Abstract

A laser system composed of two lasers phase-locked onto an Optical Frequency Comb Synthesizer (OFCS), operating around 1083 nm, was developed. An absolute frequency precision of 6x10−13 at 1s, limited by the OFCS, was measured with a residual rms phase-noise of 71 mrad and 87 mrad for the two phase-locks, respectively. Multiplex spectroscopy on 1083 nm Helium transitions with this set-up is demonstrated. Generalization of this system to a larger number of OFCS assisted laser sources for wider frequency separations, even in other spectral regions, is discussed.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. Reichert, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, and T. W. Hansch, "Measuring the frequency of light with mode-locked lasers," Opt. Commun. 172, 5968 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  2. T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hansch, "Optical frequency metrology," Nature 416, 233240 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  3. P. Maddaloni, P. Cancio Pastor, and P. De Natale, "Optical comb generators for laser frequency measurement," Meas. Sci. Technol. 20, 052001 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  4. V. Gerginov, C. E. Tanner, S. A. Diddams, A. Bartels, and L. Hollberg, "High-resolution spectroscopy with a femtosecond laser frequency comb," Opt. Lett. 30, 17346 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. J. Thorpe, K. D. Moll, and R. J. Jones, "B. SafdiB, and J. Ye, "Broadband cavity ringdown spectroscopy for sensitive and rapid molecular detection," Science 311, 15959 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  6. G. Giusfredi, P. De Natale, D. Mazzotti, P. Cancio Pastor, C. de Mauro, L. Fallani, G. Hagel, V. Krachmalnicoff, and M. Inguscio, "Present status of the fine structure frequencies of the 23P Helium level," Can. J. Phys. 83(4), 301-310 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  7. T. Zelevinsky, D. Farkas, and G. Gabrielse, "Precision Measurement of the Three 23PJ Helium Fine Structure Intervals," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 203001 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. J. S. Borbely, M. C. George, L. D. Lombardi, M. Weel, D. W. Fitzakerley, and E. A. Hessels, "Separated oscillatory-field microwave measurement of the 23P123P2ri fine-structure interval of atomic helium," Phys. Rev. A 79, 060503 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  9. M. Smiciklas, and D. Shiner, "Determination of the Fine Structure constant using Helium Fine Structure," Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 070403 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  10. K. Pachucki, and V. A. Yerokhin, "Fine Structure of Heliumlike Ions and Determination of the Fine Structure Constant," Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 070403 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. J. D. Prestage, C. E. Johnson, E. A. Hinds, and F. M. J. Pichanick, "Precise study of hyperfine structure in the 23P state of 3He," Phys. Rev. A 32, 2712-2724 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. D. C. Morton, Q. X. Wu, and G. W. F. Drake, "Energy levels for the stable isotopes of atomic helium (He-4 I and He-3 I)," Can. J. Phys. 84, 83-105 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  13. D. Shiner, R. Dixson, and V. Vedantham, "Three-Nucleon Charge Radius: A Precise Laser Determination Using 3He," Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3553-3556 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. D. C. Morton, Q. Wu, and G. W. F. Drake, "Nuclear charge radius for 3He," Phys. Rev. A 73, 034502 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  15. P. Cancio Pastor, G. Giusfredi, P. De Natale, G. Hagel, C. de Mauro, and M. Inguscio, "Absolute Frequency Measurements of the 23S1! 23P0,1,2 Atomic Helium Transitions around 1083 nm," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 023001 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. P. Cancio Pastor, G. Giusfredi, P. De Natale, G. Hagel, C. de Mauro, and M. Inguscio, "Absolute Frequency Measurements of the 23S1! 23P0,1,2 Atomic Helium Transitions around 1083 nm: erratum," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 139903 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  17. V. A. Yerokhin, and K. Pachucki, "Theoretical energies of low-lying states of light helium-like ions," Phys. Rev. A 81, 022507 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  18. M. Prevedelli, P. Cancio, G. Giusfredi, F. S. Pavone, and M. Inguscio, "Frequency control of DBR diode lasers at 1.08 micrometer and precision spectroscopy of Helium," Opt. Commun. 125, 231 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  19. I. Galli, S. Bartalini, P. Cancio, G. Giusfredi, D. Mazzotti, and P. De Natale, "Ultra-stable, widely tunable and absolutely linked mid-IR coherent source," Opt. Express 17, 9583-9587 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  20. K. Döringshoff, I. Ernsting, R.-H. Rinkleff, S. Schiller, and A. Wicht, "Frequency comb-referenced narrow line width diode laser system for coherent molecular spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. B 91, 4956 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  21. L. Cacciapuoti, M. de Angelis, M. Fattori, G. Lamporesi, T. Petelski, M. Prevedelli, J. Stuhler, and G. M. Tino, "Analog+digital phase and frequency detector for phase locking of diode lasers," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 053111 (2005).
    [CrossRef]

2010 (3)

M. Smiciklas, and D. Shiner, "Determination of the Fine Structure constant using Helium Fine Structure," Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 070403 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. Pachucki, and V. A. Yerokhin, "Fine Structure of Heliumlike Ions and Determination of the Fine Structure Constant," Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 070403 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. A. Yerokhin, and K. Pachucki, "Theoretical energies of low-lying states of light helium-like ions," Phys. Rev. A 81, 022507 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (3)

J. S. Borbely, M. C. George, L. D. Lombardi, M. Weel, D. W. Fitzakerley, and E. A. Hessels, "Separated oscillatory-field microwave measurement of the 23P123P2ri fine-structure interval of atomic helium," Phys. Rev. A 79, 060503 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. Maddaloni, P. Cancio Pastor, and P. De Natale, "Optical comb generators for laser frequency measurement," Meas. Sci. Technol. 20, 052001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

I. Galli, S. Bartalini, P. Cancio, G. Giusfredi, D. Mazzotti, and P. De Natale, "Ultra-stable, widely tunable and absolutely linked mid-IR coherent source," Opt. Express 17, 9583-9587 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

K. Döringshoff, I. Ernsting, R.-H. Rinkleff, S. Schiller, and A. Wicht, "Frequency comb-referenced narrow line width diode laser system for coherent molecular spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. B 91, 4956 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2006 (4)

M. J. Thorpe, K. D. Moll, and R. J. Jones, "B. SafdiB, and J. Ye, "Broadband cavity ringdown spectroscopy for sensitive and rapid molecular detection," Science 311, 15959 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Cancio Pastor, G. Giusfredi, P. De Natale, G. Hagel, C. de Mauro, and M. Inguscio, "Absolute Frequency Measurements of the 23S1! 23P0,1,2 Atomic Helium Transitions around 1083 nm: erratum," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 139903 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. C. Morton, Q. X. Wu, and G. W. F. Drake, "Energy levels for the stable isotopes of atomic helium (He-4 I and He-3 I)," Can. J. Phys. 84, 83-105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. C. Morton, Q. Wu, and G. W. F. Drake, "Nuclear charge radius for 3He," Phys. Rev. A 73, 034502 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (4)

G. Giusfredi, P. De Natale, D. Mazzotti, P. Cancio Pastor, C. de Mauro, L. Fallani, G. Hagel, V. Krachmalnicoff, and M. Inguscio, "Present status of the fine structure frequencies of the 23P Helium level," Can. J. Phys. 83(4), 301-310 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Zelevinsky, D. Farkas, and G. Gabrielse, "Precision Measurement of the Three 23PJ Helium Fine Structure Intervals," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 203001 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Gerginov, C. E. Tanner, S. A. Diddams, A. Bartels, and L. Hollberg, "High-resolution spectroscopy with a femtosecond laser frequency comb," Opt. Lett. 30, 17346 (2005).
[CrossRef]

L. Cacciapuoti, M. de Angelis, M. Fattori, G. Lamporesi, T. Petelski, M. Prevedelli, J. Stuhler, and G. M. Tino, "Analog+digital phase and frequency detector for phase locking of diode lasers," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 053111 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

P. Cancio Pastor, G. Giusfredi, P. De Natale, G. Hagel, C. de Mauro, and M. Inguscio, "Absolute Frequency Measurements of the 23S1! 23P0,1,2 Atomic Helium Transitions around 1083 nm," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 023001 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hansch, "Optical frequency metrology," Nature 416, 233240 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

J. Reichert, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, and T. W. Hansch, "Measuring the frequency of light with mode-locked lasers," Opt. Commun. 172, 5968 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

M. Prevedelli, P. Cancio, G. Giusfredi, F. S. Pavone, and M. Inguscio, "Frequency control of DBR diode lasers at 1.08 micrometer and precision spectroscopy of Helium," Opt. Commun. 125, 231 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

D. Shiner, R. Dixson, and V. Vedantham, "Three-Nucleon Charge Radius: A Precise Laser Determination Using 3He," Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3553-3556 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1985 (1)

J. D. Prestage, C. E. Johnson, E. A. Hinds, and F. M. J. Pichanick, "Precise study of hyperfine structure in the 23P state of 3He," Phys. Rev. A 32, 2712-2724 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bartalini, S.

I. Galli, S. Bartalini, P. Cancio, G. Giusfredi, D. Mazzotti, and P. De Natale, "Ultra-stable, widely tunable and absolutely linked mid-IR coherent source," Opt. Express 17, 9583-9587 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bartels, A.

V. Gerginov, C. E. Tanner, S. A. Diddams, A. Bartels, and L. Hollberg, "High-resolution spectroscopy with a femtosecond laser frequency comb," Opt. Lett. 30, 17346 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Borbely, J. S.

J. S. Borbely, M. C. George, L. D. Lombardi, M. Weel, D. W. Fitzakerley, and E. A. Hessels, "Separated oscillatory-field microwave measurement of the 23P123P2ri fine-structure interval of atomic helium," Phys. Rev. A 79, 060503 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cacciapuoti, L.

L. Cacciapuoti, M. de Angelis, M. Fattori, G. Lamporesi, T. Petelski, M. Prevedelli, J. Stuhler, and G. M. Tino, "Analog+digital phase and frequency detector for phase locking of diode lasers," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 053111 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cancio, P.

I. Galli, S. Bartalini, P. Cancio, G. Giusfredi, D. Mazzotti, and P. De Natale, "Ultra-stable, widely tunable and absolutely linked mid-IR coherent source," Opt. Express 17, 9583-9587 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Prevedelli, P. Cancio, G. Giusfredi, F. S. Pavone, and M. Inguscio, "Frequency control of DBR diode lasers at 1.08 micrometer and precision spectroscopy of Helium," Opt. Commun. 125, 231 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Cancio Pastor, P.

P. Maddaloni, P. Cancio Pastor, and P. De Natale, "Optical comb generators for laser frequency measurement," Meas. Sci. Technol. 20, 052001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. Cancio Pastor, G. Giusfredi, P. De Natale, G. Hagel, C. de Mauro, and M. Inguscio, "Absolute Frequency Measurements of the 23S1! 23P0,1,2 Atomic Helium Transitions around 1083 nm: erratum," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 139903 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Giusfredi, P. De Natale, D. Mazzotti, P. Cancio Pastor, C. de Mauro, L. Fallani, G. Hagel, V. Krachmalnicoff, and M. Inguscio, "Present status of the fine structure frequencies of the 23P Helium level," Can. J. Phys. 83(4), 301-310 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. Cancio Pastor, G. Giusfredi, P. De Natale, G. Hagel, C. de Mauro, and M. Inguscio, "Absolute Frequency Measurements of the 23S1! 23P0,1,2 Atomic Helium Transitions around 1083 nm," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 023001 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de Angelis, M.

L. Cacciapuoti, M. de Angelis, M. Fattori, G. Lamporesi, T. Petelski, M. Prevedelli, J. Stuhler, and G. M. Tino, "Analog+digital phase and frequency detector for phase locking of diode lasers," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 053111 (2005).
[CrossRef]

de Mauro, C.

P. Cancio Pastor, G. Giusfredi, P. De Natale, G. Hagel, C. de Mauro, and M. Inguscio, "Absolute Frequency Measurements of the 23S1! 23P0,1,2 Atomic Helium Transitions around 1083 nm: erratum," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 139903 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Giusfredi, P. De Natale, D. Mazzotti, P. Cancio Pastor, C. de Mauro, L. Fallani, G. Hagel, V. Krachmalnicoff, and M. Inguscio, "Present status of the fine structure frequencies of the 23P Helium level," Can. J. Phys. 83(4), 301-310 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. Cancio Pastor, G. Giusfredi, P. De Natale, G. Hagel, C. de Mauro, and M. Inguscio, "Absolute Frequency Measurements of the 23S1! 23P0,1,2 Atomic Helium Transitions around 1083 nm," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 023001 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

De Natale, P.

P. Maddaloni, P. Cancio Pastor, and P. De Natale, "Optical comb generators for laser frequency measurement," Meas. Sci. Technol. 20, 052001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

I. Galli, S. Bartalini, P. Cancio, G. Giusfredi, D. Mazzotti, and P. De Natale, "Ultra-stable, widely tunable and absolutely linked mid-IR coherent source," Opt. Express 17, 9583-9587 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. Cancio Pastor, G. Giusfredi, P. De Natale, G. Hagel, C. de Mauro, and M. Inguscio, "Absolute Frequency Measurements of the 23S1! 23P0,1,2 Atomic Helium Transitions around 1083 nm: erratum," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 139903 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Giusfredi, P. De Natale, D. Mazzotti, P. Cancio Pastor, C. de Mauro, L. Fallani, G. Hagel, V. Krachmalnicoff, and M. Inguscio, "Present status of the fine structure frequencies of the 23P Helium level," Can. J. Phys. 83(4), 301-310 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. Cancio Pastor, G. Giusfredi, P. De Natale, G. Hagel, C. de Mauro, and M. Inguscio, "Absolute Frequency Measurements of the 23S1! 23P0,1,2 Atomic Helium Transitions around 1083 nm," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 023001 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Diddams, S. A.

V. Gerginov, C. E. Tanner, S. A. Diddams, A. Bartels, and L. Hollberg, "High-resolution spectroscopy with a femtosecond laser frequency comb," Opt. Lett. 30, 17346 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dixson, R.

D. Shiner, R. Dixson, and V. Vedantham, "Three-Nucleon Charge Radius: A Precise Laser Determination Using 3He," Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3553-3556 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Döringshoff, K.

K. Döringshoff, I. Ernsting, R.-H. Rinkleff, S. Schiller, and A. Wicht, "Frequency comb-referenced narrow line width diode laser system for coherent molecular spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. B 91, 4956 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Drake, G. W. F.

D. C. Morton, Q. X. Wu, and G. W. F. Drake, "Energy levels for the stable isotopes of atomic helium (He-4 I and He-3 I)," Can. J. Phys. 84, 83-105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. C. Morton, Q. Wu, and G. W. F. Drake, "Nuclear charge radius for 3He," Phys. Rev. A 73, 034502 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ernsting, I.

K. Döringshoff, I. Ernsting, R.-H. Rinkleff, S. Schiller, and A. Wicht, "Frequency comb-referenced narrow line width diode laser system for coherent molecular spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. B 91, 4956 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fallani, L.

G. Giusfredi, P. De Natale, D. Mazzotti, P. Cancio Pastor, C. de Mauro, L. Fallani, G. Hagel, V. Krachmalnicoff, and M. Inguscio, "Present status of the fine structure frequencies of the 23P Helium level," Can. J. Phys. 83(4), 301-310 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Farkas, D.

T. Zelevinsky, D. Farkas, and G. Gabrielse, "Precision Measurement of the Three 23PJ Helium Fine Structure Intervals," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 203001 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fattori, M.

L. Cacciapuoti, M. de Angelis, M. Fattori, G. Lamporesi, T. Petelski, M. Prevedelli, J. Stuhler, and G. M. Tino, "Analog+digital phase and frequency detector for phase locking of diode lasers," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 053111 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Fitzakerley, D. W.

J. S. Borbely, M. C. George, L. D. Lombardi, M. Weel, D. W. Fitzakerley, and E. A. Hessels, "Separated oscillatory-field microwave measurement of the 23P123P2ri fine-structure interval of atomic helium," Phys. Rev. A 79, 060503 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gabrielse, G.

T. Zelevinsky, D. Farkas, and G. Gabrielse, "Precision Measurement of the Three 23PJ Helium Fine Structure Intervals," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 203001 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Galli, I.

I. Galli, S. Bartalini, P. Cancio, G. Giusfredi, D. Mazzotti, and P. De Natale, "Ultra-stable, widely tunable and absolutely linked mid-IR coherent source," Opt. Express 17, 9583-9587 (2009).
[CrossRef]

George, M. C.

J. S. Borbely, M. C. George, L. D. Lombardi, M. Weel, D. W. Fitzakerley, and E. A. Hessels, "Separated oscillatory-field microwave measurement of the 23P123P2ri fine-structure interval of atomic helium," Phys. Rev. A 79, 060503 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gerginov, V.

V. Gerginov, C. E. Tanner, S. A. Diddams, A. Bartels, and L. Hollberg, "High-resolution spectroscopy with a femtosecond laser frequency comb," Opt. Lett. 30, 17346 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Giusfredi, G.

I. Galli, S. Bartalini, P. Cancio, G. Giusfredi, D. Mazzotti, and P. De Natale, "Ultra-stable, widely tunable and absolutely linked mid-IR coherent source," Opt. Express 17, 9583-9587 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. Cancio Pastor, G. Giusfredi, P. De Natale, G. Hagel, C. de Mauro, and M. Inguscio, "Absolute Frequency Measurements of the 23S1! 23P0,1,2 Atomic Helium Transitions around 1083 nm: erratum," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 139903 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Giusfredi, P. De Natale, D. Mazzotti, P. Cancio Pastor, C. de Mauro, L. Fallani, G. Hagel, V. Krachmalnicoff, and M. Inguscio, "Present status of the fine structure frequencies of the 23P Helium level," Can. J. Phys. 83(4), 301-310 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. Cancio Pastor, G. Giusfredi, P. De Natale, G. Hagel, C. de Mauro, and M. Inguscio, "Absolute Frequency Measurements of the 23S1! 23P0,1,2 Atomic Helium Transitions around 1083 nm," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 023001 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Prevedelli, P. Cancio, G. Giusfredi, F. S. Pavone, and M. Inguscio, "Frequency control of DBR diode lasers at 1.08 micrometer and precision spectroscopy of Helium," Opt. Commun. 125, 231 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hagel, G.

P. Cancio Pastor, G. Giusfredi, P. De Natale, G. Hagel, C. de Mauro, and M. Inguscio, "Absolute Frequency Measurements of the 23S1! 23P0,1,2 Atomic Helium Transitions around 1083 nm: erratum," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 139903 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Giusfredi, P. De Natale, D. Mazzotti, P. Cancio Pastor, C. de Mauro, L. Fallani, G. Hagel, V. Krachmalnicoff, and M. Inguscio, "Present status of the fine structure frequencies of the 23P Helium level," Can. J. Phys. 83(4), 301-310 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. Cancio Pastor, G. Giusfredi, P. De Natale, G. Hagel, C. de Mauro, and M. Inguscio, "Absolute Frequency Measurements of the 23S1! 23P0,1,2 Atomic Helium Transitions around 1083 nm," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 023001 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hansch, T. W.

T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hansch, "Optical frequency metrology," Nature 416, 233240 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Reichert, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, and T. W. Hansch, "Measuring the frequency of light with mode-locked lasers," Opt. Commun. 172, 5968 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hessels, E. A.

J. S. Borbely, M. C. George, L. D. Lombardi, M. Weel, D. W. Fitzakerley, and E. A. Hessels, "Separated oscillatory-field microwave measurement of the 23P123P2ri fine-structure interval of atomic helium," Phys. Rev. A 79, 060503 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hinds, E. A.

J. D. Prestage, C. E. Johnson, E. A. Hinds, and F. M. J. Pichanick, "Precise study of hyperfine structure in the 23P state of 3He," Phys. Rev. A 32, 2712-2724 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hollberg, L.

V. Gerginov, C. E. Tanner, S. A. Diddams, A. Bartels, and L. Hollberg, "High-resolution spectroscopy with a femtosecond laser frequency comb," Opt. Lett. 30, 17346 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Holzwarth, R.

T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hansch, "Optical frequency metrology," Nature 416, 233240 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Reichert, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, and T. W. Hansch, "Measuring the frequency of light with mode-locked lasers," Opt. Commun. 172, 5968 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Inguscio, M.

P. Cancio Pastor, G. Giusfredi, P. De Natale, G. Hagel, C. de Mauro, and M. Inguscio, "Absolute Frequency Measurements of the 23S1! 23P0,1,2 Atomic Helium Transitions around 1083 nm: erratum," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 139903 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Giusfredi, P. De Natale, D. Mazzotti, P. Cancio Pastor, C. de Mauro, L. Fallani, G. Hagel, V. Krachmalnicoff, and M. Inguscio, "Present status of the fine structure frequencies of the 23P Helium level," Can. J. Phys. 83(4), 301-310 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. Cancio Pastor, G. Giusfredi, P. De Natale, G. Hagel, C. de Mauro, and M. Inguscio, "Absolute Frequency Measurements of the 23S1! 23P0,1,2 Atomic Helium Transitions around 1083 nm," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 023001 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Prevedelli, P. Cancio, G. Giusfredi, F. S. Pavone, and M. Inguscio, "Frequency control of DBR diode lasers at 1.08 micrometer and precision spectroscopy of Helium," Opt. Commun. 125, 231 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, C. E.

J. D. Prestage, C. E. Johnson, E. A. Hinds, and F. M. J. Pichanick, "Precise study of hyperfine structure in the 23P state of 3He," Phys. Rev. A 32, 2712-2724 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jones, R. J.

M. J. Thorpe, K. D. Moll, and R. J. Jones, "B. SafdiB, and J. Ye, "Broadband cavity ringdown spectroscopy for sensitive and rapid molecular detection," Science 311, 15959 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Krachmalnicoff, V.

G. Giusfredi, P. De Natale, D. Mazzotti, P. Cancio Pastor, C. de Mauro, L. Fallani, G. Hagel, V. Krachmalnicoff, and M. Inguscio, "Present status of the fine structure frequencies of the 23P Helium level," Can. J. Phys. 83(4), 301-310 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lamporesi, G.

L. Cacciapuoti, M. de Angelis, M. Fattori, G. Lamporesi, T. Petelski, M. Prevedelli, J. Stuhler, and G. M. Tino, "Analog+digital phase and frequency detector for phase locking of diode lasers," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 053111 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lombardi, L. D.

J. S. Borbely, M. C. George, L. D. Lombardi, M. Weel, D. W. Fitzakerley, and E. A. Hessels, "Separated oscillatory-field microwave measurement of the 23P123P2ri fine-structure interval of atomic helium," Phys. Rev. A 79, 060503 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Maddaloni, P.

P. Maddaloni, P. Cancio Pastor, and P. De Natale, "Optical comb generators for laser frequency measurement," Meas. Sci. Technol. 20, 052001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mazzotti, D.

I. Galli, S. Bartalini, P. Cancio, G. Giusfredi, D. Mazzotti, and P. De Natale, "Ultra-stable, widely tunable and absolutely linked mid-IR coherent source," Opt. Express 17, 9583-9587 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Giusfredi, P. De Natale, D. Mazzotti, P. Cancio Pastor, C. de Mauro, L. Fallani, G. Hagel, V. Krachmalnicoff, and M. Inguscio, "Present status of the fine structure frequencies of the 23P Helium level," Can. J. Phys. 83(4), 301-310 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Moll, K. D.

M. J. Thorpe, K. D. Moll, and R. J. Jones, "B. SafdiB, and J. Ye, "Broadband cavity ringdown spectroscopy for sensitive and rapid molecular detection," Science 311, 15959 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Morton, D. C.

D. C. Morton, Q. X. Wu, and G. W. F. Drake, "Energy levels for the stable isotopes of atomic helium (He-4 I and He-3 I)," Can. J. Phys. 84, 83-105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. C. Morton, Q. Wu, and G. W. F. Drake, "Nuclear charge radius for 3He," Phys. Rev. A 73, 034502 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pachucki, K.

K. Pachucki, and V. A. Yerokhin, "Fine Structure of Heliumlike Ions and Determination of the Fine Structure Constant," Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 070403 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. A. Yerokhin, and K. Pachucki, "Theoretical energies of low-lying states of light helium-like ions," Phys. Rev. A 81, 022507 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Pavone, F. S.

M. Prevedelli, P. Cancio, G. Giusfredi, F. S. Pavone, and M. Inguscio, "Frequency control of DBR diode lasers at 1.08 micrometer and precision spectroscopy of Helium," Opt. Commun. 125, 231 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Petelski, T.

L. Cacciapuoti, M. de Angelis, M. Fattori, G. Lamporesi, T. Petelski, M. Prevedelli, J. Stuhler, and G. M. Tino, "Analog+digital phase and frequency detector for phase locking of diode lasers," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 053111 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Pichanick, F. M. J.

J. D. Prestage, C. E. Johnson, E. A. Hinds, and F. M. J. Pichanick, "Precise study of hyperfine structure in the 23P state of 3He," Phys. Rev. A 32, 2712-2724 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Prestage, J. D.

J. D. Prestage, C. E. Johnson, E. A. Hinds, and F. M. J. Pichanick, "Precise study of hyperfine structure in the 23P state of 3He," Phys. Rev. A 32, 2712-2724 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Prevedelli, M.

L. Cacciapuoti, M. de Angelis, M. Fattori, G. Lamporesi, T. Petelski, M. Prevedelli, J. Stuhler, and G. M. Tino, "Analog+digital phase and frequency detector for phase locking of diode lasers," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 053111 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Prevedelli, P. Cancio, G. Giusfredi, F. S. Pavone, and M. Inguscio, "Frequency control of DBR diode lasers at 1.08 micrometer and precision spectroscopy of Helium," Opt. Commun. 125, 231 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Reichert, J.

J. Reichert, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, and T. W. Hansch, "Measuring the frequency of light with mode-locked lasers," Opt. Commun. 172, 5968 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Rinkleff, R.-H.

K. Döringshoff, I. Ernsting, R.-H. Rinkleff, S. Schiller, and A. Wicht, "Frequency comb-referenced narrow line width diode laser system for coherent molecular spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. B 91, 4956 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Schiller, S.

K. Döringshoff, I. Ernsting, R.-H. Rinkleff, S. Schiller, and A. Wicht, "Frequency comb-referenced narrow line width diode laser system for coherent molecular spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. B 91, 4956 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Shiner, D.

M. Smiciklas, and D. Shiner, "Determination of the Fine Structure constant using Helium Fine Structure," Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 070403 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Shiner, R. Dixson, and V. Vedantham, "Three-Nucleon Charge Radius: A Precise Laser Determination Using 3He," Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3553-3556 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smiciklas, M.

M. Smiciklas, and D. Shiner, "Determination of the Fine Structure constant using Helium Fine Structure," Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 070403 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Stuhler, J.

L. Cacciapuoti, M. de Angelis, M. Fattori, G. Lamporesi, T. Petelski, M. Prevedelli, J. Stuhler, and G. M. Tino, "Analog+digital phase and frequency detector for phase locking of diode lasers," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 053111 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tanner, C. E.

V. Gerginov, C. E. Tanner, S. A. Diddams, A. Bartels, and L. Hollberg, "High-resolution spectroscopy with a femtosecond laser frequency comb," Opt. Lett. 30, 17346 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Thorpe, M. J.

M. J. Thorpe, K. D. Moll, and R. J. Jones, "B. SafdiB, and J. Ye, "Broadband cavity ringdown spectroscopy for sensitive and rapid molecular detection," Science 311, 15959 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tino, G. M.

L. Cacciapuoti, M. de Angelis, M. Fattori, G. Lamporesi, T. Petelski, M. Prevedelli, J. Stuhler, and G. M. Tino, "Analog+digital phase and frequency detector for phase locking of diode lasers," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 053111 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Udem, T.

T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hansch, "Optical frequency metrology," Nature 416, 233240 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Reichert, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, and T. W. Hansch, "Measuring the frequency of light with mode-locked lasers," Opt. Commun. 172, 5968 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Vedantham, V.

D. Shiner, R. Dixson, and V. Vedantham, "Three-Nucleon Charge Radius: A Precise Laser Determination Using 3He," Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3553-3556 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weel, M.

J. S. Borbely, M. C. George, L. D. Lombardi, M. Weel, D. W. Fitzakerley, and E. A. Hessels, "Separated oscillatory-field microwave measurement of the 23P123P2ri fine-structure interval of atomic helium," Phys. Rev. A 79, 060503 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wicht, A.

K. Döringshoff, I. Ernsting, R.-H. Rinkleff, S. Schiller, and A. Wicht, "Frequency comb-referenced narrow line width diode laser system for coherent molecular spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. B 91, 4956 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wu, Q.

D. C. Morton, Q. Wu, and G. W. F. Drake, "Nuclear charge radius for 3He," Phys. Rev. A 73, 034502 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wu, Q. X.

D. C. Morton, Q. X. Wu, and G. W. F. Drake, "Energy levels for the stable isotopes of atomic helium (He-4 I and He-3 I)," Can. J. Phys. 84, 83-105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yerokhin, V. A.

K. Pachucki, and V. A. Yerokhin, "Fine Structure of Heliumlike Ions and Determination of the Fine Structure Constant," Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 070403 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. A. Yerokhin, and K. Pachucki, "Theoretical energies of low-lying states of light helium-like ions," Phys. Rev. A 81, 022507 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zelevinsky, T.

T. Zelevinsky, D. Farkas, and G. Gabrielse, "Precision Measurement of the Three 23PJ Helium Fine Structure Intervals," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 203001 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

K. Döringshoff, I. Ernsting, R.-H. Rinkleff, S. Schiller, and A. Wicht, "Frequency comb-referenced narrow line width diode laser system for coherent molecular spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. B 91, 4956 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Can. J. Phys. (2)

G. Giusfredi, P. De Natale, D. Mazzotti, P. Cancio Pastor, C. de Mauro, L. Fallani, G. Hagel, V. Krachmalnicoff, and M. Inguscio, "Present status of the fine structure frequencies of the 23P Helium level," Can. J. Phys. 83(4), 301-310 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. C. Morton, Q. X. Wu, and G. W. F. Drake, "Energy levels for the stable isotopes of atomic helium (He-4 I and He-3 I)," Can. J. Phys. 84, 83-105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Meas. Sci. Technol. (1)

P. Maddaloni, P. Cancio Pastor, and P. De Natale, "Optical comb generators for laser frequency measurement," Meas. Sci. Technol. 20, 052001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hansch, "Optical frequency metrology," Nature 416, 233240 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (2)

J. Reichert, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, and T. W. Hansch, "Measuring the frequency of light with mode-locked lasers," Opt. Commun. 172, 5968 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Prevedelli, P. Cancio, G. Giusfredi, F. S. Pavone, and M. Inguscio, "Frequency control of DBR diode lasers at 1.08 micrometer and precision spectroscopy of Helium," Opt. Commun. 125, 231 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

I. Galli, S. Bartalini, P. Cancio, G. Giusfredi, D. Mazzotti, and P. De Natale, "Ultra-stable, widely tunable and absolutely linked mid-IR coherent source," Opt. Express 17, 9583-9587 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

V. Gerginov, C. E. Tanner, S. A. Diddams, A. Bartels, and L. Hollberg, "High-resolution spectroscopy with a femtosecond laser frequency comb," Opt. Lett. 30, 17346 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A (4)

J. S. Borbely, M. C. George, L. D. Lombardi, M. Weel, D. W. Fitzakerley, and E. A. Hessels, "Separated oscillatory-field microwave measurement of the 23P123P2ri fine-structure interval of atomic helium," Phys. Rev. A 79, 060503 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Prestage, C. E. Johnson, E. A. Hinds, and F. M. J. Pichanick, "Precise study of hyperfine structure in the 23P state of 3He," Phys. Rev. A 32, 2712-2724 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. A. Yerokhin, and K. Pachucki, "Theoretical energies of low-lying states of light helium-like ions," Phys. Rev. A 81, 022507 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. C. Morton, Q. Wu, and G. W. F. Drake, "Nuclear charge radius for 3He," Phys. Rev. A 73, 034502 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (6)

P. Cancio Pastor, G. Giusfredi, P. De Natale, G. Hagel, C. de Mauro, and M. Inguscio, "Absolute Frequency Measurements of the 23S1! 23P0,1,2 Atomic Helium Transitions around 1083 nm," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 023001 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Cancio Pastor, G. Giusfredi, P. De Natale, G. Hagel, C. de Mauro, and M. Inguscio, "Absolute Frequency Measurements of the 23S1! 23P0,1,2 Atomic Helium Transitions around 1083 nm: erratum," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 139903 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Shiner, R. Dixson, and V. Vedantham, "Three-Nucleon Charge Radius: A Precise Laser Determination Using 3He," Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3553-3556 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Smiciklas, and D. Shiner, "Determination of the Fine Structure constant using Helium Fine Structure," Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 070403 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. Pachucki, and V. A. Yerokhin, "Fine Structure of Heliumlike Ions and Determination of the Fine Structure Constant," Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 070403 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Zelevinsky, D. Farkas, and G. Gabrielse, "Precision Measurement of the Three 23PJ Helium Fine Structure Intervals," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 203001 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

L. Cacciapuoti, M. de Angelis, M. Fattori, G. Lamporesi, T. Petelski, M. Prevedelli, J. Stuhler, and G. M. Tino, "Analog+digital phase and frequency detector for phase locking of diode lasers," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 053111 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

M. J. Thorpe, K. D. Moll, and R. J. Jones, "B. SafdiB, and J. Ye, "Broadband cavity ringdown spectroscopy for sensitive and rapid molecular detection," Science 311, 15959 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental set-up.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Phase-lock beatnote for the OPLL1 (red) and OPLL2 (black) loops.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Allan variance of the OPLL1 and OPLL2. On the left laser1 is locked to the nearest comb tooth. On the right, laser2 is locked to laser1. Vertical axes in Hz.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

EIT spectrum for the V coherence spectroscopy configuration with L1 resonant with 4He 23S1 → 23P2 transition and L2 resonant with 4He 23S1 → 23P1 one, when the L2 frequency is scanned and L1 frequency is fixed. Saturation dip spectrum due to L2 is also shown.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Saturated fluorescence of the 23S1 → 23P1 transition of 4He. On the right, the laser configuration (both lasers on the same line) and the fluorescence dip on top of the residual Gaussian shape, for one resonant laser, are shown. On the left, the recorded third derivative lineshape of the saturation dips, with fitting curves, are shown. The two signals should be overlapped, but they have been shifted for the sake of clarity. Acquisition parameters were 40 MHz OFCS scanwidth, 100 points for each spectrum, using a lock-in integration time of 700 ms for each point.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

On the left, statistical distribution of 25 run of measurements when both lasers are resonant with the 4He 23S1 → 23P1 transition. The weighted-mean value for both lasers is also shown. On the right, statistical distribution and weighted-mean of the point-to-point frequency differences of the measurements shown in the left graph.

Equations (2)

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f 1 = f 0 + N 1 f r + f c 1 = f 0 + N 1 f r + f L O
f 2 = f 1 + f 12 = f 0 + N 1 f r + f μ w + f L O

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