coronagraph using photonic crystal,” Astrophys. J. 714(1), 772–777 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. Murakami, K. Yokochi, J. Nishikawa, M. Tamura, T. Kurokawa, M. Takeda, and N. Baba, “Polarization interferometric nulling coronagraph for high-contrast imaging,” Appl. Opt. 49(16), D106–D114 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (3)

K. Yokochi, A. V. Tavrov, J. Nishikawa, N. Murakami, L. Abe, M. Tamura, M. Takeda, and T. Kurokawa, “Achromatic deep nulling with a three-dimensional Sagnac interferometer,” Opt. Lett. 34(13), 1985–1987 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A.-M. Lagrange, D. Gratadour, G. Chauvin, T. Fusco, D. Ehrenreich, D. Mouillet, G. Rousset, D. Rouan, F. Allard, E. Gendron, J. Charton, L. Mugnier, P. Rabou, J. Montri, and F. Lacombe, “A probable giant planet imaged in the β Pictoris disk,” Astron. Astrophys. 493(2), L21–L25 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Thalmann, J. Carson, M. Janson, M. Goto, M. McElwain, S. Egner, M. Feldt, J. Hashimoto, Y. Hayano, T. Henning, K. W. Hodapp, R. Kandori, H. Klahr, T. Kudo, N. Kusakabe, C. Mordasini, J.-I. Morino, H. Suto, R. Suzuki, and M. Tamura, “Discovery of the coldest imaged companion of a sun-like star,” Astrophys. J. 707(2), L123–L127 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (3)

P. Kalas, J. R. Graham, E. Chiang, M. P. Fitzgerald, M. Clampin, E. S. Kite, K. Stapelfeldt, C. Marois, and J. Krist, “Optical images of an exosolar planet 25 light-years from Earth,” Science 322(5906), 1345–1348 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Marois, B. Macintosh, T. Barman, B. Zuckerman, I. Song, J. Patience, D. Lafrenière, and R. Doyon, “Direct imaging of multiple planets orbiting the star HR 8799,” Science 322(5906), 1348–1352 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Nishikawa, L. Abe, N. Murakami, and T. Kotani, “Precise wavefront correction with an unbalanced nulling interferometer for exo-planet imaging coronagraphs,” Astron. Astrophys. 489(3), 1389–1398 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

A. Give’on, N. J. Kasdin, R. J. Vanderbei, and Y. Avitzour, “On representing and correcting wavefront errors in high-contrast imaging systems,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23(5), 1063–1073 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Guyon, E. A. Pluzhnik, M. J. Kuchner, B. Collins, and S. T. Ridgway, “Theoretical limits on extrasolar terrestrial planet detection with coronagraphs,” Astrophys. J. Suppl. Ser. 167, 81–99 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

M. Shao, J. K. Wallace, B. M. Levine, and D. Liu, “Visible nulling coronagraph,” Proc. SPIE 5487, 1296–1303 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

M. J. Kuchner and W. A. Traub, “A coronagraph with a band-limited mask for finding terrestrial planets,” Astrophys. J. 570(2), 900–908 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

P. Baudoz, Y. Rabbia, and J. Gay, “Achromatic interferocoronagraphy, I. Theoretical capabilities for ground-based observations,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 141, 319–329 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

F. Malbet, J. W. Yu, and M. Shao, “High-dynamic-range imaging using a deformable mirror for space coronography,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 107, 386–398 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

R. N. Bracewell, “Detecting nonsolar planets by spinning infrared interferometer,” Nature 274(5673), 780–781 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Abe, L.

N. Murakami, J. Nishikawa, K. Yokochi, M. Tamura, N. Baba, and L. Abe, “Achromatic eight-octant phase-mask coronagraph using photonic crystal,” Astrophys. J. 714(1), 772–777 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. Yokochi, A. V. Tavrov, J. Nishikawa, N. Murakami, L. Abe, M. Tamura, M. Takeda, and T. Kurokawa, “Achromatic deep nulling with a three-dimensional Sagnac interferometer,” Opt. Lett. 34(13), 1985–1987 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Nishikawa, L. Abe, N. Murakami, and T. Kotani, “Precise wavefront correction with an unbalanced nulling interferometer for exo-planet imaging coronagraphs,” Astron. Astrophys. 489(3), 1389–1398 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Allard, F.

A.-M. Lagrange, D. Gratadour, G. Chauvin, T. Fusco, D. Ehrenreich, D. Mouillet, G. Rousset, D. Rouan, F. Allard, E. Gendron, J. Charton, L. Mugnier, P. Rabou, J. Montri, and F. Lacombe, “A probable giant planet imaged in the β Pictoris disk,” Astron. Astrophys. 493(2), L21–L25 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Avitzour, Y.

Baba, N.

N. Murakami, J. Nishikawa, K. Yokochi, M. Tamura, N. Baba, and L. Abe, “Achromatic eight-octant phase-mask coronagraph using photonic crystal,” Astrophys. J. 714(1), 772–777 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. Murakami, K. Yokochi, J. Nishikawa, M. Tamura, T. Kurokawa, M. Takeda, and N. Baba, “Polarization interferometric nulling coronagraph for high-contrast imaging,” Appl. Opt. 49(16), D106–D114 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barman, T.

C. Marois, B. Macintosh, T. Barman, B. Zuckerman, I. Song, J. Patience, D. Lafrenière, and R. Doyon, “Direct imaging of multiple planets orbiting the star HR 8799,” Science 322(5906), 1348–1352 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baudoz, P.

R. Galicher, P. Baudoz, G. Rousset, J. Totems, and M. Mas, “Self-coherent camera as a focal plane wavefront sensor: simulations,” Astron. Astrophys. 509, A31 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. Baudoz, Y. Rabbia, and J. Gay, “Achromatic interferocoronagraphy, I. Theoretical capabilities for ground-based observations,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 141, 319–329 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bracewell, R. N.

R. N. Bracewell, “Detecting nonsolar planets by spinning infrared interferometer,” Nature 274(5673), 780–781 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Carson, J.

C. Thalmann, J. Carson, M. Janson, M. Goto, M. McElwain, S. Egner, M. Feldt, J. Hashimoto, Y. Hayano, T. Henning, K. W. Hodapp, R. Kandori, H. Klahr, T. Kudo, N. Kusakabe, C. Mordasini, J.-I. Morino, H. Suto, R. Suzuki, and M. Tamura, “Discovery of the coldest imaged companion of a sun-like star,” Astrophys. J. 707(2), L123–L127 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Charton, J.

A.-M. Lagrange, D. Gratadour, G. Chauvin, T. Fusco, D. Ehrenreich, D. Mouillet, G. Rousset, D. Rouan, F. Allard, E. Gendron, J. Charton, L. Mugnier, P. Rabou, J. Montri, and F. Lacombe, “A probable giant planet imaged in the β Pictoris disk,” Astron. Astrophys. 493(2), L21–L25 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chauvin, G.

A.-M. Lagrange, D. Gratadour, G. Chauvin, T. Fusco, D. Ehrenreich, D. Mouillet, G. Rousset, D. Rouan, F. Allard, E. Gendron, J. Charton, L. Mugnier, P. Rabou, J. Montri, and F. Lacombe, “A probable giant planet imaged in the β Pictoris disk,” Astron. Astrophys. 493(2), L21–L25 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chiang, E.

P. Kalas, J. R. Graham, E. Chiang, M. P. Fitzgerald, M. Clampin, E. S. Kite, K. Stapelfeldt, C. Marois, and J. Krist, “Optical images of an exosolar planet 25 light-years from Earth,” Science 322(5906), 1345–1348 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Clampin, M.

P. Kalas, J. R. Graham, E. Chiang, M. P. Fitzgerald, M. Clampin, E. S. Kite, K. Stapelfeldt, C. Marois, and J. Krist, “Optical images of an exosolar planet 25 light-years from Earth,” Science 322(5906), 1345–1348 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Collins, B.

O. Guyon, E. A. Pluzhnik, M. J. Kuchner, B. Collins, and S. T. Ridgway, “Theoretical limits on extrasolar terrestrial planet detection with coronagraphs,” Astrophys. J. Suppl. Ser. 167, 81–99 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Doyon, R.

C. Marois, B. Macintosh, T. Barman, B. Zuckerman, I. Song, J. Patience, D. Lafrenière, and R. Doyon, “Direct imaging of multiple planets orbiting the star HR 8799,” Science 322(5906), 1348–1352 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Egner, S.

C. Thalmann, J. Carson, M. Janson, M. Goto, M. McElwain, S. Egner, M. Feldt, J. Hashimoto, Y. Hayano, T. Henning, K. W. Hodapp, R. Kandori, H. Klahr, T. Kudo, N. Kusakabe, C. Mordasini, J.-I. Morino, H. Suto, R. Suzuki, and M. Tamura, “Discovery of the coldest imaged companion of a sun-like star,” Astrophys. J. 707(2), L123–L127 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ehrenreich, D.

A.-M. Lagrange, D. Gratadour, G. Chauvin, T. Fusco, D. Ehrenreich, D. Mouillet, G. Rousset, D. Rouan, F. Allard, E. Gendron, J. Charton, L. Mugnier, P. Rabou, J. Montri, and F. Lacombe, “A probable giant planet imaged in the β Pictoris disk,” Astron. Astrophys. 493(2), L21–L25 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Feldt, M.

C. Thalmann, J. Carson, M. Janson, M. Goto, M. McElwain, S. Egner, M. Feldt, J. Hashimoto, Y. Hayano, T. Henning, K. W. Hodapp, R. Kandori, H. Klahr, T. Kudo, N. Kusakabe, C. Mordasini, J.-I. Morino, H. Suto, R. Suzuki, and M. Tamura, “Discovery of the coldest imaged companion of a sun-like star,” Astrophys. J. 707(2), L123–L127 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fitzgerald, M. P.

P. Kalas, J. R. Graham, E. Chiang, M. P. Fitzgerald, M. Clampin, E. S. Kite, K. Stapelfeldt, C. Marois, and J. Krist, “Optical images of an exosolar planet 25 light-years from Earth,” Science 322(5906), 1345–1348 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fusco, T.

A.-M. Lagrange, D. Gratadour, G. Chauvin, T. Fusco, D. Ehrenreich, D. Mouillet, G. Rousset, D. Rouan, F. Allard, E. Gendron, J. Charton, L. Mugnier, P. Rabou, J. Montri, and F. Lacombe, “A probable giant planet imaged in the β Pictoris disk,” Astron. Astrophys. 493(2), L21–L25 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Galicher, R.

R. Galicher, P. Baudoz, G. Rousset, J. Totems, and M. Mas, “Self-coherent camera as a focal plane wavefront sensor: simulations,” Astron. Astrophys. 509, A31 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gay, J.

P. Baudoz, Y. Rabbia, and J. Gay, “Achromatic interferocoronagraphy, I. Theoretical capabilities for ground-based observations,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 141, 319–329 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Gendron, E.

A.-M. Lagrange, D. Gratadour, G. Chauvin, T. Fusco, D. Ehrenreich, D. Mouillet, G. Rousset, D. Rouan, F. Allard, E. Gendron, J. Charton, L. Mugnier, P. Rabou, J. Montri, and F. Lacombe, “A probable giant planet imaged in the β Pictoris disk,” Astron. Astrophys. 493(2), L21–L25 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Give’on, A.

Goto, M.

C. Thalmann, J. Carson, M. Janson, M. Goto, M. McElwain, S. Egner, M. Feldt, J. Hashimoto, Y. Hayano, T. Henning, K. W. Hodapp, R. Kandori, H. Klahr, T. Kudo, N. Kusakabe, C. Mordasini, J.-I. Morino, H. Suto, R. Suzuki, and M. Tamura, “Discovery of the coldest imaged companion of a sun-like star,” Astrophys. J. 707(2), L123–L127 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Graham, J. R.

P. Kalas, J. R. Graham, E. Chiang, M. P. Fitzgerald, M. Clampin, E. S. Kite, K. Stapelfeldt, C. Marois, and J. Krist, “Optical images of an exosolar planet 25 light-years from Earth,” Science 322(5906), 1345–1348 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gratadour, D.

A.-M. Lagrange, D. Gratadour, G. Chauvin, T. Fusco, D. Ehrenreich, D. Mouillet, G. Rousset, D. Rouan, F. Allard, E. Gendron, J. Charton, L. Mugnier, P. Rabou, J. Montri, and F. Lacombe, “A probable giant planet imaged in the β Pictoris disk,” Astron. Astrophys. 493(2), L21–L25 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Guyon, O.

O. Guyon, E. A. Pluzhnik, M. J. Kuchner, B. Collins, and S. T. Ridgway, “Theoretical limits on extrasolar terrestrial planet detection with coronagraphs,” Astrophys. J. Suppl. Ser. 167, 81–99 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hashimoto, J.

C. Thalmann, J. Carson, M. Janson, M. Goto, M. McElwain, S. Egner, M. Feldt, J. Hashimoto, Y. Hayano, T. Henning, K. W. Hodapp, R. Kandori, H. Klahr, T. Kudo, N. Kusakabe, C. Mordasini, J.-I. Morino, H. Suto, R. Suzuki, and M. Tamura, “Discovery of the coldest imaged companion of a sun-like star,” Astrophys. J. 707(2), L123–L127 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hayano, Y.

C. Thalmann, J. Carson, M. Janson, M. Goto, M. McElwain, S. Egner, M. Feldt, J. Hashimoto, Y. Hayano, T. Henning, K. W. Hodapp, R. Kandori, H. Klahr, T. Kudo, N. Kusakabe, C. Mordasini, J.-I. Morino, H. Suto, R. Suzuki, and M. Tamura, “Discovery of the coldest imaged companion of a sun-like star,” Astrophys. J. 707(2), L123–L127 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Henning, T.

C. Thalmann, J. Carson, M. Janson, M. Goto, M. McElwain, S. Egner, M. Feldt, J. Hashimoto, Y. Hayano, T. Henning, K. W. Hodapp, R. Kandori, H. Klahr, T. Kudo, N. Kusakabe, C. Mordasini, J.-I. Morino, H. Suto, R. Suzuki, and M. Tamura, “Discovery of the coldest imaged companion of a sun-like star,” Astrophys. J. 707(2), L123–L127 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hodapp, K. W.

C. Thalmann, J. Carson, M. Janson, M. Goto, M. McElwain, S. Egner, M. Feldt, J. Hashimoto, Y. Hayano, T. Henning, K. W. Hodapp, R. Kandori, H. Klahr, T. Kudo, N. Kusakabe, C. Mordasini, J.-I. Morino, H. Suto, R. Suzuki, and M. Tamura, “Discovery of the coldest imaged companion of a sun-like star,” Astrophys. J. 707(2), L123–L127 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Janson, M.

C. Thalmann, J. Carson, M. Janson, M. Goto, M. McElwain, S. Egner, M. Feldt, J. Hashimoto, Y. Hayano, T. Henning, K. W. Hodapp, R. Kandori, H. Klahr, T. Kudo, N. Kusakabe, C. Mordasini, J.-I. Morino, H. Suto, R. Suzuki, and M. Tamura, “Discovery of the coldest imaged companion of a sun-like star,” Astrophys. J. 707(2), L123–L127 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kalas, P.

P. Kalas, J. R. Graham, E. Chiang, M. P. Fitzgerald, M. Clampin, E. S. Kite, K. Stapelfeldt, C. Marois, and J. Krist, “Optical images of an exosolar planet 25 light-years from Earth,” Science 322(5906), 1345–1348 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kandori, R.

C. Thalmann, J. Carson, M. Janson, M. Goto, M. McElwain, S. Egner, M. Feldt, J. Hashimoto, Y. Hayano, T. Henning, K. W. Hodapp, R. Kandori, H. Klahr, T. Kudo, N. Kusakabe, C. Mordasini, J.-I. Morino, H. Suto, R. Suzuki, and M. Tamura, “Discovery of the coldest imaged companion of a sun-like star,” Astrophys. J. 707(2), L123–L127 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kasdin, N. J.

Kite, E. S.

P. Kalas, J. R. Graham, E. Chiang, M. P. Fitzgerald, M. Clampin, E. S. Kite, K. Stapelfeldt, C. Marois, and J. Krist, “Optical images of an exosolar planet 25 light-years from Earth,” Science 322(5906), 1345–1348 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Klahr, H.

C. Thalmann, J. Carson, M. Janson, M. Goto, M. McElwain, S. Egner, M. Feldt, J. Hashimoto, Y. Hayano, T. Henning, K. W. Hodapp, R. Kandori, H. Klahr, T. Kudo, N. Kusakabe, C. Mordasini, J.-I. Morino, H. Suto, R. Suzuki, and M. Tamura, “Discovery of the coldest imaged companion of a sun-like star,” Astrophys. J. 707(2), L123–L127 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kotani, T.

J. Nishikawa, L. Abe, N. Murakami, and T. Kotani, “Precise wavefront correction with an unbalanced nulling interferometer for exo-planet imaging coronagraphs,” Astron. Astrophys. 489(3), 1389–1398 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Krist, J.

P. Kalas, J. R. Graham, E. Chiang, M. P. Fitzgerald, M. Clampin, E. S. Kite, K. Stapelfeldt, C. Marois, and J. Krist, “Optical images of an exosolar planet 25 light-years from Earth,” Science 322(5906), 1345–1348 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kuchner, M. J.

O. Guyon, E. A. Pluzhnik, M. J. Kuchner, B. Collins, and S. T. Ridgway, “Theoretical limits on extrasolar terrestrial planet detection with coronagraphs,” Astrophys. J. Suppl. Ser. 167, 81–99 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Kuchner and W. A. Traub, “A coronagraph with a band-limited mask for finding terrestrial planets,” Astrophys. J. 570(2), 900–908 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kudo, T.

C. Thalmann, J. Carson, M. Janson, M. Goto, M. McElwain, S. Egner, M. Feldt, J. Hashimoto, Y. Hayano, T. Henning, K. W. Hodapp, R. Kandori, H. Klahr, T. Kudo, N. Kusakabe, C. Mordasini, J.-I. Morino, H. Suto, R. Suzuki, and M. Tamura, “Discovery of the coldest imaged companion of a sun-like star,” Astrophys. J. 707(2), L123–L127 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kurokawa, T.

Kusakabe, N.

C. Thalmann, J. Carson, M. Janson, M. Goto, M. McElwain, S. Egner, M. Feldt, J. Hashimoto, Y. Hayano, T. Henning, K. W. Hodapp, R. Kandori, H. Klahr, T. Kudo, N. Kusakabe, C. Mordasini, J.-I. Morino, H. Suto, R. Suzuki, and M. Tamura, “Discovery of the coldest imaged companion of a sun-like star,” Astrophys. J. 707(2), L123–L127 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lacombe, F.

A.-M. Lagrange, D. Gratadour, G. Chauvin, T. Fusco, D. Ehrenreich, D. Mouillet, G. Rousset, D. Rouan, F. Allard, E. Gendron, J. Charton, L. Mugnier, P. Rabou, J. Montri, and F. Lacombe, “A probable giant planet imaged in the β Pictoris disk,” Astron. Astrophys. 493(2), L21–L25 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lafrenière, D.

C. Marois, B. Macintosh, T. Barman, B. Zuckerman, I. Song, J. Patience, D. Lafrenière, and R. Doyon, “Direct imaging of multiple planets orbiting the star HR 8799,” Science 322(5906), 1348–1352 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lagrange, A.-M.

A.-M. Lagrange, D. Gratadour, G. Chauvin, T. Fusco, D. Ehrenreich, D. Mouillet, G. Rousset, D. Rouan, F. Allard, E. Gendron, J. Charton, L. Mugnier, P. Rabou, J. Montri, and F. Lacombe, “A probable giant planet imaged in the β Pictoris disk,” Astron. Astrophys. 493(2), L21–L25 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Levine, B. M.

M. Shao, J. K. Wallace, B. M. Levine, and D. Liu, “Visible nulling coronagraph,” Proc. SPIE 5487, 1296–1303 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Liu, D.

M. Shao, J. K. Wallace, B. M. Levine, and D. Liu, “Visible nulling coronagraph,” Proc. SPIE 5487, 1296–1303 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Macintosh, B.

C. Marois, B. Macintosh, T. Barman, B. Zuckerman, I. Song, J. Patience, D. Lafrenière, and R. Doyon, “Direct imaging of multiple planets orbiting the star HR 8799,” Science 322(5906), 1348–1352 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Malbet, F.

F. Malbet, J. W. Yu, and M. Shao, “High-dynamic-range imaging using a deformable mirror for space coronography,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 107, 386–398 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Marois, C.

C. Marois, B. Macintosh, T. Barman, B. Zuckerman, I. Song, J. Patience, D. Lafrenière, and R. Doyon, “Direct imaging of multiple planets orbiting the star HR 8799,” Science 322(5906), 1348–1352 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Kalas, J. R. Graham, E. Chiang, M. P. Fitzgerald, M. Clampin, E. S. Kite, K. Stapelfeldt, C. Marois, and J. Krist, “Optical images of an exosolar planet 25 light-years from Earth,” Science 322(5906), 1345–1348 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mas, M.

R. Galicher, P. Baudoz, G. Rousset, J. Totems, and M. Mas, “Self-coherent camera as a focal plane wavefront sensor: simulations,” Astron. Astrophys. 509, A31 (2010).
[CrossRef]

McElwain, M.

C. Thalmann, J. Carson, M. Janson, M. Goto, M. McElwain, S. Egner, M. Feldt, J. Hashimoto, Y. Hayano, T. Henning, K. W. Hodapp, R. Kandori, H. Klahr, T. Kudo, N. Kusakabe, C. Mordasini, J.-I. Morino, H. Suto, R. Suzuki, and M. Tamura, “Discovery of the coldest imaged companion of a sun-like star,” Astrophys. J. 707(2), L123–L127 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Montri, J.

A.-M. Lagrange, D. Gratadour, G. Chauvin, T. Fusco, D. Ehrenreich, D. Mouillet, G. Rousset, D. Rouan, F. Allard, E. Gendron, J. Charton, L. Mugnier, P. Rabou, J. Montri, and F. Lacombe, “A probable giant planet imaged in the β Pictoris disk,” Astron. Astrophys. 493(2), L21–L25 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mordasini, C.

C. Thalmann, J. Carson, M. Janson, M. Goto, M. McElwain, S. Egner, M. Feldt, J. Hashimoto, Y. Hayano, T. Henning, K. W. Hodapp, R. Kandori, H. Klahr, T. Kudo, N. Kusakabe, C. Mordasini, J.-I. Morino, H. Suto, R. Suzuki, and M. Tamura, “Discovery of the coldest imaged companion of a sun-like star,” Astrophys. J. 707(2), L123–L127 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Morino, J.-I.

C. Thalmann, J. Carson, M. Janson, M. Goto, M. McElwain, S. Egner, M. Feldt, J. Hashimoto, Y. Hayano, T. Henning, K. W. Hodapp, R. Kandori, H. Klahr, T. Kudo, N. Kusakabe, C. Mordasini, J.-I. Morino, H. Suto, R. Suzuki, and M. Tamura, “Discovery of the coldest imaged companion of a sun-like star,” Astrophys. J. 707(2), L123–L127 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mouillet, D.

A.-M. Lagrange, D. Gratadour, G. Chauvin, T. Fusco, D. Ehrenreich, D. Mouillet, G. Rousset, D. Rouan, F. Allard, E. Gendron, J. Charton, L. Mugnier, P. Rabou, J. Montri, and F. Lacombe, “A probable giant planet imaged in the β Pictoris disk,” Astron. Astrophys. 493(2), L21–L25 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mugnier, L.

A.-M. Lagrange, D. Gratadour, G. Chauvin, T. Fusco, D. Ehrenreich, D. Mouillet, G. Rousset, D. Rouan, F. Allard, E. Gendron, J. Charton, L. Mugnier, P. Rabou, J. Montri, and F. Lacombe, “A probable giant planet imaged in the β Pictoris disk,” Astron. Astrophys. 493(2), L21–L25 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Murakami, N.

N. Murakami, J. Nishikawa, K. Yokochi, M. Tamura, N. Baba, and L. Abe, “Achromatic eight-octant phase-mask coronagraph using photonic crystal,” Astrophys. J. 714(1), 772–777 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. Murakami, K. Yokochi, J. Nishikawa, M. Tamura, T. Kurokawa, M. Takeda, and N. Baba, “Polarization interferometric nulling coronagraph for high-contrast imaging,” Appl. Opt. 49(16), D106–D114 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Yokochi, A. V. Tavrov, J. Nishikawa, N. Murakami, L. Abe, M. Tamura, M. Takeda, and T. Kurokawa, “Achromatic deep nulling with a three-dimensional Sagnac interferometer,” Opt. Lett. 34(13), 1985–1987 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Nishikawa, L. Abe, N. Murakami, and T. Kotani, “Precise wavefront correction with an unbalanced nulling interferometer for exo-planet imaging coronagraphs,” Astron. Astrophys. 489(3), 1389–1398 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nishikawa, J.

N. Murakami, K. Yokochi, J. Nishikawa, M. Tamura, T. Kurokawa, M. Takeda, and N. Baba, “Polarization interferometric nulling coronagraph for high-contrast imaging,” Appl. Opt. 49(16), D106–D114 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Murakami, J. Nishikawa, K. Yokochi, M. Tamura, N. Baba, and L. Abe, “Achromatic eight-octant phase-mask coronagraph using photonic crystal,” Astrophys. J. 714(1), 772–777 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. Yokochi, A. V. Tavrov, J. Nishikawa, N. Murakami, L. Abe, M. Tamura, M. Takeda, and T. Kurokawa, “Achromatic deep nulling with a three-dimensional Sagnac interferometer,” Opt. Lett. 34(13), 1985–1987 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Nishikawa, L. Abe, N. Murakami, and T. Kotani, “Precise wavefront correction with an unbalanced nulling interferometer for exo-planet imaging coronagraphs,” Astron. Astrophys. 489(3), 1389–1398 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Patience, J.

C. Marois, B. Macintosh, T. Barman, B. Zuckerman, I. Song, J. Patience, D. Lafrenière, and R. Doyon, “Direct imaging of multiple planets orbiting the star HR 8799,” Science 322(5906), 1348–1352 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pluzhnik, E. A.

O. Guyon, E. A. Pluzhnik, M. J. Kuchner, B. Collins, and S. T. Ridgway, “Theoretical limits on extrasolar terrestrial planet detection with coronagraphs,” Astrophys. J. Suppl. Ser. 167, 81–99 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rabbia, Y.

P. Baudoz, Y. Rabbia, and J. Gay, “Achromatic interferocoronagraphy, I. Theoretical capabilities for ground-based observations,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 141, 319–329 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Rabou, P.

A.-M. Lagrange, D. Gratadour, G. Chauvin, T. Fusco, D. Ehrenreich, D. Mouillet, G. Rousset, D. Rouan, F. Allard, E. Gendron, J. Charton, L. Mugnier, P. Rabou, J. Montri, and F. Lacombe, “A probable giant planet imaged in the β Pictoris disk,” Astron. Astrophys. 493(2), L21–L25 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ridgway, S. T.

O. Guyon, E. A. Pluzhnik, M. J. Kuchner, B. Collins, and S. T. Ridgway, “Theoretical limits on extrasolar terrestrial planet detection with coronagraphs,” Astrophys. J. Suppl. Ser. 167, 81–99 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rouan, D.

A.-M. Lagrange, D. Gratadour, G. Chauvin, T. Fusco, D. Ehrenreich, D. Mouillet, G. Rousset, D. Rouan, F. Allard, E. Gendron, J. Charton, L. Mugnier, P. Rabou, J. Montri, and F. Lacombe, “A probable giant planet imaged in the β Pictoris disk,” Astron. Astrophys. 493(2), L21–L25 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rousset, G.

R. Galicher, P. Baudoz, G. Rousset, J. Totems, and M. Mas, “Self-coherent camera as a focal plane wavefront sensor: simulations,” Astron. Astrophys. 509, A31 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A.-M. Lagrange, D. Gratadour, G. Chauvin, T. Fusco, D. Ehrenreich, D. Mouillet, G. Rousset, D. Rouan, F. Allard, E. Gendron, J. Charton, L. Mugnier, P. Rabou, J. Montri, and F. Lacombe, “A probable giant planet imaged in the β Pictoris disk,” Astron. Astrophys. 493(2), L21–L25 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Shao, M.

M. Shao, J. K. Wallace, B. M. Levine, and D. Liu, “Visible nulling coronagraph,” Proc. SPIE 5487, 1296–1303 (2004).
[CrossRef]

F. Malbet, J. W. Yu, and M. Shao, “High-dynamic-range imaging using a deformable mirror for space coronography,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 107, 386–398 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Song, I.

C. Marois, B. Macintosh, T. Barman, B. Zuckerman, I. Song, J. Patience, D. Lafrenière, and R. Doyon, “Direct imaging of multiple planets orbiting the star HR 8799,” Science 322(5906), 1348–1352 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stapelfeldt, K.

P. Kalas, J. R. Graham, E. Chiang, M. P. Fitzgerald, M. Clampin, E. S. Kite, K. Stapelfeldt, C. Marois, and J. Krist, “Optical images of an exosolar planet 25 light-years from Earth,” Science 322(5906), 1345–1348 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Suto, H.

C. Thalmann, J. Carson, M. Janson, M. Goto, M. McElwain, S. Egner, M. Feldt, J. Hashimoto, Y. Hayano, T. Henning, K. W. Hodapp, R. Kandori, H. Klahr, T. Kudo, N. Kusakabe, C. Mordasini, J.-I. Morino, H. Suto, R. Suzuki, and M. Tamura, “Discovery of the coldest imaged companion of a sun-like star,” Astrophys. J. 707(2), L123–L127 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Suzuki, R.

C. Thalmann, J. Carson, M. Janson, M. Goto, M. McElwain, S. Egner, M. Feldt, J. Hashimoto, Y. Hayano, T. Henning, K. W. Hodapp, R. Kandori, H. Klahr, T. Kudo, N. Kusakabe, C. Mordasini, J.-I. Morino, H. Suto, R. Suzuki, and M. Tamura, “Discovery of the coldest imaged companion of a sun-like star,” Astrophys. J. 707(2), L123–L127 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Takeda, M.

Tamura, M.

N. Murakami, K. Yokochi, J. Nishikawa, M. Tamura, T. Kurokawa, M. Takeda, and N. Baba, “Polarization interferometric nulling coronagraph for high-contrast imaging,” Appl. Opt. 49(16), D106–D114 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Murakami, J. Nishikawa, K. Yokochi, M. Tamura, N. Baba, and L. Abe, “Achromatic eight-octant phase-mask coronagraph using photonic crystal,” Astrophys. J. 714(1), 772–777 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. Yokochi, A. V. Tavrov, J. Nishikawa, N. Murakami, L. Abe, M. Tamura, M. Takeda, and T. Kurokawa, “Achromatic deep nulling with a three-dimensional Sagnac interferometer,” Opt. Lett. 34(13), 1985–1987 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Thalmann, J. Carson, M. Janson, M. Goto, M. McElwain, S. Egner, M. Feldt, J. Hashimoto, Y. Hayano, T. Henning, K. W. Hodapp, R. Kandori, H. Klahr, T. Kudo, N. Kusakabe, C. Mordasini, J.-I. Morino, H. Suto, R. Suzuki, and M. Tamura, “Discovery of the coldest imaged companion of a sun-like star,” Astrophys. J. 707(2), L123–L127 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tavrov, A. V.

Thalmann, C.

C. Thalmann, J. Carson, M. Janson, M. Goto, M. McElwain, S. Egner, M. Feldt, J. Hashimoto, Y. Hayano, T. Henning, K. W. Hodapp, R. Kandori, H. Klahr, T. Kudo, N. Kusakabe, C. Mordasini, J.-I. Morino, H. Suto, R. Suzuki, and M. Tamura, “Discovery of the coldest imaged companion of a sun-like star,” Astrophys. J. 707(2), L123–L127 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Totems, J.

R. Galicher, P. Baudoz, G. Rousset, J. Totems, and M. Mas, “Self-coherent camera as a focal plane wavefront sensor: simulations,” Astron. Astrophys. 509, A31 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Traub, W. A.

M. J. Kuchner and W. A. Traub, “A coronagraph with a band-limited mask for finding terrestrial planets,” Astrophys. J. 570(2), 900–908 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Vanderbei, R. J.

Wallace, J. K.

M. Shao, J. K. Wallace, B. M. Levine, and D. Liu, “Visible nulling coronagraph,” Proc. SPIE 5487, 1296–1303 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yokochi, K.

Yu, J. W.

F. Malbet, J. W. Yu, and M. Shao, “High-dynamic-range imaging using a deformable mirror for space coronography,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 107, 386–398 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Zuckerman, B.

C. Marois, B. Macintosh, T. Barman, B. Zuckerman, I. Song, J. Patience, D. Lafrenière, and R. Doyon, “Direct imaging of multiple planets orbiting the star HR 8799,” Science 322(5906), 1348–1352 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Astron. Astrophys. (3)

R. Galicher, P. Baudoz, G. Rousset, J. Totems, and M. Mas, “Self-coherent camera as a focal plane wavefront sensor: simulations,” Astron. Astrophys. 509, A31 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Nishikawa, L. Abe, N. Murakami, and T. Kotani, “Precise wavefront correction with an unbalanced nulling interferometer for exo-planet imaging coronagraphs,” Astron. Astrophys. 489(3), 1389–1398 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A.-M. Lagrange, D. Gratadour, G. Chauvin, T. Fusco, D. Ehrenreich, D. Mouillet, G. Rousset, D. Rouan, F. Allard, E. Gendron, J. Charton, L. Mugnier, P. Rabou, J. Montri, and F. Lacombe, “A probable giant planet imaged in the β Pictoris disk,” Astron. Astrophys. 493(2), L21–L25 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. (1)

P. Baudoz, Y. Rabbia, and J. Gay, “Achromatic interferocoronagraphy, I. Theoretical capabilities for ground-based observations,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 141, 319–329 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Astrophys. J. (3)

C. Thalmann, J. Carson, M. Janson, M. Goto, M. McElwain, S. Egner, M. Feldt, J. Hashimoto, Y. Hayano, T. Henning, K. W. Hodapp, R. Kandori, H. Klahr, T. Kudo, N. Kusakabe, C. Mordasini, J.-I. Morino, H. Suto, R. Suzuki, and M. Tamura, “Discovery of the coldest imaged companion of a sun-like star,” Astrophys. J. 707(2), L123–L127 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Kuchner and W. A. Traub, “A coronagraph with a band-limited mask for finding terrestrial planets,” Astrophys. J. 570(2), 900–908 (2002).
[CrossRef]

N. Murakami, J. Nishikawa, K. Yokochi, M. Tamura, N. Baba, and L. Abe, “Achromatic eight-octant phase-mask coronagraph using photonic crystal,” Astrophys. J. 714(1), 772–777 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Astrophys. J. Suppl. Ser. (1)

O. Guyon, E. A. Pluzhnik, M. J. Kuchner, B. Collins, and S. T. Ridgway, “Theoretical limits on extrasolar terrestrial planet detection with coronagraphs,” Astrophys. J. Suppl. Ser. 167, 81–99 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Nature (1)

R. N. Bracewell, “Detecting nonsolar planets by spinning infrared interferometer,” Nature 274(5673), 780–781 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Proc. SPIE (1)

M. Shao, J. K. Wallace, B. M. Levine, and D. Liu, “Visible nulling coronagraph,” Proc. SPIE 5487, 1296–1303 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. (1)

F. Malbet, J. W. Yu, and M. Shao, “High-dynamic-range imaging using a deformable mirror for space coronography,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 107, 386–398 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Science (2)

P. Kalas, J. R. Graham, E. Chiang, M. P. Fitzgerald, M. Clampin, E. S. Kite, K. Stapelfeldt, C. Marois, and J. Krist, “Optical images of an exosolar planet 25 light-years from Earth,” Science 322(5906), 1345–1348 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Marois, B. Macintosh, T. Barman, B. Zuckerman, I. Song, J. Patience, D. Lafrenière, and R. Doyon, “Direct imaging of multiple planets orbiting the star HR 8799,” Science 322(5906), 1348–1352 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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