Abstract

A simple, digital signal processing-free, low-cost and robust synchronous clocking technique is proposed and experimentally demonstrated, for the first time, in a 64-QAM-encoded, 11.25Gb/s over 25km SSMF, real-time end-to-end optical OFDM (OOFDM) system using directly modulated DFB laser-based intensity-modulation and direct-detection (IMDD). Detailed experimental investigations show that, in comparison with the common clock approach utilised in previous experimental demonstrations, the proposed clocking technique can be implemented to achieve no system BER performance degradation or optical power budget penalty and more importantly to improve system stability. As a viable synchronous clocking solution for real-time OOFDM transmission, this work is a vital step towards the realisation of practical OOFDM transmission systems and has particular significance for synchronisation of OOFDM multiple access-based passive optical networks where highly accurate synchronisation of all network elements is essential.

© 2011 OSA

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References

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  1. F. Buchali, R. Dischler, A. Klekamp, M. Bernhard, and D. Efinger, “Realization of a real-time 12.1 Gb/s optical OFDM transmitter and its application in a 109 Gb/s transmission system with coherent reception,” European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC), (Vienna, 2009), PD paper 2.1.
  2. Y. Benlachtar, P. M. Watts, R. Bouziane, P. Milder, R. Koutsoyannis, J. C. Hoe, M. Puschel, M. Glick, and R. I. Killey, “21.4 GS/s real-time DSP-based optical OFDM signal generation and transmission over 1600km of uncompensated fibre,” European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC), (Vienna, 2009), PD paper 2.4.
  3. N. Kaneda, Q. Yang, X. Liu, S. Chandrasekhar, W. Shieh, and Y.-K. Chen, “Real-time 2.5GS/s coherent optical receiver for 53.3Gb/s sub-banded OFDM,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28(4), 494–501 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  4. D. Qian, T. Tai-On Kwok, N. Cvijetic, J. Hu, and T. Wang, “41.25 Gb/s Real-Time OFDM Receiver for Variable Rate WDM-OFDM-PON Transmission”, Optical Fibre Communication Conf./National Fiber Optic Engineers Conf.(OFC/NFOEC), (OSA 2010) PD Paper PDPD9.
  5. R. P. Giddings, X. Q. Jin, E. Hugues-Salas, E. Giacoumidis, J. L. Wei, and J. M. Tang, “Experimental demonstration of a record high 11.25Gb/s real-time optical OFDM transceiver supporting 25km SMF end-to-end transmission in simple IMDD systems,” Opt. Express 18(6), 5541–5555 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. R. P. Giddings, E. Hugues-Salas, B. Charbonnier, and J. M. Tang, “Experimental demonstration of real-time optical OFDM transmission at 11.25 Gb/s over 500m MMFs employing directly modulated DFB lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(1), 51–53 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  7. E. Hugues-Salas, R. P. Giddings, Y. Hong, X. Q. Jin, J. L. Wei, X. Zheng, and J. M. Tang, “First experimental demonstration of low-cost VCSEL-intensity modulated end-to-end real-time optical OFDM signal transmission at 11.25Gb/s over 25km SSMFs,” Optical Fibre Communication Conf./National Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), (OSA, 2011), Paper OMG5.
  8. R. P. Giddings, E. Hugues-Salas, X. Q. Jin, J. L. Wei, and J. M. Tang, “Experimental demonstration of real-time optical OFDM transmission at 7.5Gb/s over 25km SSMF using a 1GHz RSOA,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(11), 745–747 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  9. X. Q. Jin, R. P. Giddings, E. Hugues-Salas, and J. M. Tang, “Real-time experimental demonstration of optical OFDM symbol synchronization in directly modulated DFB laser-based 25km SMF IMDD systems,” Opt. Express 18(20), 21100–21110 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. X. Q. Jin, and J. M. Tang, “First experimental demonstration of real-time optical OFDM synchronization with sampling clock offset compensation capability in 11.25Gb/s IMDD systems,” Asia Communications & Photonics Conference & Exhibition, (Shanghai, China, ACP 2010), Postdeadline paper PD 4.
  11. R. P. Giddings, and J. M. Tang, UK patent application no. 1008018.2 (May 2010).
  12. R. P. Giddings and J. M. Tang, “World-First Experimental Demonstration of Synchronous Clock Recovery in an 11.25Gb/s Real-Time End-to-End Optical OFDM System Using Directly Modulated DFBs” Optical Fibre Communication Conf./National Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), (OSA, 2011), Paper OMS4.
  13. N. Cvijetic, D. Qian, and J. Hu, “100 Gb/s optical access based on optical orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 48(7), 70–77 (2010).
    [CrossRef]

2011

R. P. Giddings, E. Hugues-Salas, B. Charbonnier, and J. M. Tang, “Experimental demonstration of real-time optical OFDM transmission at 11.25 Gb/s over 500m MMFs employing directly modulated DFB lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(1), 51–53 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

Chandrasekhar, S.

Charbonnier, B.

R. P. Giddings, E. Hugues-Salas, B. Charbonnier, and J. M. Tang, “Experimental demonstration of real-time optical OFDM transmission at 11.25 Gb/s over 500m MMFs employing directly modulated DFB lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(1), 51–53 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y.-K.

Cvijetic, N.

N. Cvijetic, D. Qian, and J. Hu, “100 Gb/s optical access based on optical orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 48(7), 70–77 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Giacoumidis, E.

Giddings, R. P.

R. P. Giddings, E. Hugues-Salas, B. Charbonnier, and J. M. Tang, “Experimental demonstration of real-time optical OFDM transmission at 11.25 Gb/s over 500m MMFs employing directly modulated DFB lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(1), 51–53 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. P. Giddings, E. Hugues-Salas, X. Q. Jin, J. L. Wei, and J. M. Tang, “Experimental demonstration of real-time optical OFDM transmission at 7.5Gb/s over 25km SSMF using a 1GHz RSOA,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(11), 745–747 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. P. Giddings, X. Q. Jin, E. Hugues-Salas, E. Giacoumidis, J. L. Wei, and J. M. Tang, “Experimental demonstration of a record high 11.25Gb/s real-time optical OFDM transceiver supporting 25km SMF end-to-end transmission in simple IMDD systems,” Opt. Express 18(6), 5541–5555 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Q. Jin, R. P. Giddings, E. Hugues-Salas, and J. M. Tang, “Real-time experimental demonstration of optical OFDM symbol synchronization in directly modulated DFB laser-based 25km SMF IMDD systems,” Opt. Express 18(20), 21100–21110 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hu, J.

N. Cvijetic, D. Qian, and J. Hu, “100 Gb/s optical access based on optical orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 48(7), 70–77 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hugues-Salas, E.

R. P. Giddings, E. Hugues-Salas, B. Charbonnier, and J. M. Tang, “Experimental demonstration of real-time optical OFDM transmission at 11.25 Gb/s over 500m MMFs employing directly modulated DFB lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(1), 51–53 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. P. Giddings, E. Hugues-Salas, X. Q. Jin, J. L. Wei, and J. M. Tang, “Experimental demonstration of real-time optical OFDM transmission at 7.5Gb/s over 25km SSMF using a 1GHz RSOA,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(11), 745–747 (2010).
[CrossRef]

X. Q. Jin, R. P. Giddings, E. Hugues-Salas, and J. M. Tang, “Real-time experimental demonstration of optical OFDM symbol synchronization in directly modulated DFB laser-based 25km SMF IMDD systems,” Opt. Express 18(20), 21100–21110 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. P. Giddings, X. Q. Jin, E. Hugues-Salas, E. Giacoumidis, J. L. Wei, and J. M. Tang, “Experimental demonstration of a record high 11.25Gb/s real-time optical OFDM transceiver supporting 25km SMF end-to-end transmission in simple IMDD systems,” Opt. Express 18(6), 5541–5555 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jin, X. Q.

Kaneda, N.

Liu, X.

Qian, D.

N. Cvijetic, D. Qian, and J. Hu, “100 Gb/s optical access based on optical orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 48(7), 70–77 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Shieh, W.

Tang, J. M.

R. P. Giddings, E. Hugues-Salas, B. Charbonnier, and J. M. Tang, “Experimental demonstration of real-time optical OFDM transmission at 11.25 Gb/s over 500m MMFs employing directly modulated DFB lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(1), 51–53 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. P. Giddings, E. Hugues-Salas, X. Q. Jin, J. L. Wei, and J. M. Tang, “Experimental demonstration of real-time optical OFDM transmission at 7.5Gb/s over 25km SSMF using a 1GHz RSOA,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(11), 745–747 (2010).
[CrossRef]

X. Q. Jin, R. P. Giddings, E. Hugues-Salas, and J. M. Tang, “Real-time experimental demonstration of optical OFDM symbol synchronization in directly modulated DFB laser-based 25km SMF IMDD systems,” Opt. Express 18(20), 21100–21110 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. P. Giddings, X. Q. Jin, E. Hugues-Salas, E. Giacoumidis, J. L. Wei, and J. M. Tang, “Experimental demonstration of a record high 11.25Gb/s real-time optical OFDM transceiver supporting 25km SMF end-to-end transmission in simple IMDD systems,” Opt. Express 18(6), 5541–5555 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wei, J. L.

R. P. Giddings, X. Q. Jin, E. Hugues-Salas, E. Giacoumidis, J. L. Wei, and J. M. Tang, “Experimental demonstration of a record high 11.25Gb/s real-time optical OFDM transceiver supporting 25km SMF end-to-end transmission in simple IMDD systems,” Opt. Express 18(6), 5541–5555 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. P. Giddings, E. Hugues-Salas, X. Q. Jin, J. L. Wei, and J. M. Tang, “Experimental demonstration of real-time optical OFDM transmission at 7.5Gb/s over 25km SSMF using a 1GHz RSOA,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(11), 745–747 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yang, Q.

IEEE Commun. Mag.

N. Cvijetic, D. Qian, and J. Hu, “100 Gb/s optical access based on optical orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 48(7), 70–77 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

R. P. Giddings, E. Hugues-Salas, B. Charbonnier, and J. M. Tang, “Experimental demonstration of real-time optical OFDM transmission at 11.25 Gb/s over 500m MMFs employing directly modulated DFB lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(1), 51–53 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. P. Giddings, E. Hugues-Salas, X. Q. Jin, J. L. Wei, and J. M. Tang, “Experimental demonstration of real-time optical OFDM transmission at 7.5Gb/s over 25km SSMF using a 1GHz RSOA,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(11), 745–747 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

Opt. Express

Other

X. Q. Jin, and J. M. Tang, “First experimental demonstration of real-time optical OFDM synchronization with sampling clock offset compensation capability in 11.25Gb/s IMDD systems,” Asia Communications & Photonics Conference & Exhibition, (Shanghai, China, ACP 2010), Postdeadline paper PD 4.

R. P. Giddings, and J. M. Tang, UK patent application no. 1008018.2 (May 2010).

R. P. Giddings and J. M. Tang, “World-First Experimental Demonstration of Synchronous Clock Recovery in an 11.25Gb/s Real-Time End-to-End Optical OFDM System Using Directly Modulated DFBs” Optical Fibre Communication Conf./National Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), (OSA, 2011), Paper OMS4.

E. Hugues-Salas, R. P. Giddings, Y. Hong, X. Q. Jin, J. L. Wei, X. Zheng, and J. M. Tang, “First experimental demonstration of low-cost VCSEL-intensity modulated end-to-end real-time optical OFDM signal transmission at 11.25Gb/s over 25km SSMFs,” Optical Fibre Communication Conf./National Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), (OSA, 2011), Paper OMG5.

F. Buchali, R. Dischler, A. Klekamp, M. Bernhard, and D. Efinger, “Realization of a real-time 12.1 Gb/s optical OFDM transmitter and its application in a 109 Gb/s transmission system with coherent reception,” European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC), (Vienna, 2009), PD paper 2.1.

Y. Benlachtar, P. M. Watts, R. Bouziane, P. Milder, R. Koutsoyannis, J. C. Hoe, M. Puschel, M. Glick, and R. I. Killey, “21.4 GS/s real-time DSP-based optical OFDM signal generation and transmission over 1600km of uncompensated fibre,” European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC), (Vienna, 2009), PD paper 2.4.

D. Qian, T. Tai-On Kwok, N. Cvijetic, J. Hu, and T. Wang, “41.25 Gb/s Real-Time OFDM Receiver for Variable Rate WDM-OFDM-PON Transmission”, Optical Fibre Communication Conf./National Fiber Optic Engineers Conf.(OFC/NFOEC), (OSA 2010) PD Paper PDPD9.

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Example OOFDMA-PONs, (b) OOFDMA upstream frame with synchronously clocked ONUs, (c) OOFDMA upstream frame with asynchronously clocked ONUs without compensation (colours represent “data blocks” from individual ONUs).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Basic system configuration for synchronously clocked OOFDM system

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Experimental system setup for real-time OOFDM transmission at 11.25Gb/s with synchronous clock recovery.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Signal waveforms of the OFDM data signal, 4GHz synchronisation clock, combined signal and 2GHz system clocks measured in the transmitter and receiver.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Spectra of transmitted signal (at Bias-T input) and received signal (after first receiver RF amplifier)

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Synchronisation region for varying OOFDM signal and clock levels

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

BER variation with OOFDM electrical signal level (at bias-T input) with 40mA bias current, measured with and without the synchronisation clock present and operating with the common clock configuration.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

BER variation with synchronisation clock power under optimum operating conditions.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

BER performance of real-time 11.25Gb/s OOFDM with recovered clock and common clock for IMDD 25km SSMF and optical back-to-back performance with recovered clock.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Received 64-QAM subcarrier constellations before channel equalisation for 25km SSMF with common clock (a) 1st SC, (b) 8th SC, (c) 15th SC and recovered clock (d) 1st SC, (e) 8th SC, 15th SC

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

BER performance stability for (a) common clock configuration and (b) synchronous clocking configuration.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Transceiver and system parameters

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