Abstract

We have demonstrated an all-optical memory by using InGaAsP/InP buried heterostructure photonic crystal (BH-PhC) lasers. We achieved distinct optical injection locking bistability in an ultra-compact active region (4 × 0.3 × 0.16 μm3) with only 25 μW pump power in the PhC waveguide, which is two orders less than previously reported optical memories based on other bistable semiconductor lasers. Dynamic memory operations were achieved with pump power of 100 μW and switching power of 22 μW and 71 μW in the PhC waveguide. Fast switching times of about 60 ps were achieved. To the authors’ best knowledge, this is the first demonstration of PhC laser-based all-optical memory.

© 2011 OSA

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2011 (1)

2010 (3)

S. Matsuo, A. Shinya, T. Kakitsuka, K. Nozaki, T. Segawa, T. Sato, Y. Kawaguchi, and M. Notomi, “High-speed ultracompact buried heterostructure photonic-crystal laser with 13fJ of energy consumed per bit transmitted,” Nat. Photonics 4(9), 648–654 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. Liu, R. Kumar, K. Huybrechts, T. Spuesens, G. Roelkens, E.-J. Geluk, T. de Vries, P. Regreny, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, and G. Morthier, “An ultra-small, low-power, all-optical flip-flop memory on a silicon chip,” Nat. Photonics 4(3), 182–187 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Long, A. Giannopoulos, and K. Choquette, “Lateral current injection photonic crystal membrane light emitting diodes,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 28(2), 359 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (4)

T. Okumura, M. Kurokawa, M. Shirao, D. Kondo, H. Ito, N. Nishiyama, T. Maruyama, and S. Arai, “Lateral current injection GaInAsP/InP laser on semi-insulating substrate for membrane-based photonic circuits,” Opt. Express 17(15), 12564–12570 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. V. Tran, S. Combrié, P. Colman, and A. De Rossi, “Photonic crystal membrane waveguides with low insertion losses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(6), 061105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Osborne, K. Buckley, A. Amann, and S. O’Brien, “All-optical memory based on the injection locking bistability of a two-color laser diode,” Opt. Express 17(8), 6293–6300 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Huybrechts, R. Baets, and G. Morthier, “All-optical flip-flop operation in a standard tunable DBR laser diode,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(24), 1873–1875 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

2006 (2)

H. Kawaguchi, T. Mori, Y. Sato, and Y. Yamayoshi, “Optical buffer memory using polarization-bistable vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(34), L894–L897 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. D. Jeong, J. S. Cho, Y. H. Won, H. J. Lee, and H. Yoo, “All-optical flip-flop based on the bistability of injection locked Fabry-Perot laser diode,” Opt. Express 14(9), 4058–4063 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

T. Tanabe, M. Notomi, S. Mitsugi, A. Shinya, and E. Kuramochi, “All-optical switches on a silicon chip realized using photonic crystal nanocavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(15), 151112 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Takenaka, M. Raburn, and Y. Nakano, “All-optical flip-flop multimode interference bistable laser diode,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(5), 968–970 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

M. T. Hill, H. J. S. Dorren, T. De Vries, X. J. M. Leijtens, J. H. Den Besten, B. Smalbrugge, Y.-S. Oei, H. Binsma, G.-D. Khoe, and M. K. Smit, “A fast low-power optical memory based on coupled micro-ring lasers,” Nature 432(7014), 206–209 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

T. Shoji, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, and H. Morita, “Low loss mode size converter from 0.3 µm square Si wire waveguides to singlemode fibres,” Electron. Lett. 38(25), 1669 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

H. Kawaguchi, “Bistable laser diodes and their applications: state of the art,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3(5), 1254–1270 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

K. Inoue and M. Yoshino, “Bistability and waveform reshaping in a DFB-LD with side-mode light injection,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7(2), 164–166 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

1985 (1)

H. Kawaguchi, K. Inoue, T. Matsuoka, and K. Otsuka, “Bistable output characteristics in semiconductor laser injection locking,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 21(9), 1314–1317 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Amann, A.

Arai, S.

Baets, R.

L. Liu, R. Kumar, K. Huybrechts, T. Spuesens, G. Roelkens, E.-J. Geluk, T. de Vries, P. Regreny, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, and G. Morthier, “An ultra-small, low-power, all-optical flip-flop memory on a silicon chip,” Nat. Photonics 4(3), 182–187 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. Huybrechts, R. Baets, and G. Morthier, “All-optical flip-flop operation in a standard tunable DBR laser diode,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(24), 1873–1875 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Benedetto, S.

Binsma, H.

M. T. Hill, H. J. S. Dorren, T. De Vries, X. J. M. Leijtens, J. H. Den Besten, B. Smalbrugge, Y.-S. Oei, H. Binsma, G.-D. Khoe, and M. K. Smit, “A fast low-power optical memory based on coupled micro-ring lasers,” Nature 432(7014), 206–209 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Buckley, K.

Chen, C.-H.

Cho, J. S.

Choquette, K.

C. Long, A. Giannopoulos, and K. Choquette, “Lateral current injection photonic crystal membrane light emitting diodes,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 28(2), 359 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Colman, P.

Q. V. Tran, S. Combrié, P. Colman, and A. De Rossi, “Photonic crystal membrane waveguides with low insertion losses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(6), 061105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Combrié, S.

Q. V. Tran, S. Combrié, P. Colman, and A. De Rossi, “Photonic crystal membrane waveguides with low insertion losses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(6), 061105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

De Rossi, A.

Q. V. Tran, S. Combrié, P. Colman, and A. De Rossi, “Photonic crystal membrane waveguides with low insertion losses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(6), 061105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

de Vries, T.

L. Liu, R. Kumar, K. Huybrechts, T. Spuesens, G. Roelkens, E.-J. Geluk, T. de Vries, P. Regreny, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, and G. Morthier, “An ultra-small, low-power, all-optical flip-flop memory on a silicon chip,” Nat. Photonics 4(3), 182–187 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. T. Hill, H. J. S. Dorren, T. De Vries, X. J. M. Leijtens, J. H. Den Besten, B. Smalbrugge, Y.-S. Oei, H. Binsma, G.-D. Khoe, and M. K. Smit, “A fast low-power optical memory based on coupled micro-ring lasers,” Nature 432(7014), 206–209 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Den Besten, J. H.

M. T. Hill, H. J. S. Dorren, T. De Vries, X. J. M. Leijtens, J. H. Den Besten, B. Smalbrugge, Y.-S. Oei, H. Binsma, G.-D. Khoe, and M. K. Smit, “A fast low-power optical memory based on coupled micro-ring lasers,” Nature 432(7014), 206–209 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dorren, H. J. S.

M. T. Hill, H. J. S. Dorren, T. De Vries, X. J. M. Leijtens, J. H. Den Besten, B. Smalbrugge, Y.-S. Oei, H. Binsma, G.-D. Khoe, and M. K. Smit, “A fast low-power optical memory based on coupled micro-ring lasers,” Nature 432(7014), 206–209 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Geluk, E.-J.

L. Liu, R. Kumar, K. Huybrechts, T. Spuesens, G. Roelkens, E.-J. Geluk, T. de Vries, P. Regreny, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, and G. Morthier, “An ultra-small, low-power, all-optical flip-flop memory on a silicon chip,” Nat. Photonics 4(3), 182–187 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Giannopoulos, A.

C. Long, A. Giannopoulos, and K. Choquette, “Lateral current injection photonic crystal membrane light emitting diodes,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 28(2), 359 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hill, M. T.

M. T. Hill, H. J. S. Dorren, T. De Vries, X. J. M. Leijtens, J. H. Den Besten, B. Smalbrugge, Y.-S. Oei, H. Binsma, G.-D. Khoe, and M. K. Smit, “A fast low-power optical memory based on coupled micro-ring lasers,” Nature 432(7014), 206–209 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hui, R.

Huybrechts, K.

L. Liu, R. Kumar, K. Huybrechts, T. Spuesens, G. Roelkens, E.-J. Geluk, T. de Vries, P. Regreny, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, and G. Morthier, “An ultra-small, low-power, all-optical flip-flop memory on a silicon chip,” Nat. Photonics 4(3), 182–187 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. Huybrechts, R. Baets, and G. Morthier, “All-optical flip-flop operation in a standard tunable DBR laser diode,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(24), 1873–1875 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Inoue, K.

K. Inoue and M. Yoshino, “Bistability and waveform reshaping in a DFB-LD with side-mode light injection,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7(2), 164–166 (1995).
[CrossRef]

H. Kawaguchi, K. Inoue, T. Matsuoka, and K. Otsuka, “Bistable output characteristics in semiconductor laser injection locking,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 21(9), 1314–1317 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Ito, H.

Jeong, Y. D.

Kakitsuka, T.

S. Matsuo, A. Shinya, T. Kakitsuka, K. Nozaki, T. Segawa, T. Sato, Y. Kawaguchi, and M. Notomi, “High-speed ultracompact buried heterostructure photonic-crystal laser with 13fJ of energy consumed per bit transmitted,” Nat. Photonics 4(9), 648–654 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Shinya, S. Matsuo, T. Yosia, T. Tanabe, E. Kuramochi, T. Sato, T. Kakitsuka, and M. Notomi, “All-optical on-chip bit memory based on ultra high Q InGaAsP photonic crystal,” Opt. Express 16(23), 19382–19387 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kawaguchi, H.

H. Kawaguchi, T. Mori, Y. Sato, and Y. Yamayoshi, “Optical buffer memory using polarization-bistable vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(34), L894–L897 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Kawaguchi, “Bistable laser diodes and their applications: state of the art,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3(5), 1254–1270 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. Kawaguchi, K. Inoue, T. Matsuoka, and K. Otsuka, “Bistable output characteristics in semiconductor laser injection locking,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 21(9), 1314–1317 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Kawaguchi, Y.

S. Matsuo, A. Shinya, C.-H. Chen, K. Nozaki, T. Sato, Y. Kawaguchi, H. Taniyama, and M. Notomi, “20-Gbit/s directly modulated photonic crystal nanocavity laser with ultra-low power consumption,” Opt. Express 19(3), 2242 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Matsuo, A. Shinya, T. Kakitsuka, K. Nozaki, T. Segawa, T. Sato, Y. Kawaguchi, and M. Notomi, “High-speed ultracompact buried heterostructure photonic-crystal laser with 13fJ of energy consumed per bit transmitted,” Nat. Photonics 4(9), 648–654 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Khoe, G.-D.

M. T. Hill, H. J. S. Dorren, T. De Vries, X. J. M. Leijtens, J. H. Den Besten, B. Smalbrugge, Y.-S. Oei, H. Binsma, G.-D. Khoe, and M. K. Smit, “A fast low-power optical memory based on coupled micro-ring lasers,” Nature 432(7014), 206–209 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kondo, D.

Kumar, R.

L. Liu, R. Kumar, K. Huybrechts, T. Spuesens, G. Roelkens, E.-J. Geluk, T. de Vries, P. Regreny, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, and G. Morthier, “An ultra-small, low-power, all-optical flip-flop memory on a silicon chip,” Nat. Photonics 4(3), 182–187 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kuramochi, E.

A. Shinya, S. Matsuo, T. Yosia, T. Tanabe, E. Kuramochi, T. Sato, T. Kakitsuka, and M. Notomi, “All-optical on-chip bit memory based on ultra high Q InGaAsP photonic crystal,” Opt. Express 16(23), 19382–19387 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Tanabe, M. Notomi, S. Mitsugi, A. Shinya, and E. Kuramochi, “All-optical switches on a silicon chip realized using photonic crystal nanocavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(15), 151112 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kurokawa, M.

Lee, H. J.

Leijtens, X. J. M.

M. T. Hill, H. J. S. Dorren, T. De Vries, X. J. M. Leijtens, J. H. Den Besten, B. Smalbrugge, Y.-S. Oei, H. Binsma, G.-D. Khoe, and M. K. Smit, “A fast low-power optical memory based on coupled micro-ring lasers,” Nature 432(7014), 206–209 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, L.

L. Liu, R. Kumar, K. Huybrechts, T. Spuesens, G. Roelkens, E.-J. Geluk, T. de Vries, P. Regreny, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, and G. Morthier, “An ultra-small, low-power, all-optical flip-flop memory on a silicon chip,” Nat. Photonics 4(3), 182–187 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Long, C.

C. Long, A. Giannopoulos, and K. Choquette, “Lateral current injection photonic crystal membrane light emitting diodes,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 28(2), 359 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Maruyama, T.

Matsuo, S.

Matsuoka, T.

H. Kawaguchi, K. Inoue, T. Matsuoka, and K. Otsuka, “Bistable output characteristics in semiconductor laser injection locking,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 21(9), 1314–1317 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Mitsugi, S.

T. Tanabe, M. Notomi, S. Mitsugi, A. Shinya, and E. Kuramochi, “All-optical switches on a silicon chip realized using photonic crystal nanocavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(15), 151112 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Montrosset, I.

Mori, T.

H. Kawaguchi, T. Mori, Y. Sato, and Y. Yamayoshi, “Optical buffer memory using polarization-bistable vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(34), L894–L897 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Morita, H.

T. Shoji, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, and H. Morita, “Low loss mode size converter from 0.3 µm square Si wire waveguides to singlemode fibres,” Electron. Lett. 38(25), 1669 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Morthier, G.

L. Liu, R. Kumar, K. Huybrechts, T. Spuesens, G. Roelkens, E.-J. Geluk, T. de Vries, P. Regreny, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, and G. Morthier, “An ultra-small, low-power, all-optical flip-flop memory on a silicon chip,” Nat. Photonics 4(3), 182–187 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. Huybrechts, R. Baets, and G. Morthier, “All-optical flip-flop operation in a standard tunable DBR laser diode,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(24), 1873–1875 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nakano, Y.

M. Takenaka, M. Raburn, and Y. Nakano, “All-optical flip-flop multimode interference bistable laser diode,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(5), 968–970 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nishiyama, N.

Notomi, M.

S. Matsuo, A. Shinya, C.-H. Chen, K. Nozaki, T. Sato, Y. Kawaguchi, H. Taniyama, and M. Notomi, “20-Gbit/s directly modulated photonic crystal nanocavity laser with ultra-low power consumption,” Opt. Express 19(3), 2242 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Matsuo, A. Shinya, T. Kakitsuka, K. Nozaki, T. Segawa, T. Sato, Y. Kawaguchi, and M. Notomi, “High-speed ultracompact buried heterostructure photonic-crystal laser with 13fJ of energy consumed per bit transmitted,” Nat. Photonics 4(9), 648–654 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Notomi and H. Taniyama, “On-demand ultrahigh-Q cavity formation and photon pinning via dynamic waveguide tuning,” Opt. Express 16(23), 18657–18666 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Shinya, S. Matsuo, T. Yosia, T. Tanabe, E. Kuramochi, T. Sato, T. Kakitsuka, and M. Notomi, “All-optical on-chip bit memory based on ultra high Q InGaAsP photonic crystal,” Opt. Express 16(23), 19382–19387 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Tanabe, M. Notomi, S. Mitsugi, A. Shinya, and E. Kuramochi, “All-optical switches on a silicon chip realized using photonic crystal nanocavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(15), 151112 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nozaki, K.

S. Matsuo, A. Shinya, C.-H. Chen, K. Nozaki, T. Sato, Y. Kawaguchi, H. Taniyama, and M. Notomi, “20-Gbit/s directly modulated photonic crystal nanocavity laser with ultra-low power consumption,” Opt. Express 19(3), 2242 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Matsuo, A. Shinya, T. Kakitsuka, K. Nozaki, T. Segawa, T. Sato, Y. Kawaguchi, and M. Notomi, “High-speed ultracompact buried heterostructure photonic-crystal laser with 13fJ of energy consumed per bit transmitted,” Nat. Photonics 4(9), 648–654 (2010).
[CrossRef]

O’Brien, S.

Oei, Y.-S.

M. T. Hill, H. J. S. Dorren, T. De Vries, X. J. M. Leijtens, J. H. Den Besten, B. Smalbrugge, Y.-S. Oei, H. Binsma, G.-D. Khoe, and M. K. Smit, “A fast low-power optical memory based on coupled micro-ring lasers,” Nature 432(7014), 206–209 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Okumura, T.

Osborne, S.

Otsuka, K.

H. Kawaguchi, K. Inoue, T. Matsuoka, and K. Otsuka, “Bistable output characteristics in semiconductor laser injection locking,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 21(9), 1314–1317 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Paradisi, A.

Raburn, M.

M. Takenaka, M. Raburn, and Y. Nakano, “All-optical flip-flop multimode interference bistable laser diode,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(5), 968–970 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Regreny, P.

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[CrossRef]

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L. Liu, R. Kumar, K. Huybrechts, T. Spuesens, G. Roelkens, E.-J. Geluk, T. de Vries, P. Regreny, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, and G. Morthier, “An ultra-small, low-power, all-optical flip-flop memory on a silicon chip,” Nat. Photonics 4(3), 182–187 (2010).
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Sato, T.

Sato, Y.

H. Kawaguchi, T. Mori, Y. Sato, and Y. Yamayoshi, “Optical buffer memory using polarization-bistable vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(34), L894–L897 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Segawa, T.

S. Matsuo, A. Shinya, T. Kakitsuka, K. Nozaki, T. Segawa, T. Sato, Y. Kawaguchi, and M. Notomi, “High-speed ultracompact buried heterostructure photonic-crystal laser with 13fJ of energy consumed per bit transmitted,” Nat. Photonics 4(9), 648–654 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Shinya, A.

S. Matsuo, A. Shinya, C.-H. Chen, K. Nozaki, T. Sato, Y. Kawaguchi, H. Taniyama, and M. Notomi, “20-Gbit/s directly modulated photonic crystal nanocavity laser with ultra-low power consumption,” Opt. Express 19(3), 2242 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Matsuo, A. Shinya, T. Kakitsuka, K. Nozaki, T. Segawa, T. Sato, Y. Kawaguchi, and M. Notomi, “High-speed ultracompact buried heterostructure photonic-crystal laser with 13fJ of energy consumed per bit transmitted,” Nat. Photonics 4(9), 648–654 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Shinya, S. Matsuo, T. Yosia, T. Tanabe, E. Kuramochi, T. Sato, T. Kakitsuka, and M. Notomi, “All-optical on-chip bit memory based on ultra high Q InGaAsP photonic crystal,” Opt. Express 16(23), 19382–19387 (2008).
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T. Tanabe, M. Notomi, S. Mitsugi, A. Shinya, and E. Kuramochi, “All-optical switches on a silicon chip realized using photonic crystal nanocavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(15), 151112 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Shirao, M.

Shoji, T.

T. Shoji, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, and H. Morita, “Low loss mode size converter from 0.3 µm square Si wire waveguides to singlemode fibres,” Electron. Lett. 38(25), 1669 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Smalbrugge, B.

M. T. Hill, H. J. S. Dorren, T. De Vries, X. J. M. Leijtens, J. H. Den Besten, B. Smalbrugge, Y.-S. Oei, H. Binsma, G.-D. Khoe, and M. K. Smit, “A fast low-power optical memory based on coupled micro-ring lasers,” Nature 432(7014), 206–209 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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M. T. Hill, H. J. S. Dorren, T. De Vries, X. J. M. Leijtens, J. H. Den Besten, B. Smalbrugge, Y.-S. Oei, H. Binsma, G.-D. Khoe, and M. K. Smit, “A fast low-power optical memory based on coupled micro-ring lasers,” Nature 432(7014), 206–209 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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L. Liu, R. Kumar, K. Huybrechts, T. Spuesens, G. Roelkens, E.-J. Geluk, T. de Vries, P. Regreny, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, and G. Morthier, “An ultra-small, low-power, all-optical flip-flop memory on a silicon chip,” Nat. Photonics 4(3), 182–187 (2010).
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[CrossRef]

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A. Shinya, S. Matsuo, T. Yosia, T. Tanabe, E. Kuramochi, T. Sato, T. Kakitsuka, and M. Notomi, “All-optical on-chip bit memory based on ultra high Q InGaAsP photonic crystal,” Opt. Express 16(23), 19382–19387 (2008).
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L. Liu, R. Kumar, K. Huybrechts, T. Spuesens, G. Roelkens, E.-J. Geluk, T. de Vries, P. Regreny, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, and G. Morthier, “An ultra-small, low-power, all-optical flip-flop memory on a silicon chip,” Nat. Photonics 4(3), 182–187 (2010).
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T. Shoji, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, and H. Morita, “Low loss mode size converter from 0.3 µm square Si wire waveguides to singlemode fibres,” Electron. Lett. 38(25), 1669 (2002).
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H. Kawaguchi, T. Mori, Y. Sato, and Y. Yamayoshi, “Optical buffer memory using polarization-bistable vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(34), L894–L897 (2006).
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[CrossRef]

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Electron. Lett. (1)

T. Shoji, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, and H. Morita, “Low loss mode size converter from 0.3 µm square Si wire waveguides to singlemode fibres,” Electron. Lett. 38(25), 1669 (2002).
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K. Huybrechts, R. Baets, and G. Morthier, “All-optical flip-flop operation in a standard tunable DBR laser diode,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(24), 1873–1875 (2009).
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H. Kawaguchi, T. Mori, Y. Sato, and Y. Yamayoshi, “Optical buffer memory using polarization-bistable vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(34), L894–L897 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (2)

L. Liu, R. Kumar, K. Huybrechts, T. Spuesens, G. Roelkens, E.-J. Geluk, T. de Vries, P. Regreny, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, and G. Morthier, “An ultra-small, low-power, all-optical flip-flop memory on a silicon chip,” Nat. Photonics 4(3), 182–187 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Matsuo, A. Shinya, T. Kakitsuka, K. Nozaki, T. Segawa, T. Sato, Y. Kawaguchi, and M. Notomi, “High-speed ultracompact buried heterostructure photonic-crystal laser with 13fJ of energy consumed per bit transmitted,” Nat. Photonics 4(9), 648–654 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

M. T. Hill, H. J. S. Dorren, T. De Vries, X. J. M. Leijtens, J. H. Den Besten, B. Smalbrugge, Y.-S. Oei, H. Binsma, G.-D. Khoe, and M. K. Smit, “A fast low-power optical memory based on coupled micro-ring lasers,” Nature 432(7014), 206–209 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (6)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Other (5)

K. Nozaki, A. Shinya, T. Tanabe, S. Matsuo, T. Sato, T. Kakitsuka, E. Kuramochi, H. Taniyama, and M. Notomi, “Extremely low power nanophotonic devices based on photonic crystals,” Proceedings of Photonics in Switching, PWE1 (2010).

A. Shinya, S. Matsuo, T. Kakitsuka, K. Nozaki, T. Segawa, T. Sato, Y. Kawaguchi, and M. Notomi, “Low-power and high-speed operation of ultra-small photonic crystal nanocavity laser based on InGaAsP/InP buried heterostructure,” Conference on Laser and Electro-Optics, CWK1 (2010).

S. Matsuo, A. Shinya, T. Kakitsuka, K. Nozaki, T. Segawa, T. Sato, Y. Kawaguchi, and M. Notomi, “Ultra-small InGaAsP/InP buried heterostructure photonic crystal laser,” IEEE Photonic Society Annual Meeting, WH3 (2009).

S. Matsuo, T. Kakitsuka, T. Segawa, and H. Suzuki, “Optical flip-flop operation using a DBR laser”, Conference on Laser and Electro-Optics/Pacific Rim, ThA3_3 (2007).

T. Kageyama, K. Takaki, S. Imai, Y. Kawakita, K. Hiraiwa, N. Iwai, H. Shimizu, N. Tsukiji, and A. Kasukawa, “High efficiency 1060nm VCSELS for low power consumption,” Indium Phosphide and Related Materials, ThA2.1 (2009).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Scanning electron microscope (SEM) images of the fabricated buried heterostructure photonic crystal (BH-PhC) laser. (a) Top view. (b) Cross-sectional view as illustrated by the yellow dash line in (a). The sample was slightly etched after cleaving for better visualization of the buried active region.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) The experimental setup for the optical injection. The optical injection and the output from PhC laser were connected by a circulator. “Att” stands for polarization maintained optical attenuator and “OSA” stands for optical spectrum analyzer. (b) Optical spectrum of two free-running cavity modes with pump power of 25 µW in the PhC waveguide. The wavelength detuning between the injection light (λinj) and Mode-A is labeled as δ.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) The peak output power of the injection mode as a function of the injection power for a wavelength detuning of + 0.30 nm. (b-e) The output spectra of various injection levels as indicated. The injection power sweeping direction is specified by arrows (↑ and ↓). Two stable states (locked and unlocked) coexist at the same injection power of −13.5 dBm depending on the sweeping direction. The dash line on each spectrum indicates the wavelength of injection light.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Schematic of bistable operation. (b) Static bistability characteristics of Mode-B with various wavelength detuning values. Curves are offset in vertical axis for visual clarity. The sweeping directions of injection power are indicated by arrows.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Bistable range indicated by the lock-unlock thresholds.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

All-Optical bistable memory operation: (a) schematics of the input switching signal; (b) output waveforms of Mode-B signal with switching power at −11.5 dBm and (c) at −16.5 dBm in the PhC waveguide; (d) the rising edge and (e) the falling edge of the output waveform at −11.5 dBm; (f) the rising edge and (g) the falling edge of the output waveform at −16.5 dBm.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

All-Optical memory operation at various injection detuning values for switching power at −11.5 dBm in the PhC waveguide.

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