Abstract

The feasibility of utilising low-cost, un-cooled vertical cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) as intensity modulators in real-time optical OFDM (OOFDM) transceivers is experimentally explored, for the first time, in terms of achievable signal bit rates, physical mechanisms limiting the transceiver performance and performance robustness. End-to-end real-time transmission of 11.25Gb/s 64-QAM-encoded OOFDM signals over simple intensity modulation and direct detection, 25km SSMF PON systems is experimentally demonstrated with a power penalty of 0.5dB. The low extinction ratio of the VCSEL intensity-modulated OOFDM signal is identified to be the dominant factor determining the maximum obtainable transmission performance. Experimental investigations indicate that, in addition to the enhanced transceiver performance, adaptive power loading can also significantly improve the system performance robustness to variations in VCSEL operating conditions. As a direct result, the aforementioned capacity versus reach performance is still retained over a wide VCSEL bias (driving) current (voltage) range of 4.5mA to 9mA (275mVpp to 320mVpp). This work is of great value as it demonstrates the possibility of future mass production of cost-effective OOFDM transceivers for PON applications.

© 2011 OSA

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References

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  1. J. Armstrong, “OFDM for optical communications,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27(3), 189–204 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  2. N. Cvijetic, D. Qian, and J. Hu, “100 Gb/s optical access based on optical orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 48(7), 70–77 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  3. G. Chang, A. Chowdhury, Z. Jia, H. Chien, M. Huang, J. Yu, and G. Ellinas, “Key technologies of WDM-PON for future converged optical broadband access networks,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 1(4), C35–C50 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  4. R. P. Giddings, X. Q. Jin, E. Hugues-Salas, E. Giacoumidis, J. L. Wei, and J. M. Tang, “Experimental demonstration of a record high 11.25Gb/s real-time optical OFDM transceiver supporting 25km SMF end-to-end transmission in simple IMDD systems,” Opt. Express 18(6), 5541–5555 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. A. Schimpf, D. Bucci, and B. Cabon, “Optimum biasing of VCSEL diodes for all-optical up-conversion of OFDM signals,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27(16), 3484–3489 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  6. E. Giacoumidis, X. Q. Jin, A. Tsokanos, and J. M. Tang, “Statistical performance comparisons of optical OFDM adaptive loading algorithms in multimode fiber-based transmission systems,” IEEE Photon. J. 2, 1051–1059 (2010).
  7. X. Zheng, X. Q. Jin, R. P. Giddings, J. L. Wei, E. Hugues-Salas, Y. H. Hong, and J. M. Tang, “Negative power penalties of optical OFDM signal transmissions in directly modulated DFB laser-based IMDD systems incorporating negative dispersion fibers,” IEEE Photon. J. 2(4), 532–542 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  8. S. Lee, F. Breyer, S. Randel, D. Cárdenas, H. van den Boom, and A. Koonen, “Discrete multitone modulation for high-speed data transmission over multimode fibers using 850-nm VCSEL,” Optical Fiber Communication/National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference (OFC/NFOEC), (USA, 2009), Paper OWM2.
  9. T. Duong, N. Genay, P. Chanclou, and B. Charbonnier, “10Gbit/s transmission over 2.5GHz bandwidth by direct modulation of commercial VCSEL and multi-mode FP lasers using adaptively modulated optical OFDM modulation for passive optical network”, European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC), (Brussels, 2008), paper We.1.F.4.
  10. R. P. Giddings, E. Hugues-Salas, X. Q. Jin, J. L. Wei, and J. M. Tang, “Experimental demonstration of real-time optical OFDM transmission at 7.5 Gb/s over 25-km SSMF using a 1-GHz RSOA,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(11), 745–747 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  11. R. P. Giddings, E. Hugues-Salas, B. Charbonnier, and J. M. Tang, “Experimental demonstration of real-time optical OFDM transmission at 11.25 Gb/s over 500m MMFs employing directly modulated DFB lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(1), 51–53 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  12. D. Qian, T. T. Kwok, N. Cvijetic, J. Hu, and T. Wang, “41.25 Gb/s real-time OFDM receiver for variable rate WDM-OFDMA-PON transmission”, Optical Fiber Communication/National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference (OFC/NFOEC), (USA, 2010), Paper PDPD9.
  13. R. P. Giddings, X. Q. Jin, and J. M. Tang, “First experimental demonstration of 6Gb/s real-time optical OFDM transceivers incorporating channel estimation and variable power loading,” Opt. Express 17(22), 19727–19738 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. X. Q. Jin, R. P. Giddings, and J. M. Tang, “Real-time transmission of 3 Gb/s 16-QAM encoded optical OFDM signals over 75 km SMFs with negative power penalties,” Opt. Express 17(17), 14574–14585 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. J. L. Wei, C. Sánchez, R. P. Giddings, E. Hugues-Salas, and J. M. Tang, “Significant improvements in optical power budgets of real-time optical OFDM PON systems,” Opt. Express 18(20), 20732–20745 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. R. Dischler, A. Klekamp, F. Buchali, W. Idler, E. Lach, A. Schippel, M. Schneiders, S. Vorbeck, and R. Braun, “Transmission of 3x253-Gb/s OFDM-superchannels over 764 km field deployed single mode fibers”, Optical Fiber Communication/National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference (OFC/NFOEC), (USA, 2010), Paper PDPD2.

2011

R. P. Giddings, E. Hugues-Salas, B. Charbonnier, and J. M. Tang, “Experimental demonstration of real-time optical OFDM transmission at 11.25 Gb/s over 500m MMFs employing directly modulated DFB lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(1), 51–53 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

N. Cvijetic, D. Qian, and J. Hu, “100 Gb/s optical access based on optical orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 48(7), 70–77 (2010).
[CrossRef]

E. Giacoumidis, X. Q. Jin, A. Tsokanos, and J. M. Tang, “Statistical performance comparisons of optical OFDM adaptive loading algorithms in multimode fiber-based transmission systems,” IEEE Photon. J. 2, 1051–1059 (2010).

X. Zheng, X. Q. Jin, R. P. Giddings, J. L. Wei, E. Hugues-Salas, Y. H. Hong, and J. M. Tang, “Negative power penalties of optical OFDM signal transmissions in directly modulated DFB laser-based IMDD systems incorporating negative dispersion fibers,” IEEE Photon. J. 2(4), 532–542 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. P. Giddings, E. Hugues-Salas, X. Q. Jin, J. L. Wei, and J. M. Tang, “Experimental demonstration of real-time optical OFDM transmission at 7.5 Gb/s over 25-km SSMF using a 1-GHz RSOA,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(11), 745–747 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. P. Giddings, X. Q. Jin, E. Hugues-Salas, E. Giacoumidis, J. L. Wei, and J. M. Tang, “Experimental demonstration of a record high 11.25Gb/s real-time optical OFDM transceiver supporting 25km SMF end-to-end transmission in simple IMDD systems,” Opt. Express 18(6), 5541–5555 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. L. Wei, C. Sánchez, R. P. Giddings, E. Hugues-Salas, and J. M. Tang, “Significant improvements in optical power budgets of real-time optical OFDM PON systems,” Opt. Express 18(20), 20732–20745 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

Armstrong, J.

Bucci, D.

Cabon, B.

Chang, G.

Charbonnier, B.

R. P. Giddings, E. Hugues-Salas, B. Charbonnier, and J. M. Tang, “Experimental demonstration of real-time optical OFDM transmission at 11.25 Gb/s over 500m MMFs employing directly modulated DFB lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(1), 51–53 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chien, H.

Chowdhury, A.

Cvijetic, N.

N. Cvijetic, D. Qian, and J. Hu, “100 Gb/s optical access based on optical orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 48(7), 70–77 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ellinas, G.

Giacoumidis, E.

R. P. Giddings, X. Q. Jin, E. Hugues-Salas, E. Giacoumidis, J. L. Wei, and J. M. Tang, “Experimental demonstration of a record high 11.25Gb/s real-time optical OFDM transceiver supporting 25km SMF end-to-end transmission in simple IMDD systems,” Opt. Express 18(6), 5541–5555 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Giacoumidis, X. Q. Jin, A. Tsokanos, and J. M. Tang, “Statistical performance comparisons of optical OFDM adaptive loading algorithms in multimode fiber-based transmission systems,” IEEE Photon. J. 2, 1051–1059 (2010).

Giddings, R. P.

R. P. Giddings, E. Hugues-Salas, B. Charbonnier, and J. M. Tang, “Experimental demonstration of real-time optical OFDM transmission at 11.25 Gb/s over 500m MMFs employing directly modulated DFB lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(1), 51–53 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. P. Giddings, E. Hugues-Salas, X. Q. Jin, J. L. Wei, and J. M. Tang, “Experimental demonstration of real-time optical OFDM transmission at 7.5 Gb/s over 25-km SSMF using a 1-GHz RSOA,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(11), 745–747 (2010).
[CrossRef]

X. Zheng, X. Q. Jin, R. P. Giddings, J. L. Wei, E. Hugues-Salas, Y. H. Hong, and J. M. Tang, “Negative power penalties of optical OFDM signal transmissions in directly modulated DFB laser-based IMDD systems incorporating negative dispersion fibers,” IEEE Photon. J. 2(4), 532–542 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Wei, C. Sánchez, R. P. Giddings, E. Hugues-Salas, and J. M. Tang, “Significant improvements in optical power budgets of real-time optical OFDM PON systems,” Opt. Express 18(20), 20732–20745 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. P. Giddings, X. Q. Jin, E. Hugues-Salas, E. Giacoumidis, J. L. Wei, and J. M. Tang, “Experimental demonstration of a record high 11.25Gb/s real-time optical OFDM transceiver supporting 25km SMF end-to-end transmission in simple IMDD systems,” Opt. Express 18(6), 5541–5555 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. P. Giddings, X. Q. Jin, and J. M. Tang, “First experimental demonstration of 6Gb/s real-time optical OFDM transceivers incorporating channel estimation and variable power loading,” Opt. Express 17(22), 19727–19738 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Q. Jin, R. P. Giddings, and J. M. Tang, “Real-time transmission of 3 Gb/s 16-QAM encoded optical OFDM signals over 75 km SMFs with negative power penalties,” Opt. Express 17(17), 14574–14585 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hong, Y. H.

X. Zheng, X. Q. Jin, R. P. Giddings, J. L. Wei, E. Hugues-Salas, Y. H. Hong, and J. M. Tang, “Negative power penalties of optical OFDM signal transmissions in directly modulated DFB laser-based IMDD systems incorporating negative dispersion fibers,” IEEE Photon. J. 2(4), 532–542 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hu, J.

N. Cvijetic, D. Qian, and J. Hu, “100 Gb/s optical access based on optical orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 48(7), 70–77 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Huang, M.

Hugues-Salas, E.

R. P. Giddings, E. Hugues-Salas, B. Charbonnier, and J. M. Tang, “Experimental demonstration of real-time optical OFDM transmission at 11.25 Gb/s over 500m MMFs employing directly modulated DFB lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(1), 51–53 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. P. Giddings, E. Hugues-Salas, X. Q. Jin, J. L. Wei, and J. M. Tang, “Experimental demonstration of real-time optical OFDM transmission at 7.5 Gb/s over 25-km SSMF using a 1-GHz RSOA,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(11), 745–747 (2010).
[CrossRef]

X. Zheng, X. Q. Jin, R. P. Giddings, J. L. Wei, E. Hugues-Salas, Y. H. Hong, and J. M. Tang, “Negative power penalties of optical OFDM signal transmissions in directly modulated DFB laser-based IMDD systems incorporating negative dispersion fibers,” IEEE Photon. J. 2(4), 532–542 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. P. Giddings, X. Q. Jin, E. Hugues-Salas, E. Giacoumidis, J. L. Wei, and J. M. Tang, “Experimental demonstration of a record high 11.25Gb/s real-time optical OFDM transceiver supporting 25km SMF end-to-end transmission in simple IMDD systems,” Opt. Express 18(6), 5541–5555 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. L. Wei, C. Sánchez, R. P. Giddings, E. Hugues-Salas, and J. M. Tang, “Significant improvements in optical power budgets of real-time optical OFDM PON systems,” Opt. Express 18(20), 20732–20745 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jia, Z.

Jin, X. Q.

X. Zheng, X. Q. Jin, R. P. Giddings, J. L. Wei, E. Hugues-Salas, Y. H. Hong, and J. M. Tang, “Negative power penalties of optical OFDM signal transmissions in directly modulated DFB laser-based IMDD systems incorporating negative dispersion fibers,” IEEE Photon. J. 2(4), 532–542 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. P. Giddings, E. Hugues-Salas, X. Q. Jin, J. L. Wei, and J. M. Tang, “Experimental demonstration of real-time optical OFDM transmission at 7.5 Gb/s over 25-km SSMF using a 1-GHz RSOA,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(11), 745–747 (2010).
[CrossRef]

E. Giacoumidis, X. Q. Jin, A. Tsokanos, and J. M. Tang, “Statistical performance comparisons of optical OFDM adaptive loading algorithms in multimode fiber-based transmission systems,” IEEE Photon. J. 2, 1051–1059 (2010).

R. P. Giddings, X. Q. Jin, E. Hugues-Salas, E. Giacoumidis, J. L. Wei, and J. M. Tang, “Experimental demonstration of a record high 11.25Gb/s real-time optical OFDM transceiver supporting 25km SMF end-to-end transmission in simple IMDD systems,” Opt. Express 18(6), 5541–5555 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. P. Giddings, X. Q. Jin, and J. M. Tang, “First experimental demonstration of 6Gb/s real-time optical OFDM transceivers incorporating channel estimation and variable power loading,” Opt. Express 17(22), 19727–19738 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Q. Jin, R. P. Giddings, and J. M. Tang, “Real-time transmission of 3 Gb/s 16-QAM encoded optical OFDM signals over 75 km SMFs with negative power penalties,” Opt. Express 17(17), 14574–14585 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Qian, D.

N. Cvijetic, D. Qian, and J. Hu, “100 Gb/s optical access based on optical orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 48(7), 70–77 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sánchez, C.

Schimpf, A.

Tang, J. M.

R. P. Giddings, E. Hugues-Salas, B. Charbonnier, and J. M. Tang, “Experimental demonstration of real-time optical OFDM transmission at 11.25 Gb/s over 500m MMFs employing directly modulated DFB lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(1), 51–53 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. P. Giddings, E. Hugues-Salas, X. Q. Jin, J. L. Wei, and J. M. Tang, “Experimental demonstration of real-time optical OFDM transmission at 7.5 Gb/s over 25-km SSMF using a 1-GHz RSOA,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(11), 745–747 (2010).
[CrossRef]

X. Zheng, X. Q. Jin, R. P. Giddings, J. L. Wei, E. Hugues-Salas, Y. H. Hong, and J. M. Tang, “Negative power penalties of optical OFDM signal transmissions in directly modulated DFB laser-based IMDD systems incorporating negative dispersion fibers,” IEEE Photon. J. 2(4), 532–542 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Wei, C. Sánchez, R. P. Giddings, E. Hugues-Salas, and J. M. Tang, “Significant improvements in optical power budgets of real-time optical OFDM PON systems,” Opt. Express 18(20), 20732–20745 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Giacoumidis, X. Q. Jin, A. Tsokanos, and J. M. Tang, “Statistical performance comparisons of optical OFDM adaptive loading algorithms in multimode fiber-based transmission systems,” IEEE Photon. J. 2, 1051–1059 (2010).

R. P. Giddings, X. Q. Jin, E. Hugues-Salas, E. Giacoumidis, J. L. Wei, and J. M. Tang, “Experimental demonstration of a record high 11.25Gb/s real-time optical OFDM transceiver supporting 25km SMF end-to-end transmission in simple IMDD systems,” Opt. Express 18(6), 5541–5555 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. P. Giddings, X. Q. Jin, and J. M. Tang, “First experimental demonstration of 6Gb/s real-time optical OFDM transceivers incorporating channel estimation and variable power loading,” Opt. Express 17(22), 19727–19738 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Q. Jin, R. P. Giddings, and J. M. Tang, “Real-time transmission of 3 Gb/s 16-QAM encoded optical OFDM signals over 75 km SMFs with negative power penalties,” Opt. Express 17(17), 14574–14585 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tsokanos, A.

E. Giacoumidis, X. Q. Jin, A. Tsokanos, and J. M. Tang, “Statistical performance comparisons of optical OFDM adaptive loading algorithms in multimode fiber-based transmission systems,” IEEE Photon. J. 2, 1051–1059 (2010).

Wei, J. L.

J. L. Wei, C. Sánchez, R. P. Giddings, E. Hugues-Salas, and J. M. Tang, “Significant improvements in optical power budgets of real-time optical OFDM PON systems,” Opt. Express 18(20), 20732–20745 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. P. Giddings, X. Q. Jin, E. Hugues-Salas, E. Giacoumidis, J. L. Wei, and J. M. Tang, “Experimental demonstration of a record high 11.25Gb/s real-time optical OFDM transceiver supporting 25km SMF end-to-end transmission in simple IMDD systems,” Opt. Express 18(6), 5541–5555 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Zheng, X. Q. Jin, R. P. Giddings, J. L. Wei, E. Hugues-Salas, Y. H. Hong, and J. M. Tang, “Negative power penalties of optical OFDM signal transmissions in directly modulated DFB laser-based IMDD systems incorporating negative dispersion fibers,” IEEE Photon. J. 2(4), 532–542 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. P. Giddings, E. Hugues-Salas, X. Q. Jin, J. L. Wei, and J. M. Tang, “Experimental demonstration of real-time optical OFDM transmission at 7.5 Gb/s over 25-km SSMF using a 1-GHz RSOA,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(11), 745–747 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yu, J.

Zheng, X.

X. Zheng, X. Q. Jin, R. P. Giddings, J. L. Wei, E. Hugues-Salas, Y. H. Hong, and J. M. Tang, “Negative power penalties of optical OFDM signal transmissions in directly modulated DFB laser-based IMDD systems incorporating negative dispersion fibers,” IEEE Photon. J. 2(4), 532–542 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Commun. Mag.

N. Cvijetic, D. Qian, and J. Hu, “100 Gb/s optical access based on optical orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 48(7), 70–77 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. J.

E. Giacoumidis, X. Q. Jin, A. Tsokanos, and J. M. Tang, “Statistical performance comparisons of optical OFDM adaptive loading algorithms in multimode fiber-based transmission systems,” IEEE Photon. J. 2, 1051–1059 (2010).

X. Zheng, X. Q. Jin, R. P. Giddings, J. L. Wei, E. Hugues-Salas, Y. H. Hong, and J. M. Tang, “Negative power penalties of optical OFDM signal transmissions in directly modulated DFB laser-based IMDD systems incorporating negative dispersion fibers,” IEEE Photon. J. 2(4), 532–542 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

R. P. Giddings, E. Hugues-Salas, X. Q. Jin, J. L. Wei, and J. M. Tang, “Experimental demonstration of real-time optical OFDM transmission at 7.5 Gb/s over 25-km SSMF using a 1-GHz RSOA,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(11), 745–747 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. P. Giddings, E. Hugues-Salas, B. Charbonnier, and J. M. Tang, “Experimental demonstration of real-time optical OFDM transmission at 11.25 Gb/s over 500m MMFs employing directly modulated DFB lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(1), 51–53 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

J. Opt. Commun. Netw.

Opt. Express

Other

D. Qian, T. T. Kwok, N. Cvijetic, J. Hu, and T. Wang, “41.25 Gb/s real-time OFDM receiver for variable rate WDM-OFDMA-PON transmission”, Optical Fiber Communication/National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference (OFC/NFOEC), (USA, 2010), Paper PDPD9.

R. Dischler, A. Klekamp, F. Buchali, W. Idler, E. Lach, A. Schippel, M. Schneiders, S. Vorbeck, and R. Braun, “Transmission of 3x253-Gb/s OFDM-superchannels over 764 km field deployed single mode fibers”, Optical Fiber Communication/National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference (OFC/NFOEC), (USA, 2010), Paper PDPD2.

S. Lee, F. Breyer, S. Randel, D. Cárdenas, H. van den Boom, and A. Koonen, “Discrete multitone modulation for high-speed data transmission over multimode fibers using 850-nm VCSEL,” Optical Fiber Communication/National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference (OFC/NFOEC), (USA, 2009), Paper OWM2.

T. Duong, N. Genay, P. Chanclou, and B. Charbonnier, “10Gbit/s transmission over 2.5GHz bandwidth by direct modulation of commercial VCSEL and multi-mode FP lasers using adaptively modulated optical OFDM modulation for passive optical network”, European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC), (Brussels, 2008), paper We.1.F.4.

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

End-to-end real-time FPGA-based OOFDM transceiver architectures and an IMDD 25km SSMF system using a directly modulated VCSEL.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

System frequency responses of different system configurations: Case I. Analog back-to-back; Case II. Optical back-to-back and Case III. Entire IMDD 25km VCSEL-based SSMF system.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Loaded/received subcarrier power levels and system frequency response for Case III using 32-QAM and 64-QAM.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Real-time 64-QAM-encoded OOFDM signal spectra at the output of the VCSEL intensity modulator with equal power loading and adaptive power loading.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Typical subcarrier error distribution for 32-QAM and 64-QAM over 25km SSMF when adaptive power loading is used.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

BER performance for optical back-to-back and transmission over 25km SSMFs for 32-QAM and 64-QAM modulation formats.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Received 64-QAM constellations of individual subcarriers before equalization. Optical back-to-back, total channel BER = 1.1 × 10−3 (a, b, c) 25km SSMF, total channel BER = 1.2 × 10−3, (d, e, f).

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Received 32-QAM constellations of individual subcarriers before equalization. Optical back-to-back, total channel BER = 5.2 × 10−5 (a, b, c) 25km SSMF, total channel BER = 6.9 × 10−5 (d, e, f).

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Bias and driving current dependent total channel BER performance.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Transceiver and system parameters

Metrics