Abstract

line emissions from Mo and Ag plates were experimentally studied using clean, ultrahigh-intensity femtosecond laser pulses. The absolute yields of x-rays at 17 keV from Mo and 22 keV from Ag were measured as a function of the laser pulse contrast ratio and irradiation intensity. Significantly enhanced yields were obtained for both Mo and Ag by employing high contrast ratios and irradiances. Conversion efficiencies of 4.28 × 10−5 /sr for Mo and 4.84 × 10−5 /sr for Ag, the highest values obtained to date, were demonstrated with contrast ratios in the range 10−10 to 10−11.

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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  14. H. B. Cai, K. Mima, A. Sunahara, T. Johzaki, H. Nagatomo, S. P. Zhu, and X. T. He, “Prepulse effects on the generation of high energy electrons in fast ignition scheme,” Phys. Plasmas 17, 023106 (2010).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  20. S. Fourmaux, C. Serbanescu, R. E. Kincaid, J. A. Krol, and J. C. Kieffer, “Kα x-ray emission characterization of 100 Hz, 15 mJ femtosecond laser system with high contrast ratio,” Appl. Phys. B 94, 569–575 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  21. B. Westover, A. MacPhee, C. Chen, D. Hey, T. Ma, B. Maddox, H.-S. Park, B. Remington, and F. N. Beg, “Study of silver Kα and bremsstrahlung radiation from short-pulse laser-matter interactions with applications for x-ray radiography,” Phys. Plasmas 17, 082703 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  22. H. Kiriyama, M. Michiaki, Y. Nakai, T. Shimomura, H. Sasao, M. Tanaka, Y. Ochi, M. Tanoue, H. Okada, S. Kondo, S. Kanazawa, A. Sagisaka, I. Daito, D. Wakai, F. Sasao, M. Suzuki, H. Kotakai, K. Kondo, A. Sugiyama, S. Bulanov, P. R. Bolton, H. Daido, S. Kawanishi, J. L. Collier, C. Hernandez-Gomez, C. J. Hooker, K. Ertel, T. Kimura, and T. Tajima, “High-spatiotemporal-quality petawatt-class laser system,” Appl. Opt. 49, 2105–2115 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. H. Kiriyama, M. Mori, Y. Nakai, T. Shimomura, H. Sasao, M. Tanoue, S. Kanazawa, D. Wakai, F. Sasao, H. Okada, I. Daito, M. Suzuki, S. Kondo, K. Kondo, A. Sugiyama, P. R. Bolton, A. Yokoyama, H. Daido, S. Kawanishi, T. Kimura, and T. Tajima, “High temporal and spatial quality petawatt-class Ti:sapphire chirped-pulse amplification laser system,” Opt. Lett. 35, 1497–1499 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. C. Fourment, N. Arazam, C. Bonte, T. Caillaud, D. Descamps, F. Dorchies, M. Harmand, S. Hulin, S. Petit, and J. J. Santos, “Broadband, high dynamics and high resolution charge coupled device-based spectrometer in dynamic mode for multi-keV repetitive x-ray sources,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 80, 083505 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. S. Wilks, W. Kruer, M. Tabak, and A. Langdon, “Absorption of ultra-intense laser-pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 1383–1386 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. D. Salzmann, C. Reich, I. Uschmann, E. Forster, and P. Gibbon, “Theory of Kα generation by femtosecond laser-produced hot electrons in thin foils,” Phys. Rev. E 65, 036402 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  27. A. S. Pirozhkov, I. W. Choi, J. H. Sung, S. K. Lee, T. J. Yu, T. M. Jeong, I. J. Kim, N. Hafz, C. M. Kim, K. H. Pae, Y. C. Noh, D. K. Ko, J. Lee, A. P. L. Robinson, P. Foster, S. Hawkes, M. Streeter, C. Spindloe, P. McKenna, D. C. Carroll, C. G. Wahlstrom, M. Zepf, D. Adams, B. Dromey, K. Markey, S. Kar, Y. T. Li, M. H. Xu, H. Nagatomo, M. Mori, A. Yogo, H. Kiriyama, K. Ogura, A. Sagisaka, S. Orimo, M. Nishiuchi, H. Sugiyama, T. Z. Esirkepov, H. Okada, S. Kondo, S. Kanazawa, Y. Nakai, A. Akutsu, T. Motomura, M. Tanoue, T. Shimomura, M. Ikegami, I. Daito, M. Kando, T. Kameshima, P. Bolton, S. V. Bulanov, H. Daido, and D. Neely, “Diagnostic of laser contrast using target reflectivity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 241102 (2009).
    [CrossRef]

2010 (6)

M. Nishikino, K. Sato, N. Hasegawa, M. Ishino, S. Ohshima, Y. Okano, T. Kawachi, H. Numasaki, T. Teshima, and H. Nishimura, “Note: application of laser produced plasma K alpha x-ray probe in radiation biology,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 026107 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Katsutoshi, N. Masaharu, O. Yasuaki, O. Shin-suke, H. Noboru, I. Masahiko, K. Tetsuya, N. Hodaka, T. Teruki, and N. Hiroaki, “γ-H2AX and phosphorylated ATM focus formation in cancer cells after laser plasma X irradiation,” Radiat. Res. 174, 436–445 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. B. Cai, K. Mima, A. Sunahara, T. Johzaki, H. Nagatomo, S. P. Zhu, and X. T. He, “Prepulse effects on the generation of high energy electrons in fast ignition scheme,” Phys. Plasmas 17, 023106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. Westover, A. MacPhee, C. Chen, D. Hey, T. Ma, B. Maddox, H.-S. Park, B. Remington, and F. N. Beg, “Study of silver Kα and bremsstrahlung radiation from short-pulse laser-matter interactions with applications for x-ray radiography,” Phys. Plasmas 17, 082703 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Kiriyama, M. Michiaki, Y. Nakai, T. Shimomura, H. Sasao, M. Tanaka, Y. Ochi, M. Tanoue, H. Okada, S. Kondo, S. Kanazawa, A. Sagisaka, I. Daito, D. Wakai, F. Sasao, M. Suzuki, H. Kotakai, K. Kondo, A. Sugiyama, S. Bulanov, P. R. Bolton, H. Daido, S. Kawanishi, J. L. Collier, C. Hernandez-Gomez, C. J. Hooker, K. Ertel, T. Kimura, and T. Tajima, “High-spatiotemporal-quality petawatt-class laser system,” Appl. Opt. 49, 2105–2115 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Kiriyama, M. Mori, Y. Nakai, T. Shimomura, H. Sasao, M. Tanoue, S. Kanazawa, D. Wakai, F. Sasao, H. Okada, I. Daito, M. Suzuki, S. Kondo, K. Kondo, A. Sugiyama, P. R. Bolton, A. Yokoyama, H. Daido, S. Kawanishi, T. Kimura, and T. Tajima, “High temporal and spatial quality petawatt-class Ti:sapphire chirped-pulse amplification laser system,” Opt. Lett. 35, 1497–1499 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (6)

S. Fourmaux, C. Serbanescu, R. E. Kincaid, J. A. Krol, and J. C. Kieffer, “Kα x-ray emission characterization of 100 Hz, 15 mJ femtosecond laser system with high contrast ratio,” Appl. Phys. B 94, 569–575 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Fourment, N. Arazam, C. Bonte, T. Caillaud, D. Descamps, F. Dorchies, M. Harmand, S. Hulin, S. Petit, and J. J. Santos, “Broadband, high dynamics and high resolution charge coupled device-based spectrometer in dynamic mode for multi-keV repetitive x-ray sources,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 80, 083505 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. S. Pirozhkov, I. W. Choi, J. H. Sung, S. K. Lee, T. J. Yu, T. M. Jeong, I. J. Kim, N. Hafz, C. M. Kim, K. H. Pae, Y. C. Noh, D. K. Ko, J. Lee, A. P. L. Robinson, P. Foster, S. Hawkes, M. Streeter, C. Spindloe, P. McKenna, D. C. Carroll, C. G. Wahlstrom, M. Zepf, D. Adams, B. Dromey, K. Markey, S. Kar, Y. T. Li, M. H. Xu, H. Nagatomo, M. Mori, A. Yogo, H. Kiriyama, K. Ogura, A. Sagisaka, S. Orimo, M. Nishiuchi, H. Sugiyama, T. Z. Esirkepov, H. Okada, S. Kondo, S. Kanazawa, Y. Nakai, A. Akutsu, T. Motomura, M. Tanoue, T. Shimomura, M. Ikegami, I. Daito, M. Kando, T. Kameshima, P. Bolton, S. V. Bulanov, H. Daido, and D. Neely, “Diagnostic of laser contrast using target reflectivity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 241102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

W. Lu, M. Nicoul, U. Shymanovich, A. Tarasevitch, P. Zhou, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, D. von der Linde, M. Masek, P. Gibbon, and U. Teubner, “Optimized k alpha x-ray flashes from femtosecond-laser-irradiated foils,” Phys. Rev. E 80, 026404 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Kritcher, P. Neumayer, C. R. D. Brown, P. Davis, T. Doeppner, R. W. Falcone, D. O. Gericke, G. Gregori, B. Holst, O. L. Landen, H. J. Lee, E. C. Morse, A. Pelka, R. Redmer, M. Roth, J. Vorberger, K. Wuensch, and S. H. Glenzer, “Measurements of ionic structure in shock compressed lithium hydride from ultrafast x-ray Thomson scattering,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 245004 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Fujioka, H. Takabe, N. Yamamoto, D. Salzmann, F. Wang, H. Nishimura, Y. Li, Q. Dong, S. Wang, Y. Zhang, Y.-J. Rhee, Y.-W. Lee, J.-M. Han, M. Tanabe, T. Fujiwara, Y. Nakabayashi, G. Zhao, J. Zhang, and K. Mima, “X-ray astronomy in the laboratory with a miniature compact object produced by laser-driven implosion,” Nat. Phys. 5, 821–825 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

M. Cerchez, R. Jung, J. Osterholz, T. Toncian, O. Willi, P. Mulser, and H. Ruhl, “Absorption of ultrashort laser pulses in strongly overdense targets,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 245001 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. J. Kemp, Y. Sentoku, and M. Tabak, “Hot-electron energy coupling in ultraintense laser-matter interaction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 075004 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

H. Park, D. Chambers, H. Chung, R. Clarke, R. Eagleton, E. Giraldez, T. Goldsack, R. Heathcote, N. Izumi, M. Key, J. King, J. Koch, O. Landen, A. Nikroo, P. Patel, D. Price, B. Remington, H. Robey, R. Snavely, D. Steinman, R. Stephens, C. Stoeckl, M. Storm, M. Tabak, W. Theobald, R. Town, J. Wickersham, and B. Zhang, “High-energy Kα radiography using high-intensity, short-pulse lasers,” Phys. Plasmas 13, 056309 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

L. Chen, P. Forget, S. Fourmaux, J. Kieffer, A. Krol, C. Chamberlain, B. Hou, J. Nees, and G. Mourou, “Study of hard x-ray emission from intense femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser-solid target interactions,” Phys. Plasmas 11, 4439–4445 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. Stephens, R. Snavely, Y. Aglitskiy, F. Amiranoff, C. Andersen, D. Batani, S. Baton, T. Cowan, R. Freeman, T. Hall, S. Hatchett, J. Hill, M. Key, J. King, J. Koch, M. Koenig, A. MacKinnon, K. Lancaster, E. Martinolli, P. Norreys, E. Perelli-Cippo, M. Le Gloahec, C. Rousseaux, J. Santos, and F. Scianitti, “Kα fluorescence measurement of relativistic electron transport in the context of fast ignition,” Phys. Rev. E 69, 066414 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

K. Sokolowski-Tinten, C. Blome, J. Blums, A. Cavalleri, C. Dietrich, A. Tarasevitch, I. Uschmann, E. Förster, M. Kammler, M. Horn-von-Hoegen, and D. von der Linde, “Femtosecond x-ray measurement of coherent lattice vibrations near the Lindemann stability limit,” Nature 422, 287–289 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (2)

J. Kieffer, A. Krol, Z. Jiang, C. Chamberlain, E. Scalzetti, and Z. Ichalalene, “Future of laser-based X-ray sources for medical imaging,” Appl. Phys. B 74, 75–81 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. Salzmann, C. Reich, I. Uschmann, E. Forster, and P. Gibbon, “Theory of Kα generation by femtosecond laser-produced hot electrons in thin foils,” Phys. Rev. E 65, 036402 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

K. Yasuike, M. Key, S. Hatchett, R. Snavely, and K. Wharton, “Hot electron diagnostic in a solid laser target by K-shell lines measurement from ultraintense laser-plasma interactions (3×1020 W/cm2,≤400 J),” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 1236–1240 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

J. Yu, Z. Jiang, J. Kieffer, and A. Krol, “Hard x-ray emission in high intensity femtosecond laser-target interaction,” Phys. Plasmas 6, 1318–1322 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

S. Moon and D. Eder, “Theoretical investigation of an ultrashort-pulse coherent x-ray source at 45 angstrom,” Phys. Rev. A 57, 1391 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

T. Feurer, W. Theobald, R. Sauerbrey, I. Uschmann, D. Altenbernd, U. Teubner, P. Gibbon, E. Forster, G. Malka, and J. Miquel, “Onset of diffuse reflectivity and fast electron flux inhibition in 528-nm-laser solid interactions at ultrahigh intensity,” Phys. Rev. E 56, 4608–4614 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. Bastiani, A. Rousse, J. Geindre, P. Audebert, C. Quoix, G. Hamoniaux, A. Antonetti, and J. Gauthier, “Experimental study of the interaction of subpicosecond laser pulses with solid targets of varying initial scale lengths,” Phys. Rev. E 56, 7179–7185 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

P. Gibbon and E. Forster, “Short-pulse laser-plasma interactions,” Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 38, 769–793 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

S. Wilks, W. Kruer, M. Tabak, and A. Langdon, “Absorption of ultra-intense laser-pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 1383–1386 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adams, D.

A. S. Pirozhkov, I. W. Choi, J. H. Sung, S. K. Lee, T. J. Yu, T. M. Jeong, I. J. Kim, N. Hafz, C. M. Kim, K. H. Pae, Y. C. Noh, D. K. Ko, J. Lee, A. P. L. Robinson, P. Foster, S. Hawkes, M. Streeter, C. Spindloe, P. McKenna, D. C. Carroll, C. G. Wahlstrom, M. Zepf, D. Adams, B. Dromey, K. Markey, S. Kar, Y. T. Li, M. H. Xu, H. Nagatomo, M. Mori, A. Yogo, H. Kiriyama, K. Ogura, A. Sagisaka, S. Orimo, M. Nishiuchi, H. Sugiyama, T. Z. Esirkepov, H. Okada, S. Kondo, S. Kanazawa, Y. Nakai, A. Akutsu, T. Motomura, M. Tanoue, T. Shimomura, M. Ikegami, I. Daito, M. Kando, T. Kameshima, P. Bolton, S. V. Bulanov, H. Daido, and D. Neely, “Diagnostic of laser contrast using target reflectivity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 241102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Aglitskiy, Y.

R. Stephens, R. Snavely, Y. Aglitskiy, F. Amiranoff, C. Andersen, D. Batani, S. Baton, T. Cowan, R. Freeman, T. Hall, S. Hatchett, J. Hill, M. Key, J. King, J. Koch, M. Koenig, A. MacKinnon, K. Lancaster, E. Martinolli, P. Norreys, E. Perelli-Cippo, M. Le Gloahec, C. Rousseaux, J. Santos, and F. Scianitti, “Kα fluorescence measurement of relativistic electron transport in the context of fast ignition,” Phys. Rev. E 69, 066414 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Akutsu, A.

A. S. Pirozhkov, I. W. Choi, J. H. Sung, S. K. Lee, T. J. Yu, T. M. Jeong, I. J. Kim, N. Hafz, C. M. Kim, K. H. Pae, Y. C. Noh, D. K. Ko, J. Lee, A. P. L. Robinson, P. Foster, S. Hawkes, M. Streeter, C. Spindloe, P. McKenna, D. C. Carroll, C. G. Wahlstrom, M. Zepf, D. Adams, B. Dromey, K. Markey, S. Kar, Y. T. Li, M. H. Xu, H. Nagatomo, M. Mori, A. Yogo, H. Kiriyama, K. Ogura, A. Sagisaka, S. Orimo, M. Nishiuchi, H. Sugiyama, T. Z. Esirkepov, H. Okada, S. Kondo, S. Kanazawa, Y. Nakai, A. Akutsu, T. Motomura, M. Tanoue, T. Shimomura, M. Ikegami, I. Daito, M. Kando, T. Kameshima, P. Bolton, S. V. Bulanov, H. Daido, and D. Neely, “Diagnostic of laser contrast using target reflectivity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 241102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Altenbernd, D.

T. Feurer, W. Theobald, R. Sauerbrey, I. Uschmann, D. Altenbernd, U. Teubner, P. Gibbon, E. Forster, G. Malka, and J. Miquel, “Onset of diffuse reflectivity and fast electron flux inhibition in 528-nm-laser solid interactions at ultrahigh intensity,” Phys. Rev. E 56, 4608–4614 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Amiranoff, F.

R. Stephens, R. Snavely, Y. Aglitskiy, F. Amiranoff, C. Andersen, D. Batani, S. Baton, T. Cowan, R. Freeman, T. Hall, S. Hatchett, J. Hill, M. Key, J. King, J. Koch, M. Koenig, A. MacKinnon, K. Lancaster, E. Martinolli, P. Norreys, E. Perelli-Cippo, M. Le Gloahec, C. Rousseaux, J. Santos, and F. Scianitti, “Kα fluorescence measurement of relativistic electron transport in the context of fast ignition,” Phys. Rev. E 69, 066414 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Andersen, C.

R. Stephens, R. Snavely, Y. Aglitskiy, F. Amiranoff, C. Andersen, D. Batani, S. Baton, T. Cowan, R. Freeman, T. Hall, S. Hatchett, J. Hill, M. Key, J. King, J. Koch, M. Koenig, A. MacKinnon, K. Lancaster, E. Martinolli, P. Norreys, E. Perelli-Cippo, M. Le Gloahec, C. Rousseaux, J. Santos, and F. Scianitti, “Kα fluorescence measurement of relativistic electron transport in the context of fast ignition,” Phys. Rev. E 69, 066414 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Antonetti, A.

S. Bastiani, A. Rousse, J. Geindre, P. Audebert, C. Quoix, G. Hamoniaux, A. Antonetti, and J. Gauthier, “Experimental study of the interaction of subpicosecond laser pulses with solid targets of varying initial scale lengths,” Phys. Rev. E 56, 7179–7185 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Arazam, N.

C. Fourment, N. Arazam, C. Bonte, T. Caillaud, D. Descamps, F. Dorchies, M. Harmand, S. Hulin, S. Petit, and J. J. Santos, “Broadband, high dynamics and high resolution charge coupled device-based spectrometer in dynamic mode for multi-keV repetitive x-ray sources,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 80, 083505 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Audebert, P.

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B. Westover, A. MacPhee, C. Chen, D. Hey, T. Ma, B. Maddox, H.-S. Park, B. Remington, and F. N. Beg, “Study of silver Kα and bremsstrahlung radiation from short-pulse laser-matter interactions with applications for x-ray radiography,” Phys. Plasmas 17, 082703 (2010).
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Bonte, C.

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Bulanov, S. V.

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A. S. Pirozhkov, I. W. Choi, J. H. Sung, S. K. Lee, T. J. Yu, T. M. Jeong, I. J. Kim, N. Hafz, C. M. Kim, K. H. Pae, Y. C. Noh, D. K. Ko, J. Lee, A. P. L. Robinson, P. Foster, S. Hawkes, M. Streeter, C. Spindloe, P. McKenna, D. C. Carroll, C. G. Wahlstrom, M. Zepf, D. Adams, B. Dromey, K. Markey, S. Kar, Y. T. Li, M. H. Xu, H. Nagatomo, M. Mori, A. Yogo, H. Kiriyama, K. Ogura, A. Sagisaka, S. Orimo, M. Nishiuchi, H. Sugiyama, T. Z. Esirkepov, H. Okada, S. Kondo, S. Kanazawa, Y. Nakai, A. Akutsu, T. Motomura, M. Tanoue, T. Shimomura, M. Ikegami, I. Daito, M. Kando, T. Kameshima, P. Bolton, S. V. Bulanov, H. Daido, and D. Neely, “Diagnostic of laser contrast using target reflectivity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 241102 (2009).
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Chambers, D.

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Chen, C.

B. Westover, A. MacPhee, C. Chen, D. Hey, T. Ma, B. Maddox, H.-S. Park, B. Remington, and F. N. Beg, “Study of silver Kα and bremsstrahlung radiation from short-pulse laser-matter interactions with applications for x-ray radiography,” Phys. Plasmas 17, 082703 (2010).
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Clarke, R.

H. Park, D. Chambers, H. Chung, R. Clarke, R. Eagleton, E. Giraldez, T. Goldsack, R. Heathcote, N. Izumi, M. Key, J. King, J. Koch, O. Landen, A. Nikroo, P. Patel, D. Price, B. Remington, H. Robey, R. Snavely, D. Steinman, R. Stephens, C. Stoeckl, M. Storm, M. Tabak, W. Theobald, R. Town, J. Wickersham, and B. Zhang, “High-energy Kα radiography using high-intensity, short-pulse lasers,” Phys. Plasmas 13, 056309 (2006).
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Collier, J. L.

Cowan, T.

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H. Kiriyama, M. Mori, Y. Nakai, T. Shimomura, H. Sasao, M. Tanoue, S. Kanazawa, D. Wakai, F. Sasao, H. Okada, I. Daito, M. Suzuki, S. Kondo, K. Kondo, A. Sugiyama, P. R. Bolton, A. Yokoyama, H. Daido, S. Kawanishi, T. Kimura, and T. Tajima, “High temporal and spatial quality petawatt-class Ti:sapphire chirped-pulse amplification laser system,” Opt. Lett. 35, 1497–1499 (2010).
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Daito, I.

H. Kiriyama, M. Mori, Y. Nakai, T. Shimomura, H. Sasao, M. Tanoue, S. Kanazawa, D. Wakai, F. Sasao, H. Okada, I. Daito, M. Suzuki, S. Kondo, K. Kondo, A. Sugiyama, P. R. Bolton, A. Yokoyama, H. Daido, S. Kawanishi, T. Kimura, and T. Tajima, “High temporal and spatial quality petawatt-class Ti:sapphire chirped-pulse amplification laser system,” Opt. Lett. 35, 1497–1499 (2010).
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H. Kiriyama, M. Michiaki, Y. Nakai, T. Shimomura, H. Sasao, M. Tanaka, Y. Ochi, M. Tanoue, H. Okada, S. Kondo, S. Kanazawa, A. Sagisaka, I. Daito, D. Wakai, F. Sasao, M. Suzuki, H. Kotakai, K. Kondo, A. Sugiyama, S. Bulanov, P. R. Bolton, H. Daido, S. Kawanishi, J. L. Collier, C. Hernandez-Gomez, C. J. Hooker, K. Ertel, T. Kimura, and T. Tajima, “High-spatiotemporal-quality petawatt-class laser system,” Appl. Opt. 49, 2105–2115 (2010).
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A. S. Pirozhkov, I. W. Choi, J. H. Sung, S. K. Lee, T. J. Yu, T. M. Jeong, I. J. Kim, N. Hafz, C. M. Kim, K. H. Pae, Y. C. Noh, D. K. Ko, J. Lee, A. P. L. Robinson, P. Foster, S. Hawkes, M. Streeter, C. Spindloe, P. McKenna, D. C. Carroll, C. G. Wahlstrom, M. Zepf, D. Adams, B. Dromey, K. Markey, S. Kar, Y. T. Li, M. H. Xu, H. Nagatomo, M. Mori, A. Yogo, H. Kiriyama, K. Ogura, A. Sagisaka, S. Orimo, M. Nishiuchi, H. Sugiyama, T. Z. Esirkepov, H. Okada, S. Kondo, S. Kanazawa, Y. Nakai, A. Akutsu, T. Motomura, M. Tanoue, T. Shimomura, M. Ikegami, I. Daito, M. Kando, T. Kameshima, P. Bolton, S. V. Bulanov, H. Daido, and D. Neely, “Diagnostic of laser contrast using target reflectivity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 241102 (2009).
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Davis, P.

A. L. Kritcher, P. Neumayer, C. R. D. Brown, P. Davis, T. Doeppner, R. W. Falcone, D. O. Gericke, G. Gregori, B. Holst, O. L. Landen, H. J. Lee, E. C. Morse, A. Pelka, R. Redmer, M. Roth, J. Vorberger, K. Wuensch, and S. H. Glenzer, “Measurements of ionic structure in shock compressed lithium hydride from ultrafast x-ray Thomson scattering,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 245004 (2009).
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Descamps, D.

C. Fourment, N. Arazam, C. Bonte, T. Caillaud, D. Descamps, F. Dorchies, M. Harmand, S. Hulin, S. Petit, and J. J. Santos, “Broadband, high dynamics and high resolution charge coupled device-based spectrometer in dynamic mode for multi-keV repetitive x-ray sources,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 80, 083505 (2009).
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Dietrich, C.

K. Sokolowski-Tinten, C. Blome, J. Blums, A. Cavalleri, C. Dietrich, A. Tarasevitch, I. Uschmann, E. Förster, M. Kammler, M. Horn-von-Hoegen, and D. von der Linde, “Femtosecond x-ray measurement of coherent lattice vibrations near the Lindemann stability limit,” Nature 422, 287–289 (2003).
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S. Fujioka, H. Takabe, N. Yamamoto, D. Salzmann, F. Wang, H. Nishimura, Y. Li, Q. Dong, S. Wang, Y. Zhang, Y.-J. Rhee, Y.-W. Lee, J.-M. Han, M. Tanabe, T. Fujiwara, Y. Nakabayashi, G. Zhao, J. Zhang, and K. Mima, “X-ray astronomy in the laboratory with a miniature compact object produced by laser-driven implosion,” Nat. Phys. 5, 821–825 (2009).
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Dorchies, F.

C. Fourment, N. Arazam, C. Bonte, T. Caillaud, D. Descamps, F. Dorchies, M. Harmand, S. Hulin, S. Petit, and J. J. Santos, “Broadband, high dynamics and high resolution charge coupled device-based spectrometer in dynamic mode for multi-keV repetitive x-ray sources,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 80, 083505 (2009).
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A. S. Pirozhkov, I. W. Choi, J. H. Sung, S. K. Lee, T. J. Yu, T. M. Jeong, I. J. Kim, N. Hafz, C. M. Kim, K. H. Pae, Y. C. Noh, D. K. Ko, J. Lee, A. P. L. Robinson, P. Foster, S. Hawkes, M. Streeter, C. Spindloe, P. McKenna, D. C. Carroll, C. G. Wahlstrom, M. Zepf, D. Adams, B. Dromey, K. Markey, S. Kar, Y. T. Li, M. H. Xu, H. Nagatomo, M. Mori, A. Yogo, H. Kiriyama, K. Ogura, A. Sagisaka, S. Orimo, M. Nishiuchi, H. Sugiyama, T. Z. Esirkepov, H. Okada, S. Kondo, S. Kanazawa, Y. Nakai, A. Akutsu, T. Motomura, M. Tanoue, T. Shimomura, M. Ikegami, I. Daito, M. Kando, T. Kameshima, P. Bolton, S. V. Bulanov, H. Daido, and D. Neely, “Diagnostic of laser contrast using target reflectivity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 241102 (2009).
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H. Park, D. Chambers, H. Chung, R. Clarke, R. Eagleton, E. Giraldez, T. Goldsack, R. Heathcote, N. Izumi, M. Key, J. King, J. Koch, O. Landen, A. Nikroo, P. Patel, D. Price, B. Remington, H. Robey, R. Snavely, D. Steinman, R. Stephens, C. Stoeckl, M. Storm, M. Tabak, W. Theobald, R. Town, J. Wickersham, and B. Zhang, “High-energy Kα radiography using high-intensity, short-pulse lasers,” Phys. Plasmas 13, 056309 (2006).
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Esirkepov, T. Z.

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Falcone, R. W.

A. L. Kritcher, P. Neumayer, C. R. D. Brown, P. Davis, T. Doeppner, R. W. Falcone, D. O. Gericke, G. Gregori, B. Holst, O. L. Landen, H. J. Lee, E. C. Morse, A. Pelka, R. Redmer, M. Roth, J. Vorberger, K. Wuensch, and S. H. Glenzer, “Measurements of ionic structure in shock compressed lithium hydride from ultrafast x-ray Thomson scattering,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 245004 (2009).
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L. Chen, P. Forget, S. Fourmaux, J. Kieffer, A. Krol, C. Chamberlain, B. Hou, J. Nees, and G. Mourou, “Study of hard x-ray emission from intense femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser-solid target interactions,” Phys. Plasmas 11, 4439–4445 (2004).
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T. Feurer, W. Theobald, R. Sauerbrey, I. Uschmann, D. Altenbernd, U. Teubner, P. Gibbon, E. Forster, G. Malka, and J. Miquel, “Onset of diffuse reflectivity and fast electron flux inhibition in 528-nm-laser solid interactions at ultrahigh intensity,” Phys. Rev. E 56, 4608–4614 (1997).
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C. Fourment, N. Arazam, C. Bonte, T. Caillaud, D. Descamps, F. Dorchies, M. Harmand, S. Hulin, S. Petit, and J. J. Santos, “Broadband, high dynamics and high resolution charge coupled device-based spectrometer in dynamic mode for multi-keV repetitive x-ray sources,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 80, 083505 (2009).
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Hey, D.

B. Westover, A. MacPhee, C. Chen, D. Hey, T. Ma, B. Maddox, H.-S. Park, B. Remington, and F. N. Beg, “Study of silver Kα and bremsstrahlung radiation from short-pulse laser-matter interactions with applications for x-ray radiography,” Phys. Plasmas 17, 082703 (2010).
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Horn-von-Hoegen, M.

K. Sokolowski-Tinten, C. Blome, J. Blums, A. Cavalleri, C. Dietrich, A. Tarasevitch, I. Uschmann, E. Förster, M. Kammler, M. Horn-von-Hoegen, and D. von der Linde, “Femtosecond x-ray measurement of coherent lattice vibrations near the Lindemann stability limit,” Nature 422, 287–289 (2003).
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L. Chen, P. Forget, S. Fourmaux, J. Kieffer, A. Krol, C. Chamberlain, B. Hou, J. Nees, and G. Mourou, “Study of hard x-ray emission from intense femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser-solid target interactions,” Phys. Plasmas 11, 4439–4445 (2004).
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C. Fourment, N. Arazam, C. Bonte, T. Caillaud, D. Descamps, F. Dorchies, M. Harmand, S. Hulin, S. Petit, and J. J. Santos, “Broadband, high dynamics and high resolution charge coupled device-based spectrometer in dynamic mode for multi-keV repetitive x-ray sources,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 80, 083505 (2009).
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A. S. Pirozhkov, I. W. Choi, J. H. Sung, S. K. Lee, T. J. Yu, T. M. Jeong, I. J. Kim, N. Hafz, C. M. Kim, K. H. Pae, Y. C. Noh, D. K. Ko, J. Lee, A. P. L. Robinson, P. Foster, S. Hawkes, M. Streeter, C. Spindloe, P. McKenna, D. C. Carroll, C. G. Wahlstrom, M. Zepf, D. Adams, B. Dromey, K. Markey, S. Kar, Y. T. Li, M. H. Xu, H. Nagatomo, M. Mori, A. Yogo, H. Kiriyama, K. Ogura, A. Sagisaka, S. Orimo, M. Nishiuchi, H. Sugiyama, T. Z. Esirkepov, H. Okada, S. Kondo, S. Kanazawa, Y. Nakai, A. Akutsu, T. Motomura, M. Tanoue, T. Shimomura, M. Ikegami, I. Daito, M. Kando, T. Kameshima, P. Bolton, S. V. Bulanov, H. Daido, and D. Neely, “Diagnostic of laser contrast using target reflectivity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 241102 (2009).
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M. Nishikino, K. Sato, N. Hasegawa, M. Ishino, S. Ohshima, Y. Okano, T. Kawachi, H. Numasaki, T. Teshima, and H. Nishimura, “Note: application of laser produced plasma K alpha x-ray probe in radiation biology,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 026107 (2010).
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H. Park, D. Chambers, H. Chung, R. Clarke, R. Eagleton, E. Giraldez, T. Goldsack, R. Heathcote, N. Izumi, M. Key, J. King, J. Koch, O. Landen, A. Nikroo, P. Patel, D. Price, B. Remington, H. Robey, R. Snavely, D. Steinman, R. Stephens, C. Stoeckl, M. Storm, M. Tabak, W. Theobald, R. Town, J. Wickersham, and B. Zhang, “High-energy Kα radiography using high-intensity, short-pulse lasers,” Phys. Plasmas 13, 056309 (2006).
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J. Kieffer, A. Krol, Z. Jiang, C. Chamberlain, E. Scalzetti, and Z. Ichalalene, “Future of laser-based X-ray sources for medical imaging,” Appl. Phys. B 74, 75–81 (2002).
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H. B. Cai, K. Mima, A. Sunahara, T. Johzaki, H. Nagatomo, S. P. Zhu, and X. T. He, “Prepulse effects on the generation of high energy electrons in fast ignition scheme,” Phys. Plasmas 17, 023106 (2010).
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K. Sokolowski-Tinten, C. Blome, J. Blums, A. Cavalleri, C. Dietrich, A. Tarasevitch, I. Uschmann, E. Förster, M. Kammler, M. Horn-von-Hoegen, and D. von der Linde, “Femtosecond x-ray measurement of coherent lattice vibrations near the Lindemann stability limit,” Nature 422, 287–289 (2003).
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H. Kiriyama, M. Michiaki, Y. Nakai, T. Shimomura, H. Sasao, M. Tanaka, Y. Ochi, M. Tanoue, H. Okada, S. Kondo, S. Kanazawa, A. Sagisaka, I. Daito, D. Wakai, F. Sasao, M. Suzuki, H. Kotakai, K. Kondo, A. Sugiyama, S. Bulanov, P. R. Bolton, H. Daido, S. Kawanishi, J. L. Collier, C. Hernandez-Gomez, C. J. Hooker, K. Ertel, T. Kimura, and T. Tajima, “High-spatiotemporal-quality petawatt-class laser system,” Appl. Opt. 49, 2105–2115 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. S. Pirozhkov, I. W. Choi, J. H. Sung, S. K. Lee, T. J. Yu, T. M. Jeong, I. J. Kim, N. Hafz, C. M. Kim, K. H. Pae, Y. C. Noh, D. K. Ko, J. Lee, A. P. L. Robinson, P. Foster, S. Hawkes, M. Streeter, C. Spindloe, P. McKenna, D. C. Carroll, C. G. Wahlstrom, M. Zepf, D. Adams, B. Dromey, K. Markey, S. Kar, Y. T. Li, M. H. Xu, H. Nagatomo, M. Mori, A. Yogo, H. Kiriyama, K. Ogura, A. Sagisaka, S. Orimo, M. Nishiuchi, H. Sugiyama, T. Z. Esirkepov, H. Okada, S. Kondo, S. Kanazawa, Y. Nakai, A. Akutsu, T. Motomura, M. Tanoue, T. Shimomura, M. Ikegami, I. Daito, M. Kando, T. Kameshima, P. Bolton, S. V. Bulanov, H. Daido, and D. Neely, “Diagnostic of laser contrast using target reflectivity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 241102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kando, M.

A. S. Pirozhkov, I. W. Choi, J. H. Sung, S. K. Lee, T. J. Yu, T. M. Jeong, I. J. Kim, N. Hafz, C. M. Kim, K. H. Pae, Y. C. Noh, D. K. Ko, J. Lee, A. P. L. Robinson, P. Foster, S. Hawkes, M. Streeter, C. Spindloe, P. McKenna, D. C. Carroll, C. G. Wahlstrom, M. Zepf, D. Adams, B. Dromey, K. Markey, S. Kar, Y. T. Li, M. H. Xu, H. Nagatomo, M. Mori, A. Yogo, H. Kiriyama, K. Ogura, A. Sagisaka, S. Orimo, M. Nishiuchi, H. Sugiyama, T. Z. Esirkepov, H. Okada, S. Kondo, S. Kanazawa, Y. Nakai, A. Akutsu, T. Motomura, M. Tanoue, T. Shimomura, M. Ikegami, I. Daito, M. Kando, T. Kameshima, P. Bolton, S. V. Bulanov, H. Daido, and D. Neely, “Diagnostic of laser contrast using target reflectivity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 241102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kar, S.

A. S. Pirozhkov, I. W. Choi, J. H. Sung, S. K. Lee, T. J. Yu, T. M. Jeong, I. J. Kim, N. Hafz, C. M. Kim, K. H. Pae, Y. C. Noh, D. K. Ko, J. Lee, A. P. L. Robinson, P. Foster, S. Hawkes, M. Streeter, C. Spindloe, P. McKenna, D. C. Carroll, C. G. Wahlstrom, M. Zepf, D. Adams, B. Dromey, K. Markey, S. Kar, Y. T. Li, M. H. Xu, H. Nagatomo, M. Mori, A. Yogo, H. Kiriyama, K. Ogura, A. Sagisaka, S. Orimo, M. Nishiuchi, H. Sugiyama, T. Z. Esirkepov, H. Okada, S. Kondo, S. Kanazawa, Y. Nakai, A. Akutsu, T. Motomura, M. Tanoue, T. Shimomura, M. Ikegami, I. Daito, M. Kando, T. Kameshima, P. Bolton, S. V. Bulanov, H. Daido, and D. Neely, “Diagnostic of laser contrast using target reflectivity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 241102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Katsutoshi, S.

S. Katsutoshi, N. Masaharu, O. Yasuaki, O. Shin-suke, H. Noboru, I. Masahiko, K. Tetsuya, N. Hodaka, T. Teruki, and N. Hiroaki, “γ-H2AX and phosphorylated ATM focus formation in cancer cells after laser plasma X irradiation,” Radiat. Res. 174, 436–445 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kawachi, T.

M. Nishikino, K. Sato, N. Hasegawa, M. Ishino, S. Ohshima, Y. Okano, T. Kawachi, H. Numasaki, T. Teshima, and H. Nishimura, “Note: application of laser produced plasma K alpha x-ray probe in radiation biology,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 026107 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kawanishi, S.

Kemp, A. J.

A. J. Kemp, Y. Sentoku, and M. Tabak, “Hot-electron energy coupling in ultraintense laser-matter interaction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 075004 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Key, M.

H. Park, D. Chambers, H. Chung, R. Clarke, R. Eagleton, E. Giraldez, T. Goldsack, R. Heathcote, N. Izumi, M. Key, J. King, J. Koch, O. Landen, A. Nikroo, P. Patel, D. Price, B. Remington, H. Robey, R. Snavely, D. Steinman, R. Stephens, C. Stoeckl, M. Storm, M. Tabak, W. Theobald, R. Town, J. Wickersham, and B. Zhang, “High-energy Kα radiography using high-intensity, short-pulse lasers,” Phys. Plasmas 13, 056309 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Stephens, R. Snavely, Y. Aglitskiy, F. Amiranoff, C. Andersen, D. Batani, S. Baton, T. Cowan, R. Freeman, T. Hall, S. Hatchett, J. Hill, M. Key, J. King, J. Koch, M. Koenig, A. MacKinnon, K. Lancaster, E. Martinolli, P. Norreys, E. Perelli-Cippo, M. Le Gloahec, C. Rousseaux, J. Santos, and F. Scianitti, “Kα fluorescence measurement of relativistic electron transport in the context of fast ignition,” Phys. Rev. E 69, 066414 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Yasuike, M. Key, S. Hatchett, R. Snavely, and K. Wharton, “Hot electron diagnostic in a solid laser target by K-shell lines measurement from ultraintense laser-plasma interactions (3×1020 W/cm2,≤400 J),” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 1236–1240 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kieffer, J.

L. Chen, P. Forget, S. Fourmaux, J. Kieffer, A. Krol, C. Chamberlain, B. Hou, J. Nees, and G. Mourou, “Study of hard x-ray emission from intense femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser-solid target interactions,” Phys. Plasmas 11, 4439–4445 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Kieffer, A. Krol, Z. Jiang, C. Chamberlain, E. Scalzetti, and Z. Ichalalene, “Future of laser-based X-ray sources for medical imaging,” Appl. Phys. B 74, 75–81 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Yu, Z. Jiang, J. Kieffer, and A. Krol, “Hard x-ray emission in high intensity femtosecond laser-target interaction,” Phys. Plasmas 6, 1318–1322 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kieffer, J. C.

S. Fourmaux, C. Serbanescu, R. E. Kincaid, J. A. Krol, and J. C. Kieffer, “Kα x-ray emission characterization of 100 Hz, 15 mJ femtosecond laser system with high contrast ratio,” Appl. Phys. B 94, 569–575 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kim, C. M.

A. S. Pirozhkov, I. W. Choi, J. H. Sung, S. K. Lee, T. J. Yu, T. M. Jeong, I. J. Kim, N. Hafz, C. M. Kim, K. H. Pae, Y. C. Noh, D. K. Ko, J. Lee, A. P. L. Robinson, P. Foster, S. Hawkes, M. Streeter, C. Spindloe, P. McKenna, D. C. Carroll, C. G. Wahlstrom, M. Zepf, D. Adams, B. Dromey, K. Markey, S. Kar, Y. T. Li, M. H. Xu, H. Nagatomo, M. Mori, A. Yogo, H. Kiriyama, K. Ogura, A. Sagisaka, S. Orimo, M. Nishiuchi, H. Sugiyama, T. Z. Esirkepov, H. Okada, S. Kondo, S. Kanazawa, Y. Nakai, A. Akutsu, T. Motomura, M. Tanoue, T. Shimomura, M. Ikegami, I. Daito, M. Kando, T. Kameshima, P. Bolton, S. V. Bulanov, H. Daido, and D. Neely, “Diagnostic of laser contrast using target reflectivity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 241102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kim, I. J.

A. S. Pirozhkov, I. W. Choi, J. H. Sung, S. K. Lee, T. J. Yu, T. M. Jeong, I. J. Kim, N. Hafz, C. M. Kim, K. H. Pae, Y. C. Noh, D. K. Ko, J. Lee, A. P. L. Robinson, P. Foster, S. Hawkes, M. Streeter, C. Spindloe, P. McKenna, D. C. Carroll, C. G. Wahlstrom, M. Zepf, D. Adams, B. Dromey, K. Markey, S. Kar, Y. T. Li, M. H. Xu, H. Nagatomo, M. Mori, A. Yogo, H. Kiriyama, K. Ogura, A. Sagisaka, S. Orimo, M. Nishiuchi, H. Sugiyama, T. Z. Esirkepov, H. Okada, S. Kondo, S. Kanazawa, Y. Nakai, A. Akutsu, T. Motomura, M. Tanoue, T. Shimomura, M. Ikegami, I. Daito, M. Kando, T. Kameshima, P. Bolton, S. V. Bulanov, H. Daido, and D. Neely, “Diagnostic of laser contrast using target reflectivity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 241102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kimura, T.

Kincaid, R. E.

S. Fourmaux, C. Serbanescu, R. E. Kincaid, J. A. Krol, and J. C. Kieffer, “Kα x-ray emission characterization of 100 Hz, 15 mJ femtosecond laser system with high contrast ratio,” Appl. Phys. B 94, 569–575 (2009).
[CrossRef]

King, J.

H. Park, D. Chambers, H. Chung, R. Clarke, R. Eagleton, E. Giraldez, T. Goldsack, R. Heathcote, N. Izumi, M. Key, J. King, J. Koch, O. Landen, A. Nikroo, P. Patel, D. Price, B. Remington, H. Robey, R. Snavely, D. Steinman, R. Stephens, C. Stoeckl, M. Storm, M. Tabak, W. Theobald, R. Town, J. Wickersham, and B. Zhang, “High-energy Kα radiography using high-intensity, short-pulse lasers,” Phys. Plasmas 13, 056309 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Stephens, R. Snavely, Y. Aglitskiy, F. Amiranoff, C. Andersen, D. Batani, S. Baton, T. Cowan, R. Freeman, T. Hall, S. Hatchett, J. Hill, M. Key, J. King, J. Koch, M. Koenig, A. MacKinnon, K. Lancaster, E. Martinolli, P. Norreys, E. Perelli-Cippo, M. Le Gloahec, C. Rousseaux, J. Santos, and F. Scianitti, “Kα fluorescence measurement of relativistic electron transport in the context of fast ignition,” Phys. Rev. E 69, 066414 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kiriyama, H.

H. Kiriyama, M. Michiaki, Y. Nakai, T. Shimomura, H. Sasao, M. Tanaka, Y. Ochi, M. Tanoue, H. Okada, S. Kondo, S. Kanazawa, A. Sagisaka, I. Daito, D. Wakai, F. Sasao, M. Suzuki, H. Kotakai, K. Kondo, A. Sugiyama, S. Bulanov, P. R. Bolton, H. Daido, S. Kawanishi, J. L. Collier, C. Hernandez-Gomez, C. J. Hooker, K. Ertel, T. Kimura, and T. Tajima, “High-spatiotemporal-quality petawatt-class laser system,” Appl. Opt. 49, 2105–2115 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Kiriyama, M. Mori, Y. Nakai, T. Shimomura, H. Sasao, M. Tanoue, S. Kanazawa, D. Wakai, F. Sasao, H. Okada, I. Daito, M. Suzuki, S. Kondo, K. Kondo, A. Sugiyama, P. R. Bolton, A. Yokoyama, H. Daido, S. Kawanishi, T. Kimura, and T. Tajima, “High temporal and spatial quality petawatt-class Ti:sapphire chirped-pulse amplification laser system,” Opt. Lett. 35, 1497–1499 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. S. Pirozhkov, I. W. Choi, J. H. Sung, S. K. Lee, T. J. Yu, T. M. Jeong, I. J. Kim, N. Hafz, C. M. Kim, K. H. Pae, Y. C. Noh, D. K. Ko, J. Lee, A. P. L. Robinson, P. Foster, S. Hawkes, M. Streeter, C. Spindloe, P. McKenna, D. C. Carroll, C. G. Wahlstrom, M. Zepf, D. Adams, B. Dromey, K. Markey, S. Kar, Y. T. Li, M. H. Xu, H. Nagatomo, M. Mori, A. Yogo, H. Kiriyama, K. Ogura, A. Sagisaka, S. Orimo, M. Nishiuchi, H. Sugiyama, T. Z. Esirkepov, H. Okada, S. Kondo, S. Kanazawa, Y. Nakai, A. Akutsu, T. Motomura, M. Tanoue, T. Shimomura, M. Ikegami, I. Daito, M. Kando, T. Kameshima, P. Bolton, S. V. Bulanov, H. Daido, and D. Neely, “Diagnostic of laser contrast using target reflectivity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 241102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ko, D. K.

A. S. Pirozhkov, I. W. Choi, J. H. Sung, S. K. Lee, T. J. Yu, T. M. Jeong, I. J. Kim, N. Hafz, C. M. Kim, K. H. Pae, Y. C. Noh, D. K. Ko, J. Lee, A. P. L. Robinson, P. Foster, S. Hawkes, M. Streeter, C. Spindloe, P. McKenna, D. C. Carroll, C. G. Wahlstrom, M. Zepf, D. Adams, B. Dromey, K. Markey, S. Kar, Y. T. Li, M. H. Xu, H. Nagatomo, M. Mori, A. Yogo, H. Kiriyama, K. Ogura, A. Sagisaka, S. Orimo, M. Nishiuchi, H. Sugiyama, T. Z. Esirkepov, H. Okada, S. Kondo, S. Kanazawa, Y. Nakai, A. Akutsu, T. Motomura, M. Tanoue, T. Shimomura, M. Ikegami, I. Daito, M. Kando, T. Kameshima, P. Bolton, S. V. Bulanov, H. Daido, and D. Neely, “Diagnostic of laser contrast using target reflectivity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 241102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Koch, J.

H. Park, D. Chambers, H. Chung, R. Clarke, R. Eagleton, E. Giraldez, T. Goldsack, R. Heathcote, N. Izumi, M. Key, J. King, J. Koch, O. Landen, A. Nikroo, P. Patel, D. Price, B. Remington, H. Robey, R. Snavely, D. Steinman, R. Stephens, C. Stoeckl, M. Storm, M. Tabak, W. Theobald, R. Town, J. Wickersham, and B. Zhang, “High-energy Kα radiography using high-intensity, short-pulse lasers,” Phys. Plasmas 13, 056309 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Stephens, R. Snavely, Y. Aglitskiy, F. Amiranoff, C. Andersen, D. Batani, S. Baton, T. Cowan, R. Freeman, T. Hall, S. Hatchett, J. Hill, M. Key, J. King, J. Koch, M. Koenig, A. MacKinnon, K. Lancaster, E. Martinolli, P. Norreys, E. Perelli-Cippo, M. Le Gloahec, C. Rousseaux, J. Santos, and F. Scianitti, “Kα fluorescence measurement of relativistic electron transport in the context of fast ignition,” Phys. Rev. E 69, 066414 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Koenig, M.

R. Stephens, R. Snavely, Y. Aglitskiy, F. Amiranoff, C. Andersen, D. Batani, S. Baton, T. Cowan, R. Freeman, T. Hall, S. Hatchett, J. Hill, M. Key, J. King, J. Koch, M. Koenig, A. MacKinnon, K. Lancaster, E. Martinolli, P. Norreys, E. Perelli-Cippo, M. Le Gloahec, C. Rousseaux, J. Santos, and F. Scianitti, “Kα fluorescence measurement of relativistic electron transport in the context of fast ignition,” Phys. Rev. E 69, 066414 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kondo, K.

Kondo, S.

H. Kiriyama, M. Mori, Y. Nakai, T. Shimomura, H. Sasao, M. Tanoue, S. Kanazawa, D. Wakai, F. Sasao, H. Okada, I. Daito, M. Suzuki, S. Kondo, K. Kondo, A. Sugiyama, P. R. Bolton, A. Yokoyama, H. Daido, S. Kawanishi, T. Kimura, and T. Tajima, “High temporal and spatial quality petawatt-class Ti:sapphire chirped-pulse amplification laser system,” Opt. Lett. 35, 1497–1499 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Kiriyama, M. Michiaki, Y. Nakai, T. Shimomura, H. Sasao, M. Tanaka, Y. Ochi, M. Tanoue, H. Okada, S. Kondo, S. Kanazawa, A. Sagisaka, I. Daito, D. Wakai, F. Sasao, M. Suzuki, H. Kotakai, K. Kondo, A. Sugiyama, S. Bulanov, P. R. Bolton, H. Daido, S. Kawanishi, J. L. Collier, C. Hernandez-Gomez, C. J. Hooker, K. Ertel, T. Kimura, and T. Tajima, “High-spatiotemporal-quality petawatt-class laser system,” Appl. Opt. 49, 2105–2115 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. S. Pirozhkov, I. W. Choi, J. H. Sung, S. K. Lee, T. J. Yu, T. M. Jeong, I. J. Kim, N. Hafz, C. M. Kim, K. H. Pae, Y. C. Noh, D. K. Ko, J. Lee, A. P. L. Robinson, P. Foster, S. Hawkes, M. Streeter, C. Spindloe, P. McKenna, D. C. Carroll, C. G. Wahlstrom, M. Zepf, D. Adams, B. Dromey, K. Markey, S. Kar, Y. T. Li, M. H. Xu, H. Nagatomo, M. Mori, A. Yogo, H. Kiriyama, K. Ogura, A. Sagisaka, S. Orimo, M. Nishiuchi, H. Sugiyama, T. Z. Esirkepov, H. Okada, S. Kondo, S. Kanazawa, Y. Nakai, A. Akutsu, T. Motomura, M. Tanoue, T. Shimomura, M. Ikegami, I. Daito, M. Kando, T. Kameshima, P. Bolton, S. V. Bulanov, H. Daido, and D. Neely, “Diagnostic of laser contrast using target reflectivity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 241102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kotakai, H.

Kritcher, A. L.

A. L. Kritcher, P. Neumayer, C. R. D. Brown, P. Davis, T. Doeppner, R. W. Falcone, D. O. Gericke, G. Gregori, B. Holst, O. L. Landen, H. J. Lee, E. C. Morse, A. Pelka, R. Redmer, M. Roth, J. Vorberger, K. Wuensch, and S. H. Glenzer, “Measurements of ionic structure in shock compressed lithium hydride from ultrafast x-ray Thomson scattering,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 245004 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Krol, A.

L. Chen, P. Forget, S. Fourmaux, J. Kieffer, A. Krol, C. Chamberlain, B. Hou, J. Nees, and G. Mourou, “Study of hard x-ray emission from intense femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser-solid target interactions,” Phys. Plasmas 11, 4439–4445 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Kieffer, A. Krol, Z. Jiang, C. Chamberlain, E. Scalzetti, and Z. Ichalalene, “Future of laser-based X-ray sources for medical imaging,” Appl. Phys. B 74, 75–81 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Yu, Z. Jiang, J. Kieffer, and A. Krol, “Hard x-ray emission in high intensity femtosecond laser-target interaction,” Phys. Plasmas 6, 1318–1322 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Krol, J. A.

S. Fourmaux, C. Serbanescu, R. E. Kincaid, J. A. Krol, and J. C. Kieffer, “Kα x-ray emission characterization of 100 Hz, 15 mJ femtosecond laser system with high contrast ratio,” Appl. Phys. B 94, 569–575 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kruer, W.

S. Wilks, W. Kruer, M. Tabak, and A. Langdon, “Absorption of ultra-intense laser-pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 1383–1386 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lancaster, K.

R. Stephens, R. Snavely, Y. Aglitskiy, F. Amiranoff, C. Andersen, D. Batani, S. Baton, T. Cowan, R. Freeman, T. Hall, S. Hatchett, J. Hill, M. Key, J. King, J. Koch, M. Koenig, A. MacKinnon, K. Lancaster, E. Martinolli, P. Norreys, E. Perelli-Cippo, M. Le Gloahec, C. Rousseaux, J. Santos, and F. Scianitti, “Kα fluorescence measurement of relativistic electron transport in the context of fast ignition,” Phys. Rev. E 69, 066414 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Landen, O.

H. Park, D. Chambers, H. Chung, R. Clarke, R. Eagleton, E. Giraldez, T. Goldsack, R. Heathcote, N. Izumi, M. Key, J. King, J. Koch, O. Landen, A. Nikroo, P. Patel, D. Price, B. Remington, H. Robey, R. Snavely, D. Steinman, R. Stephens, C. Stoeckl, M. Storm, M. Tabak, W. Theobald, R. Town, J. Wickersham, and B. Zhang, “High-energy Kα radiography using high-intensity, short-pulse lasers,” Phys. Plasmas 13, 056309 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Landen, O. L.

A. L. Kritcher, P. Neumayer, C. R. D. Brown, P. Davis, T. Doeppner, R. W. Falcone, D. O. Gericke, G. Gregori, B. Holst, O. L. Landen, H. J. Lee, E. C. Morse, A. Pelka, R. Redmer, M. Roth, J. Vorberger, K. Wuensch, and S. H. Glenzer, “Measurements of ionic structure in shock compressed lithium hydride from ultrafast x-ray Thomson scattering,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 245004 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Langdon, A.

S. Wilks, W. Kruer, M. Tabak, and A. Langdon, “Absorption of ultra-intense laser-pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 1383–1386 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Le Gloahec, M.

R. Stephens, R. Snavely, Y. Aglitskiy, F. Amiranoff, C. Andersen, D. Batani, S. Baton, T. Cowan, R. Freeman, T. Hall, S. Hatchett, J. Hill, M. Key, J. King, J. Koch, M. Koenig, A. MacKinnon, K. Lancaster, E. Martinolli, P. Norreys, E. Perelli-Cippo, M. Le Gloahec, C. Rousseaux, J. Santos, and F. Scianitti, “Kα fluorescence measurement of relativistic electron transport in the context of fast ignition,” Phys. Rev. E 69, 066414 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lee, H. J.

A. L. Kritcher, P. Neumayer, C. R. D. Brown, P. Davis, T. Doeppner, R. W. Falcone, D. O. Gericke, G. Gregori, B. Holst, O. L. Landen, H. J. Lee, E. C. Morse, A. Pelka, R. Redmer, M. Roth, J. Vorberger, K. Wuensch, and S. H. Glenzer, “Measurements of ionic structure in shock compressed lithium hydride from ultrafast x-ray Thomson scattering,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 245004 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J.

A. S. Pirozhkov, I. W. Choi, J. H. Sung, S. K. Lee, T. J. Yu, T. M. Jeong, I. J. Kim, N. Hafz, C. M. Kim, K. H. Pae, Y. C. Noh, D. K. Ko, J. Lee, A. P. L. Robinson, P. Foster, S. Hawkes, M. Streeter, C. Spindloe, P. McKenna, D. C. Carroll, C. G. Wahlstrom, M. Zepf, D. Adams, B. Dromey, K. Markey, S. Kar, Y. T. Li, M. H. Xu, H. Nagatomo, M. Mori, A. Yogo, H. Kiriyama, K. Ogura, A. Sagisaka, S. Orimo, M. Nishiuchi, H. Sugiyama, T. Z. Esirkepov, H. Okada, S. Kondo, S. Kanazawa, Y. Nakai, A. Akutsu, T. Motomura, M. Tanoue, T. Shimomura, M. Ikegami, I. Daito, M. Kando, T. Kameshima, P. Bolton, S. V. Bulanov, H. Daido, and D. Neely, “Diagnostic of laser contrast using target reflectivity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 241102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. K.

A. S. Pirozhkov, I. W. Choi, J. H. Sung, S. K. Lee, T. J. Yu, T. M. Jeong, I. J. Kim, N. Hafz, C. M. Kim, K. H. Pae, Y. C. Noh, D. K. Ko, J. Lee, A. P. L. Robinson, P. Foster, S. Hawkes, M. Streeter, C. Spindloe, P. McKenna, D. C. Carroll, C. G. Wahlstrom, M. Zepf, D. Adams, B. Dromey, K. Markey, S. Kar, Y. T. Li, M. H. Xu, H. Nagatomo, M. Mori, A. Yogo, H. Kiriyama, K. Ogura, A. Sagisaka, S. Orimo, M. Nishiuchi, H. Sugiyama, T. Z. Esirkepov, H. Okada, S. Kondo, S. Kanazawa, Y. Nakai, A. Akutsu, T. Motomura, M. Tanoue, T. Shimomura, M. Ikegami, I. Daito, M. Kando, T. Kameshima, P. Bolton, S. V. Bulanov, H. Daido, and D. Neely, “Diagnostic of laser contrast using target reflectivity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 241102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y.-W.

S. Fujioka, H. Takabe, N. Yamamoto, D. Salzmann, F. Wang, H. Nishimura, Y. Li, Q. Dong, S. Wang, Y. Zhang, Y.-J. Rhee, Y.-W. Lee, J.-M. Han, M. Tanabe, T. Fujiwara, Y. Nakabayashi, G. Zhao, J. Zhang, and K. Mima, “X-ray astronomy in the laboratory with a miniature compact object produced by laser-driven implosion,” Nat. Phys. 5, 821–825 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y.

S. Fujioka, H. Takabe, N. Yamamoto, D. Salzmann, F. Wang, H. Nishimura, Y. Li, Q. Dong, S. Wang, Y. Zhang, Y.-J. Rhee, Y.-W. Lee, J.-M. Han, M. Tanabe, T. Fujiwara, Y. Nakabayashi, G. Zhao, J. Zhang, and K. Mima, “X-ray astronomy in the laboratory with a miniature compact object produced by laser-driven implosion,” Nat. Phys. 5, 821–825 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y. T.

A. S. Pirozhkov, I. W. Choi, J. H. Sung, S. K. Lee, T. J. Yu, T. M. Jeong, I. J. Kim, N. Hafz, C. M. Kim, K. H. Pae, Y. C. Noh, D. K. Ko, J. Lee, A. P. L. Robinson, P. Foster, S. Hawkes, M. Streeter, C. Spindloe, P. McKenna, D. C. Carroll, C. G. Wahlstrom, M. Zepf, D. Adams, B. Dromey, K. Markey, S. Kar, Y. T. Li, M. H. Xu, H. Nagatomo, M. Mori, A. Yogo, H. Kiriyama, K. Ogura, A. Sagisaka, S. Orimo, M. Nishiuchi, H. Sugiyama, T. Z. Esirkepov, H. Okada, S. Kondo, S. Kanazawa, Y. Nakai, A. Akutsu, T. Motomura, M. Tanoue, T. Shimomura, M. Ikegami, I. Daito, M. Kando, T. Kameshima, P. Bolton, S. V. Bulanov, H. Daido, and D. Neely, “Diagnostic of laser contrast using target reflectivity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 241102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lu, W.

W. Lu, M. Nicoul, U. Shymanovich, A. Tarasevitch, P. Zhou, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, D. von der Linde, M. Masek, P. Gibbon, and U. Teubner, “Optimized k alpha x-ray flashes from femtosecond-laser-irradiated foils,” Phys. Rev. E 80, 026404 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ma, T.

B. Westover, A. MacPhee, C. Chen, D. Hey, T. Ma, B. Maddox, H.-S. Park, B. Remington, and F. N. Beg, “Study of silver Kα and bremsstrahlung radiation from short-pulse laser-matter interactions with applications for x-ray radiography,” Phys. Plasmas 17, 082703 (2010).
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MacKinnon, A.

R. Stephens, R. Snavely, Y. Aglitskiy, F. Amiranoff, C. Andersen, D. Batani, S. Baton, T. Cowan, R. Freeman, T. Hall, S. Hatchett, J. Hill, M. Key, J. King, J. Koch, M. Koenig, A. MacKinnon, K. Lancaster, E. Martinolli, P. Norreys, E. Perelli-Cippo, M. Le Gloahec, C. Rousseaux, J. Santos, and F. Scianitti, “Kα fluorescence measurement of relativistic electron transport in the context of fast ignition,” Phys. Rev. E 69, 066414 (2004).
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MacPhee, A.

B. Westover, A. MacPhee, C. Chen, D. Hey, T. Ma, B. Maddox, H.-S. Park, B. Remington, and F. N. Beg, “Study of silver Kα and bremsstrahlung radiation from short-pulse laser-matter interactions with applications for x-ray radiography,” Phys. Plasmas 17, 082703 (2010).
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Maddox, B.

B. Westover, A. MacPhee, C. Chen, D. Hey, T. Ma, B. Maddox, H.-S. Park, B. Remington, and F. N. Beg, “Study of silver Kα and bremsstrahlung radiation from short-pulse laser-matter interactions with applications for x-ray radiography,” Phys. Plasmas 17, 082703 (2010).
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Malka, G.

T. Feurer, W. Theobald, R. Sauerbrey, I. Uschmann, D. Altenbernd, U. Teubner, P. Gibbon, E. Forster, G. Malka, and J. Miquel, “Onset of diffuse reflectivity and fast electron flux inhibition in 528-nm-laser solid interactions at ultrahigh intensity,” Phys. Rev. E 56, 4608–4614 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Markey, K.

A. S. Pirozhkov, I. W. Choi, J. H. Sung, S. K. Lee, T. J. Yu, T. M. Jeong, I. J. Kim, N. Hafz, C. M. Kim, K. H. Pae, Y. C. Noh, D. K. Ko, J. Lee, A. P. L. Robinson, P. Foster, S. Hawkes, M. Streeter, C. Spindloe, P. McKenna, D. C. Carroll, C. G. Wahlstrom, M. Zepf, D. Adams, B. Dromey, K. Markey, S. Kar, Y. T. Li, M. H. Xu, H. Nagatomo, M. Mori, A. Yogo, H. Kiriyama, K. Ogura, A. Sagisaka, S. Orimo, M. Nishiuchi, H. Sugiyama, T. Z. Esirkepov, H. Okada, S. Kondo, S. Kanazawa, Y. Nakai, A. Akutsu, T. Motomura, M. Tanoue, T. Shimomura, M. Ikegami, I. Daito, M. Kando, T. Kameshima, P. Bolton, S. V. Bulanov, H. Daido, and D. Neely, “Diagnostic of laser contrast using target reflectivity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 241102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Martinolli, E.

R. Stephens, R. Snavely, Y. Aglitskiy, F. Amiranoff, C. Andersen, D. Batani, S. Baton, T. Cowan, R. Freeman, T. Hall, S. Hatchett, J. Hill, M. Key, J. King, J. Koch, M. Koenig, A. MacKinnon, K. Lancaster, E. Martinolli, P. Norreys, E. Perelli-Cippo, M. Le Gloahec, C. Rousseaux, J. Santos, and F. Scianitti, “Kα fluorescence measurement of relativistic electron transport in the context of fast ignition,” Phys. Rev. E 69, 066414 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Masaharu, N.

S. Katsutoshi, N. Masaharu, O. Yasuaki, O. Shin-suke, H. Noboru, I. Masahiko, K. Tetsuya, N. Hodaka, T. Teruki, and N. Hiroaki, “γ-H2AX and phosphorylated ATM focus formation in cancer cells after laser plasma X irradiation,” Radiat. Res. 174, 436–445 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Masahiko, I.

S. Katsutoshi, N. Masaharu, O. Yasuaki, O. Shin-suke, H. Noboru, I. Masahiko, K. Tetsuya, N. Hodaka, T. Teruki, and N. Hiroaki, “γ-H2AX and phosphorylated ATM focus formation in cancer cells after laser plasma X irradiation,” Radiat. Res. 174, 436–445 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Masek, M.

W. Lu, M. Nicoul, U. Shymanovich, A. Tarasevitch, P. Zhou, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, D. von der Linde, M. Masek, P. Gibbon, and U. Teubner, “Optimized k alpha x-ray flashes from femtosecond-laser-irradiated foils,” Phys. Rev. E 80, 026404 (2009).
[CrossRef]

McKenna, P.

A. S. Pirozhkov, I. W. Choi, J. H. Sung, S. K. Lee, T. J. Yu, T. M. Jeong, I. J. Kim, N. Hafz, C. M. Kim, K. H. Pae, Y. C. Noh, D. K. Ko, J. Lee, A. P. L. Robinson, P. Foster, S. Hawkes, M. Streeter, C. Spindloe, P. McKenna, D. C. Carroll, C. G. Wahlstrom, M. Zepf, D. Adams, B. Dromey, K. Markey, S. Kar, Y. T. Li, M. H. Xu, H. Nagatomo, M. Mori, A. Yogo, H. Kiriyama, K. Ogura, A. Sagisaka, S. Orimo, M. Nishiuchi, H. Sugiyama, T. Z. Esirkepov, H. Okada, S. Kondo, S. Kanazawa, Y. Nakai, A. Akutsu, T. Motomura, M. Tanoue, T. Shimomura, M. Ikegami, I. Daito, M. Kando, T. Kameshima, P. Bolton, S. V. Bulanov, H. Daido, and D. Neely, “Diagnostic of laser contrast using target reflectivity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 241102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Michiaki, M.

Mima, K.

H. B. Cai, K. Mima, A. Sunahara, T. Johzaki, H. Nagatomo, S. P. Zhu, and X. T. He, “Prepulse effects on the generation of high energy electrons in fast ignition scheme,” Phys. Plasmas 17, 023106 (2010).
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S. Fujioka, H. Takabe, N. Yamamoto, D. Salzmann, F. Wang, H. Nishimura, Y. Li, Q. Dong, S. Wang, Y. Zhang, Y.-J. Rhee, Y.-W. Lee, J.-M. Han, M. Tanabe, T. Fujiwara, Y. Nakabayashi, G. Zhao, J. Zhang, and K. Mima, “X-ray astronomy in the laboratory with a miniature compact object produced by laser-driven implosion,” Nat. Phys. 5, 821–825 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Miquel, J.

T. Feurer, W. Theobald, R. Sauerbrey, I. Uschmann, D. Altenbernd, U. Teubner, P. Gibbon, E. Forster, G. Malka, and J. Miquel, “Onset of diffuse reflectivity and fast electron flux inhibition in 528-nm-laser solid interactions at ultrahigh intensity,” Phys. Rev. E 56, 4608–4614 (1997).
[CrossRef]

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S. Moon and D. Eder, “Theoretical investigation of an ultrashort-pulse coherent x-ray source at 45 angstrom,” Phys. Rev. A 57, 1391 (1998).
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Mori, M.

H. Kiriyama, M. Mori, Y. Nakai, T. Shimomura, H. Sasao, M. Tanoue, S. Kanazawa, D. Wakai, F. Sasao, H. Okada, I. Daito, M. Suzuki, S. Kondo, K. Kondo, A. Sugiyama, P. R. Bolton, A. Yokoyama, H. Daido, S. Kawanishi, T. Kimura, and T. Tajima, “High temporal and spatial quality petawatt-class Ti:sapphire chirped-pulse amplification laser system,” Opt. Lett. 35, 1497–1499 (2010).
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A. S. Pirozhkov, I. W. Choi, J. H. Sung, S. K. Lee, T. J. Yu, T. M. Jeong, I. J. Kim, N. Hafz, C. M. Kim, K. H. Pae, Y. C. Noh, D. K. Ko, J. Lee, A. P. L. Robinson, P. Foster, S. Hawkes, M. Streeter, C. Spindloe, P. McKenna, D. C. Carroll, C. G. Wahlstrom, M. Zepf, D. Adams, B. Dromey, K. Markey, S. Kar, Y. T. Li, M. H. Xu, H. Nagatomo, M. Mori, A. Yogo, H. Kiriyama, K. Ogura, A. Sagisaka, S. Orimo, M. Nishiuchi, H. Sugiyama, T. Z. Esirkepov, H. Okada, S. Kondo, S. Kanazawa, Y. Nakai, A. Akutsu, T. Motomura, M. Tanoue, T. Shimomura, M. Ikegami, I. Daito, M. Kando, T. Kameshima, P. Bolton, S. V. Bulanov, H. Daido, and D. Neely, “Diagnostic of laser contrast using target reflectivity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 241102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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A. L. Kritcher, P. Neumayer, C. R. D. Brown, P. Davis, T. Doeppner, R. W. Falcone, D. O. Gericke, G. Gregori, B. Holst, O. L. Landen, H. J. Lee, E. C. Morse, A. Pelka, R. Redmer, M. Roth, J. Vorberger, K. Wuensch, and S. H. Glenzer, “Measurements of ionic structure in shock compressed lithium hydride from ultrafast x-ray Thomson scattering,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 245004 (2009).
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Motomura, T.

A. S. Pirozhkov, I. W. Choi, J. H. Sung, S. K. Lee, T. J. Yu, T. M. Jeong, I. J. Kim, N. Hafz, C. M. Kim, K. H. Pae, Y. C. Noh, D. K. Ko, J. Lee, A. P. L. Robinson, P. Foster, S. Hawkes, M. Streeter, C. Spindloe, P. McKenna, D. C. Carroll, C. G. Wahlstrom, M. Zepf, D. Adams, B. Dromey, K. Markey, S. Kar, Y. T. Li, M. H. Xu, H. Nagatomo, M. Mori, A. Yogo, H. Kiriyama, K. Ogura, A. Sagisaka, S. Orimo, M. Nishiuchi, H. Sugiyama, T. Z. Esirkepov, H. Okada, S. Kondo, S. Kanazawa, Y. Nakai, A. Akutsu, T. Motomura, M. Tanoue, T. Shimomura, M. Ikegami, I. Daito, M. Kando, T. Kameshima, P. Bolton, S. V. Bulanov, H. Daido, and D. Neely, “Diagnostic of laser contrast using target reflectivity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 241102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mourou, G.

L. Chen, P. Forget, S. Fourmaux, J. Kieffer, A. Krol, C. Chamberlain, B. Hou, J. Nees, and G. Mourou, “Study of hard x-ray emission from intense femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser-solid target interactions,” Phys. Plasmas 11, 4439–4445 (2004).
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M. Cerchez, R. Jung, J. Osterholz, T. Toncian, O. Willi, P. Mulser, and H. Ruhl, “Absorption of ultrashort laser pulses in strongly overdense targets,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 245001 (2008).
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Nagatomo, H.

H. B. Cai, K. Mima, A. Sunahara, T. Johzaki, H. Nagatomo, S. P. Zhu, and X. T. He, “Prepulse effects on the generation of high energy electrons in fast ignition scheme,” Phys. Plasmas 17, 023106 (2010).
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A. S. Pirozhkov, I. W. Choi, J. H. Sung, S. K. Lee, T. J. Yu, T. M. Jeong, I. J. Kim, N. Hafz, C. M. Kim, K. H. Pae, Y. C. Noh, D. K. Ko, J. Lee, A. P. L. Robinson, P. Foster, S. Hawkes, M. Streeter, C. Spindloe, P. McKenna, D. C. Carroll, C. G. Wahlstrom, M. Zepf, D. Adams, B. Dromey, K. Markey, S. Kar, Y. T. Li, M. H. Xu, H. Nagatomo, M. Mori, A. Yogo, H. Kiriyama, K. Ogura, A. Sagisaka, S. Orimo, M. Nishiuchi, H. Sugiyama, T. Z. Esirkepov, H. Okada, S. Kondo, S. Kanazawa, Y. Nakai, A. Akutsu, T. Motomura, M. Tanoue, T. Shimomura, M. Ikegami, I. Daito, M. Kando, T. Kameshima, P. Bolton, S. V. Bulanov, H. Daido, and D. Neely, “Diagnostic of laser contrast using target reflectivity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 241102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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S. Fujioka, H. Takabe, N. Yamamoto, D. Salzmann, F. Wang, H. Nishimura, Y. Li, Q. Dong, S. Wang, Y. Zhang, Y.-J. Rhee, Y.-W. Lee, J.-M. Han, M. Tanabe, T. Fujiwara, Y. Nakabayashi, G. Zhao, J. Zhang, and K. Mima, “X-ray astronomy in the laboratory with a miniature compact object produced by laser-driven implosion,” Nat. Phys. 5, 821–825 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nakai, Y.

H. Kiriyama, M. Mori, Y. Nakai, T. Shimomura, H. Sasao, M. Tanoue, S. Kanazawa, D. Wakai, F. Sasao, H. Okada, I. Daito, M. Suzuki, S. Kondo, K. Kondo, A. Sugiyama, P. R. Bolton, A. Yokoyama, H. Daido, S. Kawanishi, T. Kimura, and T. Tajima, “High temporal and spatial quality petawatt-class Ti:sapphire chirped-pulse amplification laser system,” Opt. Lett. 35, 1497–1499 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Kiriyama, M. Michiaki, Y. Nakai, T. Shimomura, H. Sasao, M. Tanaka, Y. Ochi, M. Tanoue, H. Okada, S. Kondo, S. Kanazawa, A. Sagisaka, I. Daito, D. Wakai, F. Sasao, M. Suzuki, H. Kotakai, K. Kondo, A. Sugiyama, S. Bulanov, P. R. Bolton, H. Daido, S. Kawanishi, J. L. Collier, C. Hernandez-Gomez, C. J. Hooker, K. Ertel, T. Kimura, and T. Tajima, “High-spatiotemporal-quality petawatt-class laser system,” Appl. Opt. 49, 2105–2115 (2010).
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A. S. Pirozhkov, I. W. Choi, J. H. Sung, S. K. Lee, T. J. Yu, T. M. Jeong, I. J. Kim, N. Hafz, C. M. Kim, K. H. Pae, Y. C. Noh, D. K. Ko, J. Lee, A. P. L. Robinson, P. Foster, S. Hawkes, M. Streeter, C. Spindloe, P. McKenna, D. C. Carroll, C. G. Wahlstrom, M. Zepf, D. Adams, B. Dromey, K. Markey, S. Kar, Y. T. Li, M. H. Xu, H. Nagatomo, M. Mori, A. Yogo, H. Kiriyama, K. Ogura, A. Sagisaka, S. Orimo, M. Nishiuchi, H. Sugiyama, T. Z. Esirkepov, H. Okada, S. Kondo, S. Kanazawa, Y. Nakai, A. Akutsu, T. Motomura, M. Tanoue, T. Shimomura, M. Ikegami, I. Daito, M. Kando, T. Kameshima, P. Bolton, S. V. Bulanov, H. Daido, and D. Neely, “Diagnostic of laser contrast using target reflectivity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 241102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Neely, D.

A. S. Pirozhkov, I. W. Choi, J. H. Sung, S. K. Lee, T. J. Yu, T. M. Jeong, I. J. Kim, N. Hafz, C. M. Kim, K. H. Pae, Y. C. Noh, D. K. Ko, J. Lee, A. P. L. Robinson, P. Foster, S. Hawkes, M. Streeter, C. Spindloe, P. McKenna, D. C. Carroll, C. G. Wahlstrom, M. Zepf, D. Adams, B. Dromey, K. Markey, S. Kar, Y. T. Li, M. H. Xu, H. Nagatomo, M. Mori, A. Yogo, H. Kiriyama, K. Ogura, A. Sagisaka, S. Orimo, M. Nishiuchi, H. Sugiyama, T. Z. Esirkepov, H. Okada, S. Kondo, S. Kanazawa, Y. Nakai, A. Akutsu, T. Motomura, M. Tanoue, T. Shimomura, M. Ikegami, I. Daito, M. Kando, T. Kameshima, P. Bolton, S. V. Bulanov, H. Daido, and D. Neely, “Diagnostic of laser contrast using target reflectivity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 241102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nees, J.

L. Chen, P. Forget, S. Fourmaux, J. Kieffer, A. Krol, C. Chamberlain, B. Hou, J. Nees, and G. Mourou, “Study of hard x-ray emission from intense femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser-solid target interactions,” Phys. Plasmas 11, 4439–4445 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Neumayer, P.

A. L. Kritcher, P. Neumayer, C. R. D. Brown, P. Davis, T. Doeppner, R. W. Falcone, D. O. Gericke, G. Gregori, B. Holst, O. L. Landen, H. J. Lee, E. C. Morse, A. Pelka, R. Redmer, M. Roth, J. Vorberger, K. Wuensch, and S. H. Glenzer, “Measurements of ionic structure in shock compressed lithium hydride from ultrafast x-ray Thomson scattering,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 245004 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nicoul, M.

W. Lu, M. Nicoul, U. Shymanovich, A. Tarasevitch, P. Zhou, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, D. von der Linde, M. Masek, P. Gibbon, and U. Teubner, “Optimized k alpha x-ray flashes from femtosecond-laser-irradiated foils,” Phys. Rev. E 80, 026404 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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H. Park, D. Chambers, H. Chung, R. Clarke, R. Eagleton, E. Giraldez, T. Goldsack, R. Heathcote, N. Izumi, M. Key, J. King, J. Koch, O. Landen, A. Nikroo, P. Patel, D. Price, B. Remington, H. Robey, R. Snavely, D. Steinman, R. Stephens, C. Stoeckl, M. Storm, M. Tabak, W. Theobald, R. Town, J. Wickersham, and B. Zhang, “High-energy Kα radiography using high-intensity, short-pulse lasers,” Phys. Plasmas 13, 056309 (2006).
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Nishikino, M.

M. Nishikino, K. Sato, N. Hasegawa, M. Ishino, S. Ohshima, Y. Okano, T. Kawachi, H. Numasaki, T. Teshima, and H. Nishimura, “Note: application of laser produced plasma K alpha x-ray probe in radiation biology,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 026107 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nishimura, H.

M. Nishikino, K. Sato, N. Hasegawa, M. Ishino, S. Ohshima, Y. Okano, T. Kawachi, H. Numasaki, T. Teshima, and H. Nishimura, “Note: application of laser produced plasma K alpha x-ray probe in radiation biology,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 026107 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Fujioka, H. Takabe, N. Yamamoto, D. Salzmann, F. Wang, H. Nishimura, Y. Li, Q. Dong, S. Wang, Y. Zhang, Y.-J. Rhee, Y.-W. Lee, J.-M. Han, M. Tanabe, T. Fujiwara, Y. Nakabayashi, G. Zhao, J. Zhang, and K. Mima, “X-ray astronomy in the laboratory with a miniature compact object produced by laser-driven implosion,” Nat. Phys. 5, 821–825 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nishiuchi, M.

A. S. Pirozhkov, I. W. Choi, J. H. Sung, S. K. Lee, T. J. Yu, T. M. Jeong, I. J. Kim, N. Hafz, C. M. Kim, K. H. Pae, Y. C. Noh, D. K. Ko, J. Lee, A. P. L. Robinson, P. Foster, S. Hawkes, M. Streeter, C. Spindloe, P. McKenna, D. C. Carroll, C. G. Wahlstrom, M. Zepf, D. Adams, B. Dromey, K. Markey, S. Kar, Y. T. Li, M. H. Xu, H. Nagatomo, M. Mori, A. Yogo, H. Kiriyama, K. Ogura, A. Sagisaka, S. Orimo, M. Nishiuchi, H. Sugiyama, T. Z. Esirkepov, H. Okada, S. Kondo, S. Kanazawa, Y. Nakai, A. Akutsu, T. Motomura, M. Tanoue, T. Shimomura, M. Ikegami, I. Daito, M. Kando, T. Kameshima, P. Bolton, S. V. Bulanov, H. Daido, and D. Neely, “Diagnostic of laser contrast using target reflectivity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 241102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Noboru, H.

S. Katsutoshi, N. Masaharu, O. Yasuaki, O. Shin-suke, H. Noboru, I. Masahiko, K. Tetsuya, N. Hodaka, T. Teruki, and N. Hiroaki, “γ-H2AX and phosphorylated ATM focus formation in cancer cells after laser plasma X irradiation,” Radiat. Res. 174, 436–445 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Noh, Y. C.

A. S. Pirozhkov, I. W. Choi, J. H. Sung, S. K. Lee, T. J. Yu, T. M. Jeong, I. J. Kim, N. Hafz, C. M. Kim, K. H. Pae, Y. C. Noh, D. K. Ko, J. Lee, A. P. L. Robinson, P. Foster, S. Hawkes, M. Streeter, C. Spindloe, P. McKenna, D. C. Carroll, C. G. Wahlstrom, M. Zepf, D. Adams, B. Dromey, K. Markey, S. Kar, Y. T. Li, M. H. Xu, H. Nagatomo, M. Mori, A. Yogo, H. Kiriyama, K. Ogura, A. Sagisaka, S. Orimo, M. Nishiuchi, H. Sugiyama, T. Z. Esirkepov, H. Okada, S. Kondo, S. Kanazawa, Y. Nakai, A. Akutsu, T. Motomura, M. Tanoue, T. Shimomura, M. Ikegami, I. Daito, M. Kando, T. Kameshima, P. Bolton, S. V. Bulanov, H. Daido, and D. Neely, “Diagnostic of laser contrast using target reflectivity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 241102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Norreys, P.

R. Stephens, R. Snavely, Y. Aglitskiy, F. Amiranoff, C. Andersen, D. Batani, S. Baton, T. Cowan, R. Freeman, T. Hall, S. Hatchett, J. Hill, M. Key, J. King, J. Koch, M. Koenig, A. MacKinnon, K. Lancaster, E. Martinolli, P. Norreys, E. Perelli-Cippo, M. Le Gloahec, C. Rousseaux, J. Santos, and F. Scianitti, “Kα fluorescence measurement of relativistic electron transport in the context of fast ignition,” Phys. Rev. E 69, 066414 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Numasaki, H.

M. Nishikino, K. Sato, N. Hasegawa, M. Ishino, S. Ohshima, Y. Okano, T. Kawachi, H. Numasaki, T. Teshima, and H. Nishimura, “Note: application of laser produced plasma K alpha x-ray probe in radiation biology,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 026107 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ochi, Y.

Ogura, K.

A. S. Pirozhkov, I. W. Choi, J. H. Sung, S. K. Lee, T. J. Yu, T. M. Jeong, I. J. Kim, N. Hafz, C. M. Kim, K. H. Pae, Y. C. Noh, D. K. Ko, J. Lee, A. P. L. Robinson, P. Foster, S. Hawkes, M. Streeter, C. Spindloe, P. McKenna, D. C. Carroll, C. G. Wahlstrom, M. Zepf, D. Adams, B. Dromey, K. Markey, S. Kar, Y. T. Li, M. H. Xu, H. Nagatomo, M. Mori, A. Yogo, H. Kiriyama, K. Ogura, A. Sagisaka, S. Orimo, M. Nishiuchi, H. Sugiyama, T. Z. Esirkepov, H. Okada, S. Kondo, S. Kanazawa, Y. Nakai, A. Akutsu, T. Motomura, M. Tanoue, T. Shimomura, M. Ikegami, I. Daito, M. Kando, T. Kameshima, P. Bolton, S. V. Bulanov, H. Daido, and D. Neely, “Diagnostic of laser contrast using target reflectivity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 241102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ohshima, S.

M. Nishikino, K. Sato, N. Hasegawa, M. Ishino, S. Ohshima, Y. Okano, T. Kawachi, H. Numasaki, T. Teshima, and H. Nishimura, “Note: application of laser produced plasma K alpha x-ray probe in radiation biology,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 026107 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Okada, H.

H. Kiriyama, M. Michiaki, Y. Nakai, T. Shimomura, H. Sasao, M. Tanaka, Y. Ochi, M. Tanoue, H. Okada, S. Kondo, S. Kanazawa, A. Sagisaka, I. Daito, D. Wakai, F. Sasao, M. Suzuki, H. Kotakai, K. Kondo, A. Sugiyama, S. Bulanov, P. R. Bolton, H. Daido, S. Kawanishi, J. L. Collier, C. Hernandez-Gomez, C. J. Hooker, K. Ertel, T. Kimura, and T. Tajima, “High-spatiotemporal-quality petawatt-class laser system,” Appl. Opt. 49, 2105–2115 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Kiriyama, M. Mori, Y. Nakai, T. Shimomura, H. Sasao, M. Tanoue, S. Kanazawa, D. Wakai, F. Sasao, H. Okada, I. Daito, M. Suzuki, S. Kondo, K. Kondo, A. Sugiyama, P. R. Bolton, A. Yokoyama, H. Daido, S. Kawanishi, T. Kimura, and T. Tajima, “High temporal and spatial quality petawatt-class Ti:sapphire chirped-pulse amplification laser system,” Opt. Lett. 35, 1497–1499 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. S. Pirozhkov, I. W. Choi, J. H. Sung, S. K. Lee, T. J. Yu, T. M. Jeong, I. J. Kim, N. Hafz, C. M. Kim, K. H. Pae, Y. C. Noh, D. K. Ko, J. Lee, A. P. L. Robinson, P. Foster, S. Hawkes, M. Streeter, C. Spindloe, P. McKenna, D. C. Carroll, C. G. Wahlstrom, M. Zepf, D. Adams, B. Dromey, K. Markey, S. Kar, Y. T. Li, M. H. Xu, H. Nagatomo, M. Mori, A. Yogo, H. Kiriyama, K. Ogura, A. Sagisaka, S. Orimo, M. Nishiuchi, H. Sugiyama, T. Z. Esirkepov, H. Okada, S. Kondo, S. Kanazawa, Y. Nakai, A. Akutsu, T. Motomura, M. Tanoue, T. Shimomura, M. Ikegami, I. Daito, M. Kando, T. Kameshima, P. Bolton, S. V. Bulanov, H. Daido, and D. Neely, “Diagnostic of laser contrast using target reflectivity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 241102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Okano, Y.

M. Nishikino, K. Sato, N. Hasegawa, M. Ishino, S. Ohshima, Y. Okano, T. Kawachi, H. Numasaki, T. Teshima, and H. Nishimura, “Note: application of laser produced plasma K alpha x-ray probe in radiation biology,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 026107 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Orimo, S.

A. S. Pirozhkov, I. W. Choi, J. H. Sung, S. K. Lee, T. J. Yu, T. M. Jeong, I. J. Kim, N. Hafz, C. M. Kim, K. H. Pae, Y. C. Noh, D. K. Ko, J. Lee, A. P. L. Robinson, P. Foster, S. Hawkes, M. Streeter, C. Spindloe, P. McKenna, D. C. Carroll, C. G. Wahlstrom, M. Zepf, D. Adams, B. Dromey, K. Markey, S. Kar, Y. T. Li, M. H. Xu, H. Nagatomo, M. Mori, A. Yogo, H. Kiriyama, K. Ogura, A. Sagisaka, S. Orimo, M. Nishiuchi, H. Sugiyama, T. Z. Esirkepov, H. Okada, S. Kondo, S. Kanazawa, Y. Nakai, A. Akutsu, T. Motomura, M. Tanoue, T. Shimomura, M. Ikegami, I. Daito, M. Kando, T. Kameshima, P. Bolton, S. V. Bulanov, H. Daido, and D. Neely, “Diagnostic of laser contrast using target reflectivity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 241102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Osterholz, J.

M. Cerchez, R. Jung, J. Osterholz, T. Toncian, O. Willi, P. Mulser, and H. Ruhl, “Absorption of ultrashort laser pulses in strongly overdense targets,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 245001 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pae, K. H.

A. S. Pirozhkov, I. W. Choi, J. H. Sung, S. K. Lee, T. J. Yu, T. M. Jeong, I. J. Kim, N. Hafz, C. M. Kim, K. H. Pae, Y. C. Noh, D. K. Ko, J. Lee, A. P. L. Robinson, P. Foster, S. Hawkes, M. Streeter, C. Spindloe, P. McKenna, D. C. Carroll, C. G. Wahlstrom, M. Zepf, D. Adams, B. Dromey, K. Markey, S. Kar, Y. T. Li, M. H. Xu, H. Nagatomo, M. Mori, A. Yogo, H. Kiriyama, K. Ogura, A. Sagisaka, S. Orimo, M. Nishiuchi, H. Sugiyama, T. Z. Esirkepov, H. Okada, S. Kondo, S. Kanazawa, Y. Nakai, A. Akutsu, T. Motomura, M. Tanoue, T. Shimomura, M. Ikegami, I. Daito, M. Kando, T. Kameshima, P. Bolton, S. V. Bulanov, H. Daido, and D. Neely, “Diagnostic of laser contrast using target reflectivity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 241102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Park, H.

H. Park, D. Chambers, H. Chung, R. Clarke, R. Eagleton, E. Giraldez, T. Goldsack, R. Heathcote, N. Izumi, M. Key, J. King, J. Koch, O. Landen, A. Nikroo, P. Patel, D. Price, B. Remington, H. Robey, R. Snavely, D. Steinman, R. Stephens, C. Stoeckl, M. Storm, M. Tabak, W. Theobald, R. Town, J. Wickersham, and B. Zhang, “High-energy Kα radiography using high-intensity, short-pulse lasers,” Phys. Plasmas 13, 056309 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Park, H.-S.

B. Westover, A. MacPhee, C. Chen, D. Hey, T. Ma, B. Maddox, H.-S. Park, B. Remington, and F. N. Beg, “Study of silver Kα and bremsstrahlung radiation from short-pulse laser-matter interactions with applications for x-ray radiography,” Phys. Plasmas 17, 082703 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Patel, P.

H. Park, D. Chambers, H. Chung, R. Clarke, R. Eagleton, E. Giraldez, T. Goldsack, R. Heathcote, N. Izumi, M. Key, J. King, J. Koch, O. Landen, A. Nikroo, P. Patel, D. Price, B. Remington, H. Robey, R. Snavely, D. Steinman, R. Stephens, C. Stoeckl, M. Storm, M. Tabak, W. Theobald, R. Town, J. Wickersham, and B. Zhang, “High-energy Kα radiography using high-intensity, short-pulse lasers,” Phys. Plasmas 13, 056309 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pelka, A.

A. L. Kritcher, P. Neumayer, C. R. D. Brown, P. Davis, T. Doeppner, R. W. Falcone, D. O. Gericke, G. Gregori, B. Holst, O. L. Landen, H. J. Lee, E. C. Morse, A. Pelka, R. Redmer, M. Roth, J. Vorberger, K. Wuensch, and S. H. Glenzer, “Measurements of ionic structure in shock compressed lithium hydride from ultrafast x-ray Thomson scattering,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 245004 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Perelli-Cippo, E.

R. Stephens, R. Snavely, Y. Aglitskiy, F. Amiranoff, C. Andersen, D. Batani, S. Baton, T. Cowan, R. Freeman, T. Hall, S. Hatchett, J. Hill, M. Key, J. King, J. Koch, M. Koenig, A. MacKinnon, K. Lancaster, E. Martinolli, P. Norreys, E. Perelli-Cippo, M. Le Gloahec, C. Rousseaux, J. Santos, and F. Scianitti, “Kα fluorescence measurement of relativistic electron transport in the context of fast ignition,” Phys. Rev. E 69, 066414 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Petit, S.

C. Fourment, N. Arazam, C. Bonte, T. Caillaud, D. Descamps, F. Dorchies, M. Harmand, S. Hulin, S. Petit, and J. J. Santos, “Broadband, high dynamics and high resolution charge coupled device-based spectrometer in dynamic mode for multi-keV repetitive x-ray sources,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 80, 083505 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pirozhkov, A. S.

A. S. Pirozhkov, I. W. Choi, J. H. Sung, S. K. Lee, T. J. Yu, T. M. Jeong, I. J. Kim, N. Hafz, C. M. Kim, K. H. Pae, Y. C. Noh, D. K. Ko, J. Lee, A. P. L. Robinson, P. Foster, S. Hawkes, M. Streeter, C. Spindloe, P. McKenna, D. C. Carroll, C. G. Wahlstrom, M. Zepf, D. Adams, B. Dromey, K. Markey, S. Kar, Y. T. Li, M. H. Xu, H. Nagatomo, M. Mori, A. Yogo, H. Kiriyama, K. Ogura, A. Sagisaka, S. Orimo, M. Nishiuchi, H. Sugiyama, T. Z. Esirkepov, H. Okada, S. Kondo, S. Kanazawa, Y. Nakai, A. Akutsu, T. Motomura, M. Tanoue, T. Shimomura, M. Ikegami, I. Daito, M. Kando, T. Kameshima, P. Bolton, S. V. Bulanov, H. Daido, and D. Neely, “Diagnostic of laser contrast using target reflectivity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 241102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Price, D.

H. Park, D. Chambers, H. Chung, R. Clarke, R. Eagleton, E. Giraldez, T. Goldsack, R. Heathcote, N. Izumi, M. Key, J. King, J. Koch, O. Landen, A. Nikroo, P. Patel, D. Price, B. Remington, H. Robey, R. Snavely, D. Steinman, R. Stephens, C. Stoeckl, M. Storm, M. Tabak, W. Theobald, R. Town, J. Wickersham, and B. Zhang, “High-energy Kα radiography using high-intensity, short-pulse lasers,” Phys. Plasmas 13, 056309 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Quoix, C.

S. Bastiani, A. Rousse, J. Geindre, P. Audebert, C. Quoix, G. Hamoniaux, A. Antonetti, and J. Gauthier, “Experimental study of the interaction of subpicosecond laser pulses with solid targets of varying initial scale lengths,” Phys. Rev. E 56, 7179–7185 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Redmer, R.

A. L. Kritcher, P. Neumayer, C. R. D. Brown, P. Davis, T. Doeppner, R. W. Falcone, D. O. Gericke, G. Gregori, B. Holst, O. L. Landen, H. J. Lee, E. C. Morse, A. Pelka, R. Redmer, M. Roth, J. Vorberger, K. Wuensch, and S. H. Glenzer, “Measurements of ionic structure in shock compressed lithium hydride from ultrafast x-ray Thomson scattering,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 245004 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Reich, C.

D. Salzmann, C. Reich, I. Uschmann, E. Forster, and P. Gibbon, “Theory of Kα generation by femtosecond laser-produced hot electrons in thin foils,” Phys. Rev. E 65, 036402 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Remington, B.

B. Westover, A. MacPhee, C. Chen, D. Hey, T. Ma, B. Maddox, H.-S. Park, B. Remington, and F. N. Beg, “Study of silver Kα and bremsstrahlung radiation from short-pulse laser-matter interactions with applications for x-ray radiography,” Phys. Plasmas 17, 082703 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Park, D. Chambers, H. Chung, R. Clarke, R. Eagleton, E. Giraldez, T. Goldsack, R. Heathcote, N. Izumi, M. Key, J. King, J. Koch, O. Landen, A. Nikroo, P. Patel, D. Price, B. Remington, H. Robey, R. Snavely, D. Steinman, R. Stephens, C. Stoeckl, M. Storm, M. Tabak, W. Theobald, R. Town, J. Wickersham, and B. Zhang, “High-energy Kα radiography using high-intensity, short-pulse lasers,” Phys. Plasmas 13, 056309 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rhee, Y.-J.

S. Fujioka, H. Takabe, N. Yamamoto, D. Salzmann, F. Wang, H. Nishimura, Y. Li, Q. Dong, S. Wang, Y. Zhang, Y.-J. Rhee, Y.-W. Lee, J.-M. Han, M. Tanabe, T. Fujiwara, Y. Nakabayashi, G. Zhao, J. Zhang, and K. Mima, “X-ray astronomy in the laboratory with a miniature compact object produced by laser-driven implosion,” Nat. Phys. 5, 821–825 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Robey, H.

H. Park, D. Chambers, H. Chung, R. Clarke, R. Eagleton, E. Giraldez, T. Goldsack, R. Heathcote, N. Izumi, M. Key, J. King, J. Koch, O. Landen, A. Nikroo, P. Patel, D. Price, B. Remington, H. Robey, R. Snavely, D. Steinman, R. Stephens, C. Stoeckl, M. Storm, M. Tabak, W. Theobald, R. Town, J. Wickersham, and B. Zhang, “High-energy Kα radiography using high-intensity, short-pulse lasers,” Phys. Plasmas 13, 056309 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Robinson, A. P. L.

A. S. Pirozhkov, I. W. Choi, J. H. Sung, S. K. Lee, T. J. Yu, T. M. Jeong, I. J. Kim, N. Hafz, C. M. Kim, K. H. Pae, Y. C. Noh, D. K. Ko, J. Lee, A. P. L. Robinson, P. Foster, S. Hawkes, M. Streeter, C. Spindloe, P. McKenna, D. C. Carroll, C. G. Wahlstrom, M. Zepf, D. Adams, B. Dromey, K. Markey, S. Kar, Y. T. Li, M. H. Xu, H. Nagatomo, M. Mori, A. Yogo, H. Kiriyama, K. Ogura, A. Sagisaka, S. Orimo, M. Nishiuchi, H. Sugiyama, T. Z. Esirkepov, H. Okada, S. Kondo, S. Kanazawa, Y. Nakai, A. Akutsu, T. Motomura, M. Tanoue, T. Shimomura, M. Ikegami, I. Daito, M. Kando, T. Kameshima, P. Bolton, S. V. Bulanov, H. Daido, and D. Neely, “Diagnostic of laser contrast using target reflectivity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 241102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Roth, M.

A. L. Kritcher, P. Neumayer, C. R. D. Brown, P. Davis, T. Doeppner, R. W. Falcone, D. O. Gericke, G. Gregori, B. Holst, O. L. Landen, H. J. Lee, E. C. Morse, A. Pelka, R. Redmer, M. Roth, J. Vorberger, K. Wuensch, and S. H. Glenzer, “Measurements of ionic structure in shock compressed lithium hydride from ultrafast x-ray Thomson scattering,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 245004 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rousse, A.

S. Bastiani, A. Rousse, J. Geindre, P. Audebert, C. Quoix, G. Hamoniaux, A. Antonetti, and J. Gauthier, “Experimental study of the interaction of subpicosecond laser pulses with solid targets of varying initial scale lengths,” Phys. Rev. E 56, 7179–7185 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Rousseaux, C.

R. Stephens, R. Snavely, Y. Aglitskiy, F. Amiranoff, C. Andersen, D. Batani, S. Baton, T. Cowan, R. Freeman, T. Hall, S. Hatchett, J. Hill, M. Key, J. King, J. Koch, M. Koenig, A. MacKinnon, K. Lancaster, E. Martinolli, P. Norreys, E. Perelli-Cippo, M. Le Gloahec, C. Rousseaux, J. Santos, and F. Scianitti, “Kα fluorescence measurement of relativistic electron transport in the context of fast ignition,” Phys. Rev. E 69, 066414 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ruhl, H.

M. Cerchez, R. Jung, J. Osterholz, T. Toncian, O. Willi, P. Mulser, and H. Ruhl, “Absorption of ultrashort laser pulses in strongly overdense targets,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 245001 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sagisaka, A.

H. Kiriyama, M. Michiaki, Y. Nakai, T. Shimomura, H. Sasao, M. Tanaka, Y. Ochi, M. Tanoue, H. Okada, S. Kondo, S. Kanazawa, A. Sagisaka, I. Daito, D. Wakai, F. Sasao, M. Suzuki, H. Kotakai, K. Kondo, A. Sugiyama, S. Bulanov, P. R. Bolton, H. Daido, S. Kawanishi, J. L. Collier, C. Hernandez-Gomez, C. J. Hooker, K. Ertel, T. Kimura, and T. Tajima, “High-spatiotemporal-quality petawatt-class laser system,” Appl. Opt. 49, 2105–2115 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. S. Pirozhkov, I. W. Choi, J. H. Sung, S. K. Lee, T. J. Yu, T. M. Jeong, I. J. Kim, N. Hafz, C. M. Kim, K. H. Pae, Y. C. Noh, D. K. Ko, J. Lee, A. P. L. Robinson, P. Foster, S. Hawkes, M. Streeter, C. Spindloe, P. McKenna, D. C. Carroll, C. G. Wahlstrom, M. Zepf, D. Adams, B. Dromey, K. Markey, S. Kar, Y. T. Li, M. H. Xu, H. Nagatomo, M. Mori, A. Yogo, H. Kiriyama, K. Ogura, A. Sagisaka, S. Orimo, M. Nishiuchi, H. Sugiyama, T. Z. Esirkepov, H. Okada, S. Kondo, S. Kanazawa, Y. Nakai, A. Akutsu, T. Motomura, M. Tanoue, T. Shimomura, M. Ikegami, I. Daito, M. Kando, T. Kameshima, P. Bolton, S. V. Bulanov, H. Daido, and D. Neely, “Diagnostic of laser contrast using target reflectivity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 241102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Salzmann, D.

S. Fujioka, H. Takabe, N. Yamamoto, D. Salzmann, F. Wang, H. Nishimura, Y. Li, Q. Dong, S. Wang, Y. Zhang, Y.-J. Rhee, Y.-W. Lee, J.-M. Han, M. Tanabe, T. Fujiwara, Y. Nakabayashi, G. Zhao, J. Zhang, and K. Mima, “X-ray astronomy in the laboratory with a miniature compact object produced by laser-driven implosion,” Nat. Phys. 5, 821–825 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Salzmann, C. Reich, I. Uschmann, E. Forster, and P. Gibbon, “Theory of Kα generation by femtosecond laser-produced hot electrons in thin foils,” Phys. Rev. E 65, 036402 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Santos, J.

R. Stephens, R. Snavely, Y. Aglitskiy, F. Amiranoff, C. Andersen, D. Batani, S. Baton, T. Cowan, R. Freeman, T. Hall, S. Hatchett, J. Hill, M. Key, J. King, J. Koch, M. Koenig, A. MacKinnon, K. Lancaster, E. Martinolli, P. Norreys, E. Perelli-Cippo, M. Le Gloahec, C. Rousseaux, J. Santos, and F. Scianitti, “Kα fluorescence measurement of relativistic electron transport in the context of fast ignition,” Phys. Rev. E 69, 066414 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Santos, J. J.

C. Fourment, N. Arazam, C. Bonte, T. Caillaud, D. Descamps, F. Dorchies, M. Harmand, S. Hulin, S. Petit, and J. J. Santos, “Broadband, high dynamics and high resolution charge coupled device-based spectrometer in dynamic mode for multi-keV repetitive x-ray sources,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 80, 083505 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sasao, F.

Sasao, H.

Sato, K.

M. Nishikino, K. Sato, N. Hasegawa, M. Ishino, S. Ohshima, Y. Okano, T. Kawachi, H. Numasaki, T. Teshima, and H. Nishimura, “Note: application of laser produced plasma K alpha x-ray probe in radiation biology,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 026107 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sauerbrey, R.

T. Feurer, W. Theobald, R. Sauerbrey, I. Uschmann, D. Altenbernd, U. Teubner, P. Gibbon, E. Forster, G. Malka, and J. Miquel, “Onset of diffuse reflectivity and fast electron flux inhibition in 528-nm-laser solid interactions at ultrahigh intensity,” Phys. Rev. E 56, 4608–4614 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Scalzetti, E.

J. Kieffer, A. Krol, Z. Jiang, C. Chamberlain, E. Scalzetti, and Z. Ichalalene, “Future of laser-based X-ray sources for medical imaging,” Appl. Phys. B 74, 75–81 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Scianitti, F.

R. Stephens, R. Snavely, Y. Aglitskiy, F. Amiranoff, C. Andersen, D. Batani, S. Baton, T. Cowan, R. Freeman, T. Hall, S. Hatchett, J. Hill, M. Key, J. King, J. Koch, M. Koenig, A. MacKinnon, K. Lancaster, E. Martinolli, P. Norreys, E. Perelli-Cippo, M. Le Gloahec, C. Rousseaux, J. Santos, and F. Scianitti, “Kα fluorescence measurement of relativistic electron transport in the context of fast ignition,” Phys. Rev. E 69, 066414 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sentoku, Y.

A. J. Kemp, Y. Sentoku, and M. Tabak, “Hot-electron energy coupling in ultraintense laser-matter interaction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 075004 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Serbanescu, C.

S. Fourmaux, C. Serbanescu, R. E. Kincaid, J. A. Krol, and J. C. Kieffer, “Kα x-ray emission characterization of 100 Hz, 15 mJ femtosecond laser system with high contrast ratio,” Appl. Phys. B 94, 569–575 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Shimomura, T.

H. Kiriyama, M. Michiaki, Y. Nakai, T. Shimomura, H. Sasao, M. Tanaka, Y. Ochi, M. Tanoue, H. Okada, S. Kondo, S. Kanazawa, A. Sagisaka, I. Daito, D. Wakai, F. Sasao, M. Suzuki, H. Kotakai, K. Kondo, A. Sugiyama, S. Bulanov, P. R. Bolton, H. Daido, S. Kawanishi, J. L. Collier, C. Hernandez-Gomez, C. J. Hooker, K. Ertel, T. Kimura, and T. Tajima, “High-spatiotemporal-quality petawatt-class laser system,” Appl. Opt. 49, 2105–2115 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Kiriyama, M. Mori, Y. Nakai, T. Shimomura, H. Sasao, M. Tanoue, S. Kanazawa, D. Wakai, F. Sasao, H. Okada, I. Daito, M. Suzuki, S. Kondo, K. Kondo, A. Sugiyama, P. R. Bolton, A. Yokoyama, H. Daido, S. Kawanishi, T. Kimura, and T. Tajima, “High temporal and spatial quality petawatt-class Ti:sapphire chirped-pulse amplification laser system,” Opt. Lett. 35, 1497–1499 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Sugiyama, H.

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Wharton, K.

K. Yasuike, M. Key, S. Hatchett, R. Snavely, and K. Wharton, “Hot electron diagnostic in a solid laser target by K-shell lines measurement from ultraintense laser-plasma interactions (3×1020 W/cm2,≤400 J),” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 1236–1240 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wickersham, J.

H. Park, D. Chambers, H. Chung, R. Clarke, R. Eagleton, E. Giraldez, T. Goldsack, R. Heathcote, N. Izumi, M. Key, J. King, J. Koch, O. Landen, A. Nikroo, P. Patel, D. Price, B. Remington, H. Robey, R. Snavely, D. Steinman, R. Stephens, C. Stoeckl, M. Storm, M. Tabak, W. Theobald, R. Town, J. Wickersham, and B. Zhang, “High-energy Kα radiography using high-intensity, short-pulse lasers,” Phys. Plasmas 13, 056309 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wilks, S.

S. Wilks, W. Kruer, M. Tabak, and A. Langdon, “Absorption of ultra-intense laser-pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 1383–1386 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Willi, O.

M. Cerchez, R. Jung, J. Osterholz, T. Toncian, O. Willi, P. Mulser, and H. Ruhl, “Absorption of ultrashort laser pulses in strongly overdense targets,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 245001 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wuensch, K.

A. L. Kritcher, P. Neumayer, C. R. D. Brown, P. Davis, T. Doeppner, R. W. Falcone, D. O. Gericke, G. Gregori, B. Holst, O. L. Landen, H. J. Lee, E. C. Morse, A. Pelka, R. Redmer, M. Roth, J. Vorberger, K. Wuensch, and S. H. Glenzer, “Measurements of ionic structure in shock compressed lithium hydride from ultrafast x-ray Thomson scattering,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 245004 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Xu, M. H.

A. S. Pirozhkov, I. W. Choi, J. H. Sung, S. K. Lee, T. J. Yu, T. M. Jeong, I. J. Kim, N. Hafz, C. M. Kim, K. H. Pae, Y. C. Noh, D. K. Ko, J. Lee, A. P. L. Robinson, P. Foster, S. Hawkes, M. Streeter, C. Spindloe, P. McKenna, D. C. Carroll, C. G. Wahlstrom, M. Zepf, D. Adams, B. Dromey, K. Markey, S. Kar, Y. T. Li, M. H. Xu, H. Nagatomo, M. Mori, A. Yogo, H. Kiriyama, K. Ogura, A. Sagisaka, S. Orimo, M. Nishiuchi, H. Sugiyama, T. Z. Esirkepov, H. Okada, S. Kondo, S. Kanazawa, Y. Nakai, A. Akutsu, T. Motomura, M. Tanoue, T. Shimomura, M. Ikegami, I. Daito, M. Kando, T. Kameshima, P. Bolton, S. V. Bulanov, H. Daido, and D. Neely, “Diagnostic of laser contrast using target reflectivity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 241102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yamamoto, N.

S. Fujioka, H. Takabe, N. Yamamoto, D. Salzmann, F. Wang, H. Nishimura, Y. Li, Q. Dong, S. Wang, Y. Zhang, Y.-J. Rhee, Y.-W. Lee, J.-M. Han, M. Tanabe, T. Fujiwara, Y. Nakabayashi, G. Zhao, J. Zhang, and K. Mima, “X-ray astronomy in the laboratory with a miniature compact object produced by laser-driven implosion,” Nat. Phys. 5, 821–825 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yasuaki, O.

S. Katsutoshi, N. Masaharu, O. Yasuaki, O. Shin-suke, H. Noboru, I. Masahiko, K. Tetsuya, N. Hodaka, T. Teruki, and N. Hiroaki, “γ-H2AX and phosphorylated ATM focus formation in cancer cells after laser plasma X irradiation,” Radiat. Res. 174, 436–445 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yasuike, K.

K. Yasuike, M. Key, S. Hatchett, R. Snavely, and K. Wharton, “Hot electron diagnostic in a solid laser target by K-shell lines measurement from ultraintense laser-plasma interactions (3×1020 W/cm2,≤400 J),” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 1236–1240 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Yogo, A.

A. S. Pirozhkov, I. W. Choi, J. H. Sung, S. K. Lee, T. J. Yu, T. M. Jeong, I. J. Kim, N. Hafz, C. M. Kim, K. H. Pae, Y. C. Noh, D. K. Ko, J. Lee, A. P. L. Robinson, P. Foster, S. Hawkes, M. Streeter, C. Spindloe, P. McKenna, D. C. Carroll, C. G. Wahlstrom, M. Zepf, D. Adams, B. Dromey, K. Markey, S. Kar, Y. T. Li, M. H. Xu, H. Nagatomo, M. Mori, A. Yogo, H. Kiriyama, K. Ogura, A. Sagisaka, S. Orimo, M. Nishiuchi, H. Sugiyama, T. Z. Esirkepov, H. Okada, S. Kondo, S. Kanazawa, Y. Nakai, A. Akutsu, T. Motomura, M. Tanoue, T. Shimomura, M. Ikegami, I. Daito, M. Kando, T. Kameshima, P. Bolton, S. V. Bulanov, H. Daido, and D. Neely, “Diagnostic of laser contrast using target reflectivity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 241102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yokoyama, A.

Yu, J.

J. Yu, Z. Jiang, J. Kieffer, and A. Krol, “Hard x-ray emission in high intensity femtosecond laser-target interaction,” Phys. Plasmas 6, 1318–1322 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Yu, T. J.

A. S. Pirozhkov, I. W. Choi, J. H. Sung, S. K. Lee, T. J. Yu, T. M. Jeong, I. J. Kim, N. Hafz, C. M. Kim, K. H. Pae, Y. C. Noh, D. K. Ko, J. Lee, A. P. L. Robinson, P. Foster, S. Hawkes, M. Streeter, C. Spindloe, P. McKenna, D. C. Carroll, C. G. Wahlstrom, M. Zepf, D. Adams, B. Dromey, K. Markey, S. Kar, Y. T. Li, M. H. Xu, H. Nagatomo, M. Mori, A. Yogo, H. Kiriyama, K. Ogura, A. Sagisaka, S. Orimo, M. Nishiuchi, H. Sugiyama, T. Z. Esirkepov, H. Okada, S. Kondo, S. Kanazawa, Y. Nakai, A. Akutsu, T. Motomura, M. Tanoue, T. Shimomura, M. Ikegami, I. Daito, M. Kando, T. Kameshima, P. Bolton, S. V. Bulanov, H. Daido, and D. Neely, “Diagnostic of laser contrast using target reflectivity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 241102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zepf, M.

A. S. Pirozhkov, I. W. Choi, J. H. Sung, S. K. Lee, T. J. Yu, T. M. Jeong, I. J. Kim, N. Hafz, C. M. Kim, K. H. Pae, Y. C. Noh, D. K. Ko, J. Lee, A. P. L. Robinson, P. Foster, S. Hawkes, M. Streeter, C. Spindloe, P. McKenna, D. C. Carroll, C. G. Wahlstrom, M. Zepf, D. Adams, B. Dromey, K. Markey, S. Kar, Y. T. Li, M. H. Xu, H. Nagatomo, M. Mori, A. Yogo, H. Kiriyama, K. Ogura, A. Sagisaka, S. Orimo, M. Nishiuchi, H. Sugiyama, T. Z. Esirkepov, H. Okada, S. Kondo, S. Kanazawa, Y. Nakai, A. Akutsu, T. Motomura, M. Tanoue, T. Shimomura, M. Ikegami, I. Daito, M. Kando, T. Kameshima, P. Bolton, S. V. Bulanov, H. Daido, and D. Neely, “Diagnostic of laser contrast using target reflectivity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 241102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, B.

H. Park, D. Chambers, H. Chung, R. Clarke, R. Eagleton, E. Giraldez, T. Goldsack, R. Heathcote, N. Izumi, M. Key, J. King, J. Koch, O. Landen, A. Nikroo, P. Patel, D. Price, B. Remington, H. Robey, R. Snavely, D. Steinman, R. Stephens, C. Stoeckl, M. Storm, M. Tabak, W. Theobald, R. Town, J. Wickersham, and B. Zhang, “High-energy Kα radiography using high-intensity, short-pulse lasers,” Phys. Plasmas 13, 056309 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J.

S. Fujioka, H. Takabe, N. Yamamoto, D. Salzmann, F. Wang, H. Nishimura, Y. Li, Q. Dong, S. Wang, Y. Zhang, Y.-J. Rhee, Y.-W. Lee, J.-M. Han, M. Tanabe, T. Fujiwara, Y. Nakabayashi, G. Zhao, J. Zhang, and K. Mima, “X-ray astronomy in the laboratory with a miniature compact object produced by laser-driven implosion,” Nat. Phys. 5, 821–825 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Y.

S. Fujioka, H. Takabe, N. Yamamoto, D. Salzmann, F. Wang, H. Nishimura, Y. Li, Q. Dong, S. Wang, Y. Zhang, Y.-J. Rhee, Y.-W. Lee, J.-M. Han, M. Tanabe, T. Fujiwara, Y. Nakabayashi, G. Zhao, J. Zhang, and K. Mima, “X-ray astronomy in the laboratory with a miniature compact object produced by laser-driven implosion,” Nat. Phys. 5, 821–825 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, G.

S. Fujioka, H. Takabe, N. Yamamoto, D. Salzmann, F. Wang, H. Nishimura, Y. Li, Q. Dong, S. Wang, Y. Zhang, Y.-J. Rhee, Y.-W. Lee, J.-M. Han, M. Tanabe, T. Fujiwara, Y. Nakabayashi, G. Zhao, J. Zhang, and K. Mima, “X-ray astronomy in the laboratory with a miniature compact object produced by laser-driven implosion,” Nat. Phys. 5, 821–825 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, P.

W. Lu, M. Nicoul, U. Shymanovich, A. Tarasevitch, P. Zhou, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, D. von der Linde, M. Masek, P. Gibbon, and U. Teubner, “Optimized k alpha x-ray flashes from femtosecond-laser-irradiated foils,” Phys. Rev. E 80, 026404 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, S. P.

H. B. Cai, K. Mima, A. Sunahara, T. Johzaki, H. Nagatomo, S. P. Zhu, and X. T. He, “Prepulse effects on the generation of high energy electrons in fast ignition scheme,” Phys. Plasmas 17, 023106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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J. Kieffer, A. Krol, Z. Jiang, C. Chamberlain, E. Scalzetti, and Z. Ichalalene, “Future of laser-based X-ray sources for medical imaging,” Appl. Phys. B 74, 75–81 (2002).
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Nat. Phys. (1)

S. Fujioka, H. Takabe, N. Yamamoto, D. Salzmann, F. Wang, H. Nishimura, Y. Li, Q. Dong, S. Wang, Y. Zhang, Y.-J. Rhee, Y.-W. Lee, J.-M. Han, M. Tanabe, T. Fujiwara, Y. Nakabayashi, G. Zhao, J. Zhang, and K. Mima, “X-ray astronomy in the laboratory with a miniature compact object produced by laser-driven implosion,” Nat. Phys. 5, 821–825 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

K. Sokolowski-Tinten, C. Blome, J. Blums, A. Cavalleri, C. Dietrich, A. Tarasevitch, I. Uschmann, E. Förster, M. Kammler, M. Horn-von-Hoegen, and D. von der Linde, “Femtosecond x-ray measurement of coherent lattice vibrations near the Lindemann stability limit,” Nature 422, 287–289 (2003).
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Phys. Plasmas (5)

B. Westover, A. MacPhee, C. Chen, D. Hey, T. Ma, B. Maddox, H.-S. Park, B. Remington, and F. N. Beg, “Study of silver Kα and bremsstrahlung radiation from short-pulse laser-matter interactions with applications for x-ray radiography,” Phys. Plasmas 17, 082703 (2010).
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H. B. Cai, K. Mima, A. Sunahara, T. Johzaki, H. Nagatomo, S. P. Zhu, and X. T. He, “Prepulse effects on the generation of high energy electrons in fast ignition scheme,” Phys. Plasmas 17, 023106 (2010).
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J. Yu, Z. Jiang, J. Kieffer, and A. Krol, “Hard x-ray emission in high intensity femtosecond laser-target interaction,” Phys. Plasmas 6, 1318–1322 (1999).
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L. Chen, P. Forget, S. Fourmaux, J. Kieffer, A. Krol, C. Chamberlain, B. Hou, J. Nees, and G. Mourou, “Study of hard x-ray emission from intense femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser-solid target interactions,” Phys. Plasmas 11, 4439–4445 (2004).
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S. Bastiani, A. Rousse, J. Geindre, P. Audebert, C. Quoix, G. Hamoniaux, A. Antonetti, and J. Gauthier, “Experimental study of the interaction of subpicosecond laser pulses with solid targets of varying initial scale lengths,” Phys. Rev. E 56, 7179–7185 (1997).
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W. Lu, M. Nicoul, U. Shymanovich, A. Tarasevitch, P. Zhou, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, D. von der Linde, M. Masek, P. Gibbon, and U. Teubner, “Optimized k alpha x-ray flashes from femtosecond-laser-irradiated foils,” Phys. Rev. E 80, 026404 (2009).
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T. Feurer, W. Theobald, R. Sauerbrey, I. Uschmann, D. Altenbernd, U. Teubner, P. Gibbon, E. Forster, G. Malka, and J. Miquel, “Onset of diffuse reflectivity and fast electron flux inhibition in 528-nm-laser solid interactions at ultrahigh intensity,” Phys. Rev. E 56, 4608–4614 (1997).
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S. Katsutoshi, N. Masaharu, O. Yasuaki, O. Shin-suke, H. Noboru, I. Masahiko, K. Tetsuya, N. Hodaka, T. Teruki, and N. Hiroaki, “γ-H2AX and phosphorylated ATM focus formation in cancer cells after laser plasma X irradiation,” Radiat. Res. 174, 436–445 (2010).
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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup. (a) Measured temporal contrast, the intensity is normalized to the peak of main pulse. The spiky signals appearing around the main pulse were identified as artifacts. (b) Schematic of the experimental setup.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Spectrum of the laser produced K shell lines from Ag target.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

yield as a function of offset. Positive offset means the distance from the focusing mirror to the target is larger than the focal length. (a) Mo. (b) Ag.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Dependence of yield on laser intensity. (a) Mo, contrast 10−10. (b) Ag, contrast 10−11.

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