Abstract

We report random laser action in a system where optical amplification is provided by colloidal quantum dots (CQDs). This system is obtained by depositing from solution CdSe/ZnS core-shell CQDs into rough micron-scale grooves fabricated on the surface of a glass substrate. The combination of CQD random packing and of disordered structures in the glass groove enables gain and multiple scattering. Upon optical excitation, random laser action is triggered in the system above a 25-mJ/cm2 threshold. Single-shot spectra were recorded to study the emission spectral characteristics and the results show the stability of the laser mode positions and the dominance of the modes close to the material gain maximum.

© 2011 OSA

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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  14. J. Schäfer, J. P. Mondia, R. Sharma, Z. H. Lu, A. S. Susha, A. L. Rogach, and L. J. Wang, “Quantum dot microdrop laser,” Nano Lett. 8(6), 1709–1712 (2008).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. D. S. Wiersma and A. Lagendijk, “Light diffusion with gain and random lasers,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics 54(4), 4256–4265 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. J. Fallert, R. J. B. Dietz, J. Sartor, D. Schneider, C. Klingshirn, and H. Kalt, “Co-existence of strongly and weakly localized random laser modes,” Nat. Photonics 3(5), 279–282 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  24. J. H. Li and A. Z. Genack, “Correlation in laser speckle,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics 49(5), 4530–4533 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. A. E. Siegman, “Excess spontaneous emission in non-Hermitian optical systems. II. Laser oscillators,” Phys. Rev. A 39(3), 1264–1268 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. L. I. Deych, “Effects of spatial nonuniformity on laser dynamics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(4), 043902 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  28. R. C. Polson, M. E. Raikh, and Z. V. Vardeny, “Random lasing from weakly scattering media; spectrum universality in DOO–PPV polymer films,” Physica E 13(2-4), 1240–1242 (2002).
    [CrossRef]

2010 (3)

T. Yim, T. Zentgraf, B. Min, and X. Zhang, “All-liquid photonic microcavity stabilized by quantum dots,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 132(7), 2154–2156 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Tulek, R. C. Polson, and Z. V. Vardeny, “Naturally occurring resonators in random lasing of π-conjugated polymer films,” Nat. Phys. 6(4), 303–310 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Herrnsdorf, B. Guilhabert, Y. Chen, A. Kanibolotsky, A. Mackintosh, R. Pethrick, P. Skabara, E. Gu, N. Laurand, and M. Dawson, “Flexible blue-emitting encapsulated organic semiconductor DFB laser,” Opt. Express 18(25), 25535–25545 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (4)

J. Fallert, R. J. B. Dietz, J. Sartor, D. Schneider, C. Klingshirn, and H. Kalt, “Co-existence of strongly and weakly localized random laser modes,” Nat. Photonics 3(5), 279–282 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Boucher and P. Féron, “Generalized transfer function: A simple model applied to active single-mode microring resonators,” Opt. Commun. 282(19), 3940–3947 (2009).
[CrossRef]

X. Meng, K. Fujita, S. Murai, and K. Tanaka, “Coherent random lasers in weakly scattering polymer films containing silver nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. A 79(5), 053817 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Costela, I. Garcia-Moreno, L. Cerdan, V. Martin, O. Garcia, and R. Sastre, “Dye-doped POSS solutions: random nanomaterials for laser emission,” Adv. Mater. 21(41), 4163–4166 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (5)

D. S. Wiersma, “The physics and applications of random lasers,” Nat. Phys. 4(5), 359–367 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Gottardo, R. Sapienza, P. D. Garcia, A. Blanco, D. S. Wiersma, and C. Lopez, “Resonance-driven random lasing,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 429–432 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. E. Türeci, L. Ge, S. Rotter, and A. D. Stone, “Strong interactions in multimode random lasers,” Science 320(5876), 643–646 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Uchida, K. Amano, M. Inoue, K. Hirano, S. Naito, H. Someya, I. Oowada, T. Kurashige, M. Shiki, S. Yoshimori, K. Yoshimura, and P. Davis, “Fast physical random bit generation with chaotic semiconductor lasers,” Nat. Photonics 2(12), 728–732 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Schäfer, J. P. Mondia, R. Sharma, Z. H. Lu, A. S. Susha, A. L. Rogach, and L. J. Wang, “Quantum dot microdrop laser,” Nano Lett. 8(6), 1709–1712 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

S. Mujumdar, V. Türck, R. Torre, and D. S. Wiersma, “Chaotic behavior of a random laser with static disorder,” Phys. Rev. A 76(3), 033807 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Kraus, L. Malaquin, H. Schmid, W. Riess, N. D. Spencer, and H. Wolf, “Nanoparticle printing with single-particle resolution,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 2(9), 570–576 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005 (3)

L. I. Deych, “Effects of spatial nonuniformity on laser dynamics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(4), 043902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. T. Snee, Y. Chan, D. G. Nocera, and M. G. Bawendi, “Whispering-gallery-mode lasing from a semiconductor nanocrystal/microsphere resonator composite,” Adv. Mater. 17(9), 1131–1136 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Xu and M. Xiao, “Lasing action in colloidal CdS/CdSe/CdS quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(17), 173117 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

V. C. Sundar, H. Eisler, T. Deng, Y. Chan, E. L. Thomas, and M. G. Bawendi, “Soft-lithographically embossed, multilayered distributed-feedback nanocrystal lasers,” Adv. Mater. 16(23-24), 2137–2141 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

H. Eisler, V. C. Sundar, M. G. Bawendi, M. Walsh, H. I. Smith, and V. Klimov, “Color-selective semiconductor nanocrystal laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(24), 4614 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Polson, M. E. Raikh, and Z. V. Vardeny, “Random lasing from weakly scattering media; spectrum universality in DOO–PPV polymer films,” Physica E 13(2-4), 1240–1242 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

R. C. Polson, A. Chipouline, and Z. V. Vardeny, “Random lasing in π-conjugated films and infiltrated opals,” Adv. Mater. 13(10), 760–764 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

V. I. Klimov, A. A. Mikhailovsky, S. Xu, A. Malko, J. A. Hollingsworth, C. A. Leatherdale, H. Eisler, and M. G. Bawendi, “Optical gain and stimulated emission in nanocrystal quantum dots,” Science 290(5490), 314–317 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. I. Klimov, A. A. Mikhailovsky, D. W. McBranch, C. A. Leatherdale, and M. G. Bawendi, “Quantization of multiparticle auger rates in semiconductor quantum dots,” Science 287(5455), 1011–1013 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, Q. H. Wang, and R. P. H. Chang, “Random laser action in semiconductor powder,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(11), 2278–2281 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

D. S. Wiersma and A. Lagendijk, “Light diffusion with gain and random lasers,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics 54(4), 4256–4265 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (2)

N. M. Lawandy, R. M. Balachandran, A. S. L. Gomes, and E. Sauvain, “Laser action in strongly scattering media,” Nature 368(6470), 436–438 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Li and A. Z. Genack, “Correlation in laser speckle,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics 49(5), 4530–4533 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989 (1)

A. E. Siegman, “Excess spontaneous emission in non-Hermitian optical systems. II. Laser oscillators,” Phys. Rev. A 39(3), 1264–1268 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Amano, K.

A. Uchida, K. Amano, M. Inoue, K. Hirano, S. Naito, H. Someya, I. Oowada, T. Kurashige, M. Shiki, S. Yoshimori, K. Yoshimura, and P. Davis, “Fast physical random bit generation with chaotic semiconductor lasers,” Nat. Photonics 2(12), 728–732 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Balachandran, R. M.

N. M. Lawandy, R. M. Balachandran, A. S. L. Gomes, and E. Sauvain, “Laser action in strongly scattering media,” Nature 368(6470), 436–438 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Bawendi, M. G.

P. T. Snee, Y. Chan, D. G. Nocera, and M. G. Bawendi, “Whispering-gallery-mode lasing from a semiconductor nanocrystal/microsphere resonator composite,” Adv. Mater. 17(9), 1131–1136 (2005).
[CrossRef]

V. C. Sundar, H. Eisler, T. Deng, Y. Chan, E. L. Thomas, and M. G. Bawendi, “Soft-lithographically embossed, multilayered distributed-feedback nanocrystal lasers,” Adv. Mater. 16(23-24), 2137–2141 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. Eisler, V. C. Sundar, M. G. Bawendi, M. Walsh, H. I. Smith, and V. Klimov, “Color-selective semiconductor nanocrystal laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(24), 4614 (2002).
[CrossRef]

V. I. Klimov, A. A. Mikhailovsky, S. Xu, A. Malko, J. A. Hollingsworth, C. A. Leatherdale, H. Eisler, and M. G. Bawendi, “Optical gain and stimulated emission in nanocrystal quantum dots,” Science 290(5490), 314–317 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. I. Klimov, A. A. Mikhailovsky, D. W. McBranch, C. A. Leatherdale, and M. G. Bawendi, “Quantization of multiparticle auger rates in semiconductor quantum dots,” Science 287(5455), 1011–1013 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Blanco, A.

S. Gottardo, R. Sapienza, P. D. Garcia, A. Blanco, D. S. Wiersma, and C. Lopez, “Resonance-driven random lasing,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 429–432 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Boucher, Y.

Y. Boucher and P. Féron, “Generalized transfer function: A simple model applied to active single-mode microring resonators,” Opt. Commun. 282(19), 3940–3947 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cao, H.

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, Q. H. Wang, and R. P. H. Chang, “Random laser action in semiconductor powder,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(11), 2278–2281 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Cerdan, L.

A. Costela, I. Garcia-Moreno, L. Cerdan, V. Martin, O. Garcia, and R. Sastre, “Dye-doped POSS solutions: random nanomaterials for laser emission,” Adv. Mater. 21(41), 4163–4166 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chan, Y.

P. T. Snee, Y. Chan, D. G. Nocera, and M. G. Bawendi, “Whispering-gallery-mode lasing from a semiconductor nanocrystal/microsphere resonator composite,” Adv. Mater. 17(9), 1131–1136 (2005).
[CrossRef]

V. C. Sundar, H. Eisler, T. Deng, Y. Chan, E. L. Thomas, and M. G. Bawendi, “Soft-lithographically embossed, multilayered distributed-feedback nanocrystal lasers,” Adv. Mater. 16(23-24), 2137–2141 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chang, R. P. H.

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, Q. H. Wang, and R. P. H. Chang, “Random laser action in semiconductor powder,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(11), 2278–2281 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y.

Chipouline, A.

R. C. Polson, A. Chipouline, and Z. V. Vardeny, “Random lasing in π-conjugated films and infiltrated opals,” Adv. Mater. 13(10), 760–764 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Costela, A.

A. Costela, I. Garcia-Moreno, L. Cerdan, V. Martin, O. Garcia, and R. Sastre, “Dye-doped POSS solutions: random nanomaterials for laser emission,” Adv. Mater. 21(41), 4163–4166 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Davis, P.

A. Uchida, K. Amano, M. Inoue, K. Hirano, S. Naito, H. Someya, I. Oowada, T. Kurashige, M. Shiki, S. Yoshimori, K. Yoshimura, and P. Davis, “Fast physical random bit generation with chaotic semiconductor lasers,” Nat. Photonics 2(12), 728–732 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dawson, M.

Deng, T.

V. C. Sundar, H. Eisler, T. Deng, Y. Chan, E. L. Thomas, and M. G. Bawendi, “Soft-lithographically embossed, multilayered distributed-feedback nanocrystal lasers,” Adv. Mater. 16(23-24), 2137–2141 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Deych, L. I.

L. I. Deych, “Effects of spatial nonuniformity on laser dynamics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(4), 043902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dietz, R. J. B.

J. Fallert, R. J. B. Dietz, J. Sartor, D. Schneider, C. Klingshirn, and H. Kalt, “Co-existence of strongly and weakly localized random laser modes,” Nat. Photonics 3(5), 279–282 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Eisler, H.

V. C. Sundar, H. Eisler, T. Deng, Y. Chan, E. L. Thomas, and M. G. Bawendi, “Soft-lithographically embossed, multilayered distributed-feedback nanocrystal lasers,” Adv. Mater. 16(23-24), 2137–2141 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. Eisler, V. C. Sundar, M. G. Bawendi, M. Walsh, H. I. Smith, and V. Klimov, “Color-selective semiconductor nanocrystal laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(24), 4614 (2002).
[CrossRef]

V. I. Klimov, A. A. Mikhailovsky, S. Xu, A. Malko, J. A. Hollingsworth, C. A. Leatherdale, H. Eisler, and M. G. Bawendi, “Optical gain and stimulated emission in nanocrystal quantum dots,” Science 290(5490), 314–317 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fallert, J.

J. Fallert, R. J. B. Dietz, J. Sartor, D. Schneider, C. Klingshirn, and H. Kalt, “Co-existence of strongly and weakly localized random laser modes,” Nat. Photonics 3(5), 279–282 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Féron, P.

Y. Boucher and P. Féron, “Generalized transfer function: A simple model applied to active single-mode microring resonators,” Opt. Commun. 282(19), 3940–3947 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fujita, K.

X. Meng, K. Fujita, S. Murai, and K. Tanaka, “Coherent random lasers in weakly scattering polymer films containing silver nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. A 79(5), 053817 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Garcia, O.

A. Costela, I. Garcia-Moreno, L. Cerdan, V. Martin, O. Garcia, and R. Sastre, “Dye-doped POSS solutions: random nanomaterials for laser emission,” Adv. Mater. 21(41), 4163–4166 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Garcia, P. D.

S. Gottardo, R. Sapienza, P. D. Garcia, A. Blanco, D. S. Wiersma, and C. Lopez, “Resonance-driven random lasing,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 429–432 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Garcia-Moreno, I.

A. Costela, I. Garcia-Moreno, L. Cerdan, V. Martin, O. Garcia, and R. Sastre, “Dye-doped POSS solutions: random nanomaterials for laser emission,” Adv. Mater. 21(41), 4163–4166 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ge, L.

H. E. Türeci, L. Ge, S. Rotter, and A. D. Stone, “Strong interactions in multimode random lasers,” Science 320(5876), 643–646 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Genack, A. Z.

J. H. Li and A. Z. Genack, “Correlation in laser speckle,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics 49(5), 4530–4533 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gomes, A. S. L.

N. M. Lawandy, R. M. Balachandran, A. S. L. Gomes, and E. Sauvain, “Laser action in strongly scattering media,” Nature 368(6470), 436–438 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Gottardo, S.

S. Gottardo, R. Sapienza, P. D. Garcia, A. Blanco, D. S. Wiersma, and C. Lopez, “Resonance-driven random lasing,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 429–432 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gu, E.

Guilhabert, B.

Herrnsdorf, J.

Hirano, K.

A. Uchida, K. Amano, M. Inoue, K. Hirano, S. Naito, H. Someya, I. Oowada, T. Kurashige, M. Shiki, S. Yoshimori, K. Yoshimura, and P. Davis, “Fast physical random bit generation with chaotic semiconductor lasers,” Nat. Photonics 2(12), 728–732 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ho, S. T.

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, Q. H. Wang, and R. P. H. Chang, “Random laser action in semiconductor powder,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(11), 2278–2281 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hollingsworth, J. A.

V. I. Klimov, A. A. Mikhailovsky, S. Xu, A. Malko, J. A. Hollingsworth, C. A. Leatherdale, H. Eisler, and M. G. Bawendi, “Optical gain and stimulated emission in nanocrystal quantum dots,” Science 290(5490), 314–317 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Inoue, M.

A. Uchida, K. Amano, M. Inoue, K. Hirano, S. Naito, H. Someya, I. Oowada, T. Kurashige, M. Shiki, S. Yoshimori, K. Yoshimura, and P. Davis, “Fast physical random bit generation with chaotic semiconductor lasers,” Nat. Photonics 2(12), 728–732 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kalt, H.

J. Fallert, R. J. B. Dietz, J. Sartor, D. Schneider, C. Klingshirn, and H. Kalt, “Co-existence of strongly and weakly localized random laser modes,” Nat. Photonics 3(5), 279–282 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kanibolotsky, A.

Klimov, V.

H. Eisler, V. C. Sundar, M. G. Bawendi, M. Walsh, H. I. Smith, and V. Klimov, “Color-selective semiconductor nanocrystal laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(24), 4614 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Klimov, V. I.

V. I. Klimov, A. A. Mikhailovsky, S. Xu, A. Malko, J. A. Hollingsworth, C. A. Leatherdale, H. Eisler, and M. G. Bawendi, “Optical gain and stimulated emission in nanocrystal quantum dots,” Science 290(5490), 314–317 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. I. Klimov, A. A. Mikhailovsky, D. W. McBranch, C. A. Leatherdale, and M. G. Bawendi, “Quantization of multiparticle auger rates in semiconductor quantum dots,” Science 287(5455), 1011–1013 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Klingshirn, C.

J. Fallert, R. J. B. Dietz, J. Sartor, D. Schneider, C. Klingshirn, and H. Kalt, “Co-existence of strongly and weakly localized random laser modes,” Nat. Photonics 3(5), 279–282 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kraus, T.

T. Kraus, L. Malaquin, H. Schmid, W. Riess, N. D. Spencer, and H. Wolf, “Nanoparticle printing with single-particle resolution,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 2(9), 570–576 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kurashige, T.

A. Uchida, K. Amano, M. Inoue, K. Hirano, S. Naito, H. Someya, I. Oowada, T. Kurashige, M. Shiki, S. Yoshimori, K. Yoshimura, and P. Davis, “Fast physical random bit generation with chaotic semiconductor lasers,” Nat. Photonics 2(12), 728–732 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lagendijk, A.

D. S. Wiersma and A. Lagendijk, “Light diffusion with gain and random lasers,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics 54(4), 4256–4265 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Laurand, N.

Lawandy, N. M.

N. M. Lawandy, R. M. Balachandran, A. S. L. Gomes, and E. Sauvain, “Laser action in strongly scattering media,” Nature 368(6470), 436–438 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Leatherdale, C. A.

V. I. Klimov, A. A. Mikhailovsky, D. W. McBranch, C. A. Leatherdale, and M. G. Bawendi, “Quantization of multiparticle auger rates in semiconductor quantum dots,” Science 287(5455), 1011–1013 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. I. Klimov, A. A. Mikhailovsky, S. Xu, A. Malko, J. A. Hollingsworth, C. A. Leatherdale, H. Eisler, and M. G. Bawendi, “Optical gain and stimulated emission in nanocrystal quantum dots,” Science 290(5490), 314–317 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, J. H.

J. H. Li and A. Z. Genack, “Correlation in laser speckle,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics 49(5), 4530–4533 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lopez, C.

S. Gottardo, R. Sapienza, P. D. Garcia, A. Blanco, D. S. Wiersma, and C. Lopez, “Resonance-driven random lasing,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 429–432 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lu, Z. H.

J. Schäfer, J. P. Mondia, R. Sharma, Z. H. Lu, A. S. Susha, A. L. Rogach, and L. J. Wang, “Quantum dot microdrop laser,” Nano Lett. 8(6), 1709–1712 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mackintosh, A.

Malaquin, L.

T. Kraus, L. Malaquin, H. Schmid, W. Riess, N. D. Spencer, and H. Wolf, “Nanoparticle printing with single-particle resolution,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 2(9), 570–576 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Malko, A.

V. I. Klimov, A. A. Mikhailovsky, S. Xu, A. Malko, J. A. Hollingsworth, C. A. Leatherdale, H. Eisler, and M. G. Bawendi, “Optical gain and stimulated emission in nanocrystal quantum dots,” Science 290(5490), 314–317 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Martin, V.

A. Costela, I. Garcia-Moreno, L. Cerdan, V. Martin, O. Garcia, and R. Sastre, “Dye-doped POSS solutions: random nanomaterials for laser emission,” Adv. Mater. 21(41), 4163–4166 (2009).
[CrossRef]

McBranch, D. W.

V. I. Klimov, A. A. Mikhailovsky, D. W. McBranch, C. A. Leatherdale, and M. G. Bawendi, “Quantization of multiparticle auger rates in semiconductor quantum dots,” Science 287(5455), 1011–1013 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Meng, X.

X. Meng, K. Fujita, S. Murai, and K. Tanaka, “Coherent random lasers in weakly scattering polymer films containing silver nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. A 79(5), 053817 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mikhailovsky, A. A.

V. I. Klimov, A. A. Mikhailovsky, S. Xu, A. Malko, J. A. Hollingsworth, C. A. Leatherdale, H. Eisler, and M. G. Bawendi, “Optical gain and stimulated emission in nanocrystal quantum dots,” Science 290(5490), 314–317 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. I. Klimov, A. A. Mikhailovsky, D. W. McBranch, C. A. Leatherdale, and M. G. Bawendi, “Quantization of multiparticle auger rates in semiconductor quantum dots,” Science 287(5455), 1011–1013 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Min, B.

T. Yim, T. Zentgraf, B. Min, and X. Zhang, “All-liquid photonic microcavity stabilized by quantum dots,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 132(7), 2154–2156 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mondia, J. P.

J. Schäfer, J. P. Mondia, R. Sharma, Z. H. Lu, A. S. Susha, A. L. Rogach, and L. J. Wang, “Quantum dot microdrop laser,” Nano Lett. 8(6), 1709–1712 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mujumdar, S.

S. Mujumdar, V. Türck, R. Torre, and D. S. Wiersma, “Chaotic behavior of a random laser with static disorder,” Phys. Rev. A 76(3), 033807 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Murai, S.

X. Meng, K. Fujita, S. Murai, and K. Tanaka, “Coherent random lasers in weakly scattering polymer films containing silver nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. A 79(5), 053817 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Naito, S.

A. Uchida, K. Amano, M. Inoue, K. Hirano, S. Naito, H. Someya, I. Oowada, T. Kurashige, M. Shiki, S. Yoshimori, K. Yoshimura, and P. Davis, “Fast physical random bit generation with chaotic semiconductor lasers,” Nat. Photonics 2(12), 728–732 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nocera, D. G.

P. T. Snee, Y. Chan, D. G. Nocera, and M. G. Bawendi, “Whispering-gallery-mode lasing from a semiconductor nanocrystal/microsphere resonator composite,” Adv. Mater. 17(9), 1131–1136 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Oowada, I.

A. Uchida, K. Amano, M. Inoue, K. Hirano, S. Naito, H. Someya, I. Oowada, T. Kurashige, M. Shiki, S. Yoshimori, K. Yoshimura, and P. Davis, “Fast physical random bit generation with chaotic semiconductor lasers,” Nat. Photonics 2(12), 728–732 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pethrick, R.

Polson, R. C.

A. Tulek, R. C. Polson, and Z. V. Vardeny, “Naturally occurring resonators in random lasing of π-conjugated polymer films,” Nat. Phys. 6(4), 303–310 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Polson, M. E. Raikh, and Z. V. Vardeny, “Random lasing from weakly scattering media; spectrum universality in DOO–PPV polymer films,” Physica E 13(2-4), 1240–1242 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Polson, A. Chipouline, and Z. V. Vardeny, “Random lasing in π-conjugated films and infiltrated opals,” Adv. Mater. 13(10), 760–764 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Raikh, M. E.

R. C. Polson, M. E. Raikh, and Z. V. Vardeny, “Random lasing from weakly scattering media; spectrum universality in DOO–PPV polymer films,” Physica E 13(2-4), 1240–1242 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Riess, W.

T. Kraus, L. Malaquin, H. Schmid, W. Riess, N. D. Spencer, and H. Wolf, “Nanoparticle printing with single-particle resolution,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 2(9), 570–576 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rogach, A. L.

J. Schäfer, J. P. Mondia, R. Sharma, Z. H. Lu, A. S. Susha, A. L. Rogach, and L. J. Wang, “Quantum dot microdrop laser,” Nano Lett. 8(6), 1709–1712 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rotter, S.

H. E. Türeci, L. Ge, S. Rotter, and A. D. Stone, “Strong interactions in multimode random lasers,” Science 320(5876), 643–646 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sapienza, R.

S. Gottardo, R. Sapienza, P. D. Garcia, A. Blanco, D. S. Wiersma, and C. Lopez, “Resonance-driven random lasing,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 429–432 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sartor, J.

J. Fallert, R. J. B. Dietz, J. Sartor, D. Schneider, C. Klingshirn, and H. Kalt, “Co-existence of strongly and weakly localized random laser modes,” Nat. Photonics 3(5), 279–282 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sastre, R.

A. Costela, I. Garcia-Moreno, L. Cerdan, V. Martin, O. Garcia, and R. Sastre, “Dye-doped POSS solutions: random nanomaterials for laser emission,” Adv. Mater. 21(41), 4163–4166 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sauvain, E.

N. M. Lawandy, R. M. Balachandran, A. S. L. Gomes, and E. Sauvain, “Laser action in strongly scattering media,” Nature 368(6470), 436–438 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Schäfer, J.

J. Schäfer, J. P. Mondia, R. Sharma, Z. H. Lu, A. S. Susha, A. L. Rogach, and L. J. Wang, “Quantum dot microdrop laser,” Nano Lett. 8(6), 1709–1712 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schmid, H.

T. Kraus, L. Malaquin, H. Schmid, W. Riess, N. D. Spencer, and H. Wolf, “Nanoparticle printing with single-particle resolution,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 2(9), 570–576 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Schneider, D.

J. Fallert, R. J. B. Dietz, J. Sartor, D. Schneider, C. Klingshirn, and H. Kalt, “Co-existence of strongly and weakly localized random laser modes,” Nat. Photonics 3(5), 279–282 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Seelig, E. W.

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, Q. H. Wang, and R. P. H. Chang, “Random laser action in semiconductor powder,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(11), 2278–2281 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sharma, R.

J. Schäfer, J. P. Mondia, R. Sharma, Z. H. Lu, A. S. Susha, A. L. Rogach, and L. J. Wang, “Quantum dot microdrop laser,” Nano Lett. 8(6), 1709–1712 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shiki, M.

A. Uchida, K. Amano, M. Inoue, K. Hirano, S. Naito, H. Someya, I. Oowada, T. Kurashige, M. Shiki, S. Yoshimori, K. Yoshimura, and P. Davis, “Fast physical random bit generation with chaotic semiconductor lasers,” Nat. Photonics 2(12), 728–732 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Siegman, A. E.

A. E. Siegman, “Excess spontaneous emission in non-Hermitian optical systems. II. Laser oscillators,” Phys. Rev. A 39(3), 1264–1268 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Skabara, P.

Smith, H. I.

H. Eisler, V. C. Sundar, M. G. Bawendi, M. Walsh, H. I. Smith, and V. Klimov, “Color-selective semiconductor nanocrystal laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(24), 4614 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Snee, P. T.

P. T. Snee, Y. Chan, D. G. Nocera, and M. G. Bawendi, “Whispering-gallery-mode lasing from a semiconductor nanocrystal/microsphere resonator composite,” Adv. Mater. 17(9), 1131–1136 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Someya, H.

A. Uchida, K. Amano, M. Inoue, K. Hirano, S. Naito, H. Someya, I. Oowada, T. Kurashige, M. Shiki, S. Yoshimori, K. Yoshimura, and P. Davis, “Fast physical random bit generation with chaotic semiconductor lasers,” Nat. Photonics 2(12), 728–732 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Spencer, N. D.

T. Kraus, L. Malaquin, H. Schmid, W. Riess, N. D. Spencer, and H. Wolf, “Nanoparticle printing with single-particle resolution,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 2(9), 570–576 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Stone, A. D.

H. E. Türeci, L. Ge, S. Rotter, and A. D. Stone, “Strong interactions in multimode random lasers,” Science 320(5876), 643–646 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sundar, V. C.

V. C. Sundar, H. Eisler, T. Deng, Y. Chan, E. L. Thomas, and M. G. Bawendi, “Soft-lithographically embossed, multilayered distributed-feedback nanocrystal lasers,” Adv. Mater. 16(23-24), 2137–2141 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. Eisler, V. C. Sundar, M. G. Bawendi, M. Walsh, H. I. Smith, and V. Klimov, “Color-selective semiconductor nanocrystal laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(24), 4614 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Susha, A. S.

J. Schäfer, J. P. Mondia, R. Sharma, Z. H. Lu, A. S. Susha, A. L. Rogach, and L. J. Wang, “Quantum dot microdrop laser,” Nano Lett. 8(6), 1709–1712 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tanaka, K.

X. Meng, K. Fujita, S. Murai, and K. Tanaka, “Coherent random lasers in weakly scattering polymer films containing silver nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. A 79(5), 053817 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Thomas, E. L.

V. C. Sundar, H. Eisler, T. Deng, Y. Chan, E. L. Thomas, and M. G. Bawendi, “Soft-lithographically embossed, multilayered distributed-feedback nanocrystal lasers,” Adv. Mater. 16(23-24), 2137–2141 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Torre, R.

S. Mujumdar, V. Türck, R. Torre, and D. S. Wiersma, “Chaotic behavior of a random laser with static disorder,” Phys. Rev. A 76(3), 033807 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tulek, A.

A. Tulek, R. C. Polson, and Z. V. Vardeny, “Naturally occurring resonators in random lasing of π-conjugated polymer films,” Nat. Phys. 6(4), 303–310 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Türck, V.

S. Mujumdar, V. Türck, R. Torre, and D. S. Wiersma, “Chaotic behavior of a random laser with static disorder,” Phys. Rev. A 76(3), 033807 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Türeci, H. E.

H. E. Türeci, L. Ge, S. Rotter, and A. D. Stone, “Strong interactions in multimode random lasers,” Science 320(5876), 643–646 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Uchida, A.

A. Uchida, K. Amano, M. Inoue, K. Hirano, S. Naito, H. Someya, I. Oowada, T. Kurashige, M. Shiki, S. Yoshimori, K. Yoshimura, and P. Davis, “Fast physical random bit generation with chaotic semiconductor lasers,” Nat. Photonics 2(12), 728–732 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Vardeny, Z. V.

A. Tulek, R. C. Polson, and Z. V. Vardeny, “Naturally occurring resonators in random lasing of π-conjugated polymer films,” Nat. Phys. 6(4), 303–310 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Polson, M. E. Raikh, and Z. V. Vardeny, “Random lasing from weakly scattering media; spectrum universality in DOO–PPV polymer films,” Physica E 13(2-4), 1240–1242 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Polson, A. Chipouline, and Z. V. Vardeny, “Random lasing in π-conjugated films and infiltrated opals,” Adv. Mater. 13(10), 760–764 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Walsh, M.

H. Eisler, V. C. Sundar, M. G. Bawendi, M. Walsh, H. I. Smith, and V. Klimov, “Color-selective semiconductor nanocrystal laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(24), 4614 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wang, L. J.

J. Schäfer, J. P. Mondia, R. Sharma, Z. H. Lu, A. S. Susha, A. L. Rogach, and L. J. Wang, “Quantum dot microdrop laser,” Nano Lett. 8(6), 1709–1712 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, Q. H.

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, Q. H. Wang, and R. P. H. Chang, “Random laser action in semiconductor powder,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(11), 2278–2281 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wiersma, D. S.

D. S. Wiersma, “The physics and applications of random lasers,” Nat. Phys. 4(5), 359–367 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Gottardo, R. Sapienza, P. D. Garcia, A. Blanco, D. S. Wiersma, and C. Lopez, “Resonance-driven random lasing,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 429–432 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Mujumdar, V. Türck, R. Torre, and D. S. Wiersma, “Chaotic behavior of a random laser with static disorder,” Phys. Rev. A 76(3), 033807 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Wiersma and A. Lagendijk, “Light diffusion with gain and random lasers,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics 54(4), 4256–4265 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wolf, H.

T. Kraus, L. Malaquin, H. Schmid, W. Riess, N. D. Spencer, and H. Wolf, “Nanoparticle printing with single-particle resolution,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 2(9), 570–576 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Xiao, M.

J. Xu and M. Xiao, “Lasing action in colloidal CdS/CdSe/CdS quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(17), 173117 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Xu, J.

J. Xu and M. Xiao, “Lasing action in colloidal CdS/CdSe/CdS quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(17), 173117 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Xu, S.

V. I. Klimov, A. A. Mikhailovsky, S. Xu, A. Malko, J. A. Hollingsworth, C. A. Leatherdale, H. Eisler, and M. G. Bawendi, “Optical gain and stimulated emission in nanocrystal quantum dots,” Science 290(5490), 314–317 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yim, T.

T. Yim, T. Zentgraf, B. Min, and X. Zhang, “All-liquid photonic microcavity stabilized by quantum dots,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 132(7), 2154–2156 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yoshimori, S.

A. Uchida, K. Amano, M. Inoue, K. Hirano, S. Naito, H. Someya, I. Oowada, T. Kurashige, M. Shiki, S. Yoshimori, K. Yoshimura, and P. Davis, “Fast physical random bit generation with chaotic semiconductor lasers,” Nat. Photonics 2(12), 728–732 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yoshimura, K.

A. Uchida, K. Amano, M. Inoue, K. Hirano, S. Naito, H. Someya, I. Oowada, T. Kurashige, M. Shiki, S. Yoshimori, K. Yoshimura, and P. Davis, “Fast physical random bit generation with chaotic semiconductor lasers,” Nat. Photonics 2(12), 728–732 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zentgraf, T.

T. Yim, T. Zentgraf, B. Min, and X. Zhang, “All-liquid photonic microcavity stabilized by quantum dots,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 132(7), 2154–2156 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, X.

T. Yim, T. Zentgraf, B. Min, and X. Zhang, “All-liquid photonic microcavity stabilized by quantum dots,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 132(7), 2154–2156 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhao, Y. G.

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, Q. H. Wang, and R. P. H. Chang, “Random laser action in semiconductor powder,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(11), 2278–2281 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (4)

R. C. Polson, A. Chipouline, and Z. V. Vardeny, “Random lasing in π-conjugated films and infiltrated opals,” Adv. Mater. 13(10), 760–764 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Costela, I. Garcia-Moreno, L. Cerdan, V. Martin, O. Garcia, and R. Sastre, “Dye-doped POSS solutions: random nanomaterials for laser emission,” Adv. Mater. 21(41), 4163–4166 (2009).
[CrossRef]

V. C. Sundar, H. Eisler, T. Deng, Y. Chan, E. L. Thomas, and M. G. Bawendi, “Soft-lithographically embossed, multilayered distributed-feedback nanocrystal lasers,” Adv. Mater. 16(23-24), 2137–2141 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. T. Snee, Y. Chan, D. G. Nocera, and M. G. Bawendi, “Whispering-gallery-mode lasing from a semiconductor nanocrystal/microsphere resonator composite,” Adv. Mater. 17(9), 1131–1136 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

H. Eisler, V. C. Sundar, M. G. Bawendi, M. Walsh, H. I. Smith, and V. Klimov, “Color-selective semiconductor nanocrystal laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(24), 4614 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Xu and M. Xiao, “Lasing action in colloidal CdS/CdSe/CdS quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(17), 173117 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Chem. Soc. (1)

T. Yim, T. Zentgraf, B. Min, and X. Zhang, “All-liquid photonic microcavity stabilized by quantum dots,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 132(7), 2154–2156 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nano Lett. (1)

J. Schäfer, J. P. Mondia, R. Sharma, Z. H. Lu, A. S. Susha, A. L. Rogach, and L. J. Wang, “Quantum dot microdrop laser,” Nano Lett. 8(6), 1709–1712 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Nanotechnol. (1)

T. Kraus, L. Malaquin, H. Schmid, W. Riess, N. D. Spencer, and H. Wolf, “Nanoparticle printing with single-particle resolution,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 2(9), 570–576 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (3)

S. Gottardo, R. Sapienza, P. D. Garcia, A. Blanco, D. S. Wiersma, and C. Lopez, “Resonance-driven random lasing,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 429–432 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Uchida, K. Amano, M. Inoue, K. Hirano, S. Naito, H. Someya, I. Oowada, T. Kurashige, M. Shiki, S. Yoshimori, K. Yoshimura, and P. Davis, “Fast physical random bit generation with chaotic semiconductor lasers,” Nat. Photonics 2(12), 728–732 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Fallert, R. J. B. Dietz, J. Sartor, D. Schneider, C. Klingshirn, and H. Kalt, “Co-existence of strongly and weakly localized random laser modes,” Nat. Photonics 3(5), 279–282 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Phys. (2)

A. Tulek, R. C. Polson, and Z. V. Vardeny, “Naturally occurring resonators in random lasing of π-conjugated polymer films,” Nat. Phys. 6(4), 303–310 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Wiersma, “The physics and applications of random lasers,” Nat. Phys. 4(5), 359–367 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

N. M. Lawandy, R. M. Balachandran, A. S. L. Gomes, and E. Sauvain, “Laser action in strongly scattering media,” Nature 368(6470), 436–438 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

Y. Boucher and P. Féron, “Generalized transfer function: A simple model applied to active single-mode microring resonators,” Opt. Commun. 282(19), 3940–3947 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Phys. Rev. A (3)

A. E. Siegman, “Excess spontaneous emission in non-Hermitian optical systems. II. Laser oscillators,” Phys. Rev. A 39(3), 1264–1268 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Mujumdar, V. Türck, R. Torre, and D. S. Wiersma, “Chaotic behavior of a random laser with static disorder,” Phys. Rev. A 76(3), 033807 (2007).
[CrossRef]

X. Meng, K. Fujita, S. Murai, and K. Tanaka, “Coherent random lasers in weakly scattering polymer films containing silver nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. A 79(5), 053817 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics (2)

J. H. Li and A. Z. Genack, “Correlation in laser speckle,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics 49(5), 4530–4533 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. S. Wiersma and A. Lagendijk, “Light diffusion with gain and random lasers,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics 54(4), 4256–4265 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

L. I. Deych, “Effects of spatial nonuniformity on laser dynamics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(4), 043902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, Q. H. Wang, and R. P. H. Chang, “Random laser action in semiconductor powder,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(11), 2278–2281 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Physica E (1)

R. C. Polson, M. E. Raikh, and Z. V. Vardeny, “Random lasing from weakly scattering media; spectrum universality in DOO–PPV polymer films,” Physica E 13(2-4), 1240–1242 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Science (3)

H. E. Türeci, L. Ge, S. Rotter, and A. D. Stone, “Strong interactions in multimode random lasers,” Science 320(5876), 643–646 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. I. Klimov, A. A. Mikhailovsky, S. Xu, A. Malko, J. A. Hollingsworth, C. A. Leatherdale, H. Eisler, and M. G. Bawendi, “Optical gain and stimulated emission in nanocrystal quantum dots,” Science 290(5490), 314–317 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. I. Klimov, A. A. Mikhailovsky, D. W. McBranch, C. A. Leatherdale, and M. G. Bawendi, “Quantization of multiparticle auger rates in semiconductor quantum dots,” Science 287(5455), 1011–1013 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a-b) Scanning electron microscope (SEM) images (with various magnifications) of the micron-scale groove written into the glass substrate, showing roughness that is helpful for enhancing light multiple scattering and (c-d) optical micrographs of CdSe/ZnS core-shell quantum dots deposited in the glass groove under illumination of a handheld UV torch (wavelength: 365-400 nm).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic diagram of laser pump set-up and (inset) relationship of pump stripe and the groove containing CQDs.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Spectral evolution with increased pump fluence, (b) integrated peak (602-608 nm) intensity as a function of the pump fluence showing (inset) sublinear PL evolution above 5 mJ/cm2 and a soft laser threshold at 25 mJ/cm2, and (c) emission spectra recorded from vertical and edge directions of the sample under the pump fluence of 29 mJ/cm2.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Spectral evolution with increased pump stripe length (pump stripe with tunable length in the range of 0 to 5.0 mm and here the pump fluence is 41 mJ/cm2).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Random lasing emission spectra (pump fluence: 53 mJ/cm2) with (b) its corresponding power Fourier transform, which shows periodicity, suggesting the formation of the cavities in the system.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Random lasing emission spectra in the single pulse photo-pumping configuration (53 mJ/cm2) with (b) its corresponding first 5 spectra. (c) The average power Fourier transform (PFT) spectrum for all the 25 single-shot spectra with (inset) added-up (normalised) spectrum.

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