Abstract

A compact upconversion fiber laser operating around 810 nm is proposed using thulium-doped silica-based fiber with locally modified thulium environment by high alumina codoping. Using a comprehensive numerical model of thulium doped fiber we investigate performance of the proposed laser. Comparison with two other thulium hosts, fluoride glass and standard silica, is presented. Efficient lasing can be expected even for silica based fiber for specific ranges of the fiber and laser cavity parameters, especially when 3H4 lifetime is enhanced. With moderate pump power of 5 W at wavelength of 1064 nm, the predicted output power of the upconversion laser is about 2 W at 810 nm.

© 2011 OSA

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  1. S. Ohara, N. Sugimoto, Y. Kondo, K. Ochiai, Y. Kuroiwa, Y. Fukasawa, T. Hirose, H. Hayashi, and S. Tanabe, “Bi2O3-based glass for S-band amplification,” Proc. SPIE 4645, 8–15 (2002).
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    [CrossRef]
  4. B. Faure, W. Blanc, B. Dussardier, and G. Monnom, “Improvement of the Tm3+:3H4 level lifetime in silica optical fibers by lowering the local phonon energy,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 353(29), 2767–2773 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  5. W. Blanc, T. L. Sebastian, B. Dussardier, C. Michel, B. Faure, M. Ude, and G. Monnom, “Thulium environment in a silica doped optical fibre,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 354(2-9), 435–439 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  9. M. L. Dennis, J. W. Dixon, and I. Aggarwal, “High power upconversion lasing at 810 nm in Tm:ZBLAN fibre,” Elctron. Lett. 30(2), 136–137 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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  12. A. Pal, A. Dhar, S. Das, S. Y. Chen, T. Sun, R. Sen, and K. T. V. Grattan, “Ytterbium-sensitized Thulium-doped fiber laser in the near-IR with 980 nm pumping,” Opt. Express 18(5), 5068–5074 (2010), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-18-5-5068 .
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  14. P. Peterka, B. Faure, W. Blanc, M. Karasek, and B. Dussardier, “Theoretical modelling of S-band thulium-doped silica fibre amplifiers,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 36(1-3), 201–212 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  15. W. Blanc, P. Peterka, B. Faure, B. Dussardier, G. Monnom, I. Kasik, J. Kanka, D. Simpson, and G. Baxter, “Characterization of thulium-doped silica-based optical fibre for S-band amplifier,” Proc. SPIE 6180, 61800V–1, 61800V-6 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  16. S. D. Jackson and T. A. King, “Theoretical modeling of Tm-doped silica fiber lasers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 17(5), 948–956 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  17. T. Komukai, T. Yamamoto, T. Sugawa, and Y. Miyajima, “Upconversion pumped thulium-doped fluoride fiber amplifier and laser operating at 1.47 um,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31(11), 1880–1888 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  18. P. Peterka, I. Kasik, V. Matejec, W. Blanc, B. Faure, B. Dussardier, G. Monnom, and V. Kubecek, “Thulium-doped silica-based optical fibers for cladding-pumped fiber amplifiers,” Opt. Mater. 30(1), 174–176 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  19. E.-G. Neumann, Single mode fibers (Springer Verlag, Berlin, 1988) Chap. 6.3.
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  21. J. Chen, X. Zhu, and W. Sibbett, “Rate-equation studies of erbium-doped fiber lasers with common pump and laser energy bands,” J. Opt. Soc. B 9(10), 1876–1882 (1992).
    [CrossRef]

2010 (1)

2009 (1)

I. Bufetov and E. M. Dianov, “Bi-doped fiber lasers,” Laser Phys. Lett. 6(7), 487–504 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

2007 (2)

P. Peterka, I. Kasik, V. Matejec, W. Blanc, B. Faure, B. Dussardier, G. Monnom, and V. Kubecek, “Thulium-doped silica-based optical fibers for cladding-pumped fiber amplifiers,” Opt. Mater. 30(1), 174–176 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. Faure, W. Blanc, B. Dussardier, and G. Monnom, “Improvement of the Tm3+:3H4 level lifetime in silica optical fibers by lowering the local phonon energy,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 353(29), 2767–2773 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (3)

W. Blanc, P. Peterka, B. Faure, B. Dussardier, G. Monnom, I. Kasik, J. Kanka, D. Simpson, and G. Baxter, “Characterization of thulium-doped silica-based optical fibre for S-band amplifier,” Proc. SPIE 6180, 61800V–1, 61800V-6 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. R. Watekar, S. Ju, and W. T. Hu, “A Nd-YAG laser-pumped Tm-doped silica glass optical fiber amplifier at 840 nm,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(15), 1651–1653 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. R. Watekar, S. Ju, and W. T. Hu, “800-nm upconversion emission in Yb-sensitized Tm-doped optical fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(15), 1609–1611 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

P. Peterka, B. Faure, W. Blanc, M. Karasek, and B. Dussardier, “Theoretical modelling of S-band thulium-doped silica fibre amplifiers,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 36(1-3), 201–212 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

S. Ohara, N. Sugimoto, Y. Kondo, K. Ochiai, Y. Kuroiwa, Y. Fukasawa, T. Hirose, H. Hayashi, and S. Tanabe, “Bi2O3-based glass for S-band amplification,” Proc. SPIE 4645, 8–15 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

1998 (1)

M. Grinberg, D. L. Russell, and K. Holliday, “Continuous function decay analysis of a multisite impurity activated solid,” Opt. Commun. 156(4-6), 409–418 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

T. Komukai, T. Yamamoto, T. Sugawa, and Y. Miyajima, “Upconversion pumped thulium-doped fluoride fiber amplifier and laser operating at 1.47 um,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31(11), 1880–1888 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

M. L. Dennis, J. W. Dixon, and I. Aggarwal, “High power upconversion lasing at 810 nm in Tm:ZBLAN fibre,” Elctron. Lett. 30(2), 136–137 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

J. Chen, X. Zhu, and W. Sibbett, “Rate-equation studies of erbium-doped fiber lasers with common pump and laser energy bands,” J. Opt. Soc. B 9(10), 1876–1882 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

J. N. Carter, R. G. Smart, A. C. Troper, D. C. Hanna, S. F. Carter, and D. Szebesta, “Theoretical and experimental investigation of a resonantly pumped thulium doped fluorozirconate fiber amplifier at around 810 nm,” J. Lightwave Technol. 9(11), 1548–1553 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Aggarwal, I.

M. L. Dennis, J. W. Dixon, and I. Aggarwal, “High power upconversion lasing at 810 nm in Tm:ZBLAN fibre,” Elctron. Lett. 30(2), 136–137 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Baxter, G.

W. Blanc, P. Peterka, B. Faure, B. Dussardier, G. Monnom, I. Kasik, J. Kanka, D. Simpson, and G. Baxter, “Characterization of thulium-doped silica-based optical fibre for S-band amplifier,” Proc. SPIE 6180, 61800V–1, 61800V-6 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Baxter, G. W.

Blanc, W.

D. A. Simpson, W. E. Gibbs, S. F. Collins, W. Blanc, B. Dussardier, G. Monnom, P. Peterka, and G. W. Baxter, “Visible and near infra-red up-conversion in Tm3+/Yb3+ co-doped silica fibers under 980 nm excitation,” Opt. Express 16(18), 13781–13799 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-18-13781 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Blanc, T. L. Sebastian, B. Dussardier, C. Michel, B. Faure, M. Ude, and G. Monnom, “Thulium environment in a silica doped optical fibre,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 354(2-9), 435–439 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. Faure, W. Blanc, B. Dussardier, and G. Monnom, “Improvement of the Tm3+:3H4 level lifetime in silica optical fibers by lowering the local phonon energy,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 353(29), 2767–2773 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. Peterka, I. Kasik, V. Matejec, W. Blanc, B. Faure, B. Dussardier, G. Monnom, and V. Kubecek, “Thulium-doped silica-based optical fibers for cladding-pumped fiber amplifiers,” Opt. Mater. 30(1), 174–176 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. Blanc, P. Peterka, B. Faure, B. Dussardier, G. Monnom, I. Kasik, J. Kanka, D. Simpson, and G. Baxter, “Characterization of thulium-doped silica-based optical fibre for S-band amplifier,” Proc. SPIE 6180, 61800V–1, 61800V-6 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Peterka, B. Faure, W. Blanc, M. Karasek, and B. Dussardier, “Theoretical modelling of S-band thulium-doped silica fibre amplifiers,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 36(1-3), 201–212 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bufetov, I.

I. Bufetov and E. M. Dianov, “Bi-doped fiber lasers,” Laser Phys. Lett. 6(7), 487–504 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Carter, J. N.

J. N. Carter, R. G. Smart, A. C. Troper, D. C. Hanna, S. F. Carter, and D. Szebesta, “Theoretical and experimental investigation of a resonantly pumped thulium doped fluorozirconate fiber amplifier at around 810 nm,” J. Lightwave Technol. 9(11), 1548–1553 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Carter, S. F.

J. N. Carter, R. G. Smart, A. C. Troper, D. C. Hanna, S. F. Carter, and D. Szebesta, “Theoretical and experimental investigation of a resonantly pumped thulium doped fluorozirconate fiber amplifier at around 810 nm,” J. Lightwave Technol. 9(11), 1548–1553 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Chen, J.

J. Chen, X. Zhu, and W. Sibbett, “Rate-equation studies of erbium-doped fiber lasers with common pump and laser energy bands,” J. Opt. Soc. B 9(10), 1876–1882 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Chen, S. Y.

Collins, S. F.

Das, S.

Dennis, M. L.

M. L. Dennis, J. W. Dixon, and I. Aggarwal, “High power upconversion lasing at 810 nm in Tm:ZBLAN fibre,” Elctron. Lett. 30(2), 136–137 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Dhar, A.

Dianov, E. M.

I. Bufetov and E. M. Dianov, “Bi-doped fiber lasers,” Laser Phys. Lett. 6(7), 487–504 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dixon, J. W.

M. L. Dennis, J. W. Dixon, and I. Aggarwal, “High power upconversion lasing at 810 nm in Tm:ZBLAN fibre,” Elctron. Lett. 30(2), 136–137 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Dussardier, B.

W. Blanc, T. L. Sebastian, B. Dussardier, C. Michel, B. Faure, M. Ude, and G. Monnom, “Thulium environment in a silica doped optical fibre,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 354(2-9), 435–439 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Simpson, W. E. Gibbs, S. F. Collins, W. Blanc, B. Dussardier, G. Monnom, P. Peterka, and G. W. Baxter, “Visible and near infra-red up-conversion in Tm3+/Yb3+ co-doped silica fibers under 980 nm excitation,” Opt. Express 16(18), 13781–13799 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-18-13781 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Peterka, I. Kasik, V. Matejec, W. Blanc, B. Faure, B. Dussardier, G. Monnom, and V. Kubecek, “Thulium-doped silica-based optical fibers for cladding-pumped fiber amplifiers,” Opt. Mater. 30(1), 174–176 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. Faure, W. Blanc, B. Dussardier, and G. Monnom, “Improvement of the Tm3+:3H4 level lifetime in silica optical fibers by lowering the local phonon energy,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 353(29), 2767–2773 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. Blanc, P. Peterka, B. Faure, B. Dussardier, G. Monnom, I. Kasik, J. Kanka, D. Simpson, and G. Baxter, “Characterization of thulium-doped silica-based optical fibre for S-band amplifier,” Proc. SPIE 6180, 61800V–1, 61800V-6 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Peterka, B. Faure, W. Blanc, M. Karasek, and B. Dussardier, “Theoretical modelling of S-band thulium-doped silica fibre amplifiers,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 36(1-3), 201–212 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Faure, B.

W. Blanc, T. L. Sebastian, B. Dussardier, C. Michel, B. Faure, M. Ude, and G. Monnom, “Thulium environment in a silica doped optical fibre,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 354(2-9), 435–439 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. Faure, W. Blanc, B. Dussardier, and G. Monnom, “Improvement of the Tm3+:3H4 level lifetime in silica optical fibers by lowering the local phonon energy,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 353(29), 2767–2773 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. Peterka, I. Kasik, V. Matejec, W. Blanc, B. Faure, B. Dussardier, G. Monnom, and V. Kubecek, “Thulium-doped silica-based optical fibers for cladding-pumped fiber amplifiers,” Opt. Mater. 30(1), 174–176 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. Blanc, P. Peterka, B. Faure, B. Dussardier, G. Monnom, I. Kasik, J. Kanka, D. Simpson, and G. Baxter, “Characterization of thulium-doped silica-based optical fibre for S-band amplifier,” Proc. SPIE 6180, 61800V–1, 61800V-6 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Peterka, B. Faure, W. Blanc, M. Karasek, and B. Dussardier, “Theoretical modelling of S-band thulium-doped silica fibre amplifiers,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 36(1-3), 201–212 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fukasawa, Y.

S. Ohara, N. Sugimoto, Y. Kondo, K. Ochiai, Y. Kuroiwa, Y. Fukasawa, T. Hirose, H. Hayashi, and S. Tanabe, “Bi2O3-based glass for S-band amplification,” Proc. SPIE 4645, 8–15 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Gibbs, W. E.

Grattan, K. T. V.

Grinberg, M.

M. Grinberg, D. L. Russell, and K. Holliday, “Continuous function decay analysis of a multisite impurity activated solid,” Opt. Commun. 156(4-6), 409–418 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hanna, D. C.

J. N. Carter, R. G. Smart, A. C. Troper, D. C. Hanna, S. F. Carter, and D. Szebesta, “Theoretical and experimental investigation of a resonantly pumped thulium doped fluorozirconate fiber amplifier at around 810 nm,” J. Lightwave Technol. 9(11), 1548–1553 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Hayashi, H.

S. Ohara, N. Sugimoto, Y. Kondo, K. Ochiai, Y. Kuroiwa, Y. Fukasawa, T. Hirose, H. Hayashi, and S. Tanabe, “Bi2O3-based glass for S-band amplification,” Proc. SPIE 4645, 8–15 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hirose, T.

S. Ohara, N. Sugimoto, Y. Kondo, K. Ochiai, Y. Kuroiwa, Y. Fukasawa, T. Hirose, H. Hayashi, and S. Tanabe, “Bi2O3-based glass for S-band amplification,” Proc. SPIE 4645, 8–15 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Holliday, K.

M. Grinberg, D. L. Russell, and K. Holliday, “Continuous function decay analysis of a multisite impurity activated solid,” Opt. Commun. 156(4-6), 409–418 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hu, W. T.

P. R. Watekar, S. Ju, and W. T. Hu, “A Nd-YAG laser-pumped Tm-doped silica glass optical fiber amplifier at 840 nm,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(15), 1651–1653 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. R. Watekar, S. Ju, and W. T. Hu, “800-nm upconversion emission in Yb-sensitized Tm-doped optical fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(15), 1609–1611 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jackson, S. D.

Ju, S.

P. R. Watekar, S. Ju, and W. T. Hu, “800-nm upconversion emission in Yb-sensitized Tm-doped optical fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(15), 1609–1611 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. R. Watekar, S. Ju, and W. T. Hu, “A Nd-YAG laser-pumped Tm-doped silica glass optical fiber amplifier at 840 nm,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(15), 1651–1653 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kanka, J.

W. Blanc, P. Peterka, B. Faure, B. Dussardier, G. Monnom, I. Kasik, J. Kanka, D. Simpson, and G. Baxter, “Characterization of thulium-doped silica-based optical fibre for S-band amplifier,” Proc. SPIE 6180, 61800V–1, 61800V-6 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Karasek, M.

P. Peterka, B. Faure, W. Blanc, M. Karasek, and B. Dussardier, “Theoretical modelling of S-band thulium-doped silica fibre amplifiers,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 36(1-3), 201–212 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kasik, I.

P. Peterka, I. Kasik, V. Matejec, W. Blanc, B. Faure, B. Dussardier, G. Monnom, and V. Kubecek, “Thulium-doped silica-based optical fibers for cladding-pumped fiber amplifiers,” Opt. Mater. 30(1), 174–176 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. Blanc, P. Peterka, B. Faure, B. Dussardier, G. Monnom, I. Kasik, J. Kanka, D. Simpson, and G. Baxter, “Characterization of thulium-doped silica-based optical fibre for S-band amplifier,” Proc. SPIE 6180, 61800V–1, 61800V-6 (2006).
[CrossRef]

King, T. A.

Komukai, T.

T. Komukai, T. Yamamoto, T. Sugawa, and Y. Miyajima, “Upconversion pumped thulium-doped fluoride fiber amplifier and laser operating at 1.47 um,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31(11), 1880–1888 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kondo, Y.

S. Ohara, N. Sugimoto, Y. Kondo, K. Ochiai, Y. Kuroiwa, Y. Fukasawa, T. Hirose, H. Hayashi, and S. Tanabe, “Bi2O3-based glass for S-band amplification,” Proc. SPIE 4645, 8–15 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kubecek, V.

P. Peterka, I. Kasik, V. Matejec, W. Blanc, B. Faure, B. Dussardier, G. Monnom, and V. Kubecek, “Thulium-doped silica-based optical fibers for cladding-pumped fiber amplifiers,” Opt. Mater. 30(1), 174–176 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kuroiwa, Y.

S. Ohara, N. Sugimoto, Y. Kondo, K. Ochiai, Y. Kuroiwa, Y. Fukasawa, T. Hirose, H. Hayashi, and S. Tanabe, “Bi2O3-based glass for S-band amplification,” Proc. SPIE 4645, 8–15 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Matejec, V.

P. Peterka, I. Kasik, V. Matejec, W. Blanc, B. Faure, B. Dussardier, G. Monnom, and V. Kubecek, “Thulium-doped silica-based optical fibers for cladding-pumped fiber amplifiers,” Opt. Mater. 30(1), 174–176 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Michel, C.

W. Blanc, T. L. Sebastian, B. Dussardier, C. Michel, B. Faure, M. Ude, and G. Monnom, “Thulium environment in a silica doped optical fibre,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 354(2-9), 435–439 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Miyajima, Y.

T. Komukai, T. Yamamoto, T. Sugawa, and Y. Miyajima, “Upconversion pumped thulium-doped fluoride fiber amplifier and laser operating at 1.47 um,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31(11), 1880–1888 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Monnom, G.

W. Blanc, T. L. Sebastian, B. Dussardier, C. Michel, B. Faure, M. Ude, and G. Monnom, “Thulium environment in a silica doped optical fibre,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 354(2-9), 435–439 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Simpson, W. E. Gibbs, S. F. Collins, W. Blanc, B. Dussardier, G. Monnom, P. Peterka, and G. W. Baxter, “Visible and near infra-red up-conversion in Tm3+/Yb3+ co-doped silica fibers under 980 nm excitation,” Opt. Express 16(18), 13781–13799 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-18-13781 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Peterka, I. Kasik, V. Matejec, W. Blanc, B. Faure, B. Dussardier, G. Monnom, and V. Kubecek, “Thulium-doped silica-based optical fibers for cladding-pumped fiber amplifiers,” Opt. Mater. 30(1), 174–176 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. Faure, W. Blanc, B. Dussardier, and G. Monnom, “Improvement of the Tm3+:3H4 level lifetime in silica optical fibers by lowering the local phonon energy,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 353(29), 2767–2773 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. Blanc, P. Peterka, B. Faure, B. Dussardier, G. Monnom, I. Kasik, J. Kanka, D. Simpson, and G. Baxter, “Characterization of thulium-doped silica-based optical fibre for S-band amplifier,” Proc. SPIE 6180, 61800V–1, 61800V-6 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ochiai, K.

S. Ohara, N. Sugimoto, Y. Kondo, K. Ochiai, Y. Kuroiwa, Y. Fukasawa, T. Hirose, H. Hayashi, and S. Tanabe, “Bi2O3-based glass for S-band amplification,” Proc. SPIE 4645, 8–15 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ohara, S.

S. Ohara, N. Sugimoto, Y. Kondo, K. Ochiai, Y. Kuroiwa, Y. Fukasawa, T. Hirose, H. Hayashi, and S. Tanabe, “Bi2O3-based glass for S-band amplification,” Proc. SPIE 4645, 8–15 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Pal, A.

Peterka, P.

D. A. Simpson, W. E. Gibbs, S. F. Collins, W. Blanc, B. Dussardier, G. Monnom, P. Peterka, and G. W. Baxter, “Visible and near infra-red up-conversion in Tm3+/Yb3+ co-doped silica fibers under 980 nm excitation,” Opt. Express 16(18), 13781–13799 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-18-13781 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Peterka, I. Kasik, V. Matejec, W. Blanc, B. Faure, B. Dussardier, G. Monnom, and V. Kubecek, “Thulium-doped silica-based optical fibers for cladding-pumped fiber amplifiers,” Opt. Mater. 30(1), 174–176 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. Blanc, P. Peterka, B. Faure, B. Dussardier, G. Monnom, I. Kasik, J. Kanka, D. Simpson, and G. Baxter, “Characterization of thulium-doped silica-based optical fibre for S-band amplifier,” Proc. SPIE 6180, 61800V–1, 61800V-6 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Peterka, B. Faure, W. Blanc, M. Karasek, and B. Dussardier, “Theoretical modelling of S-band thulium-doped silica fibre amplifiers,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 36(1-3), 201–212 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Russell, D. L.

M. Grinberg, D. L. Russell, and K. Holliday, “Continuous function decay analysis of a multisite impurity activated solid,” Opt. Commun. 156(4-6), 409–418 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sebastian, T. L.

W. Blanc, T. L. Sebastian, B. Dussardier, C. Michel, B. Faure, M. Ude, and G. Monnom, “Thulium environment in a silica doped optical fibre,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 354(2-9), 435–439 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sen, R.

Sibbett, W.

J. Chen, X. Zhu, and W. Sibbett, “Rate-equation studies of erbium-doped fiber lasers with common pump and laser energy bands,” J. Opt. Soc. B 9(10), 1876–1882 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Simpson, D.

W. Blanc, P. Peterka, B. Faure, B. Dussardier, G. Monnom, I. Kasik, J. Kanka, D. Simpson, and G. Baxter, “Characterization of thulium-doped silica-based optical fibre for S-band amplifier,” Proc. SPIE 6180, 61800V–1, 61800V-6 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Simpson, D. A.

Smart, R. G.

J. N. Carter, R. G. Smart, A. C. Troper, D. C. Hanna, S. F. Carter, and D. Szebesta, “Theoretical and experimental investigation of a resonantly pumped thulium doped fluorozirconate fiber amplifier at around 810 nm,” J. Lightwave Technol. 9(11), 1548–1553 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Sugawa, T.

T. Komukai, T. Yamamoto, T. Sugawa, and Y. Miyajima, “Upconversion pumped thulium-doped fluoride fiber amplifier and laser operating at 1.47 um,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31(11), 1880–1888 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Sugimoto, N.

S. Ohara, N. Sugimoto, Y. Kondo, K. Ochiai, Y. Kuroiwa, Y. Fukasawa, T. Hirose, H. Hayashi, and S. Tanabe, “Bi2O3-based glass for S-band amplification,” Proc. SPIE 4645, 8–15 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sun, T.

Szebesta, D.

J. N. Carter, R. G. Smart, A. C. Troper, D. C. Hanna, S. F. Carter, and D. Szebesta, “Theoretical and experimental investigation of a resonantly pumped thulium doped fluorozirconate fiber amplifier at around 810 nm,” J. Lightwave Technol. 9(11), 1548–1553 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Tanabe, S.

S. Ohara, N. Sugimoto, Y. Kondo, K. Ochiai, Y. Kuroiwa, Y. Fukasawa, T. Hirose, H. Hayashi, and S. Tanabe, “Bi2O3-based glass for S-band amplification,” Proc. SPIE 4645, 8–15 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Troper, A. C.

J. N. Carter, R. G. Smart, A. C. Troper, D. C. Hanna, S. F. Carter, and D. Szebesta, “Theoretical and experimental investigation of a resonantly pumped thulium doped fluorozirconate fiber amplifier at around 810 nm,” J. Lightwave Technol. 9(11), 1548–1553 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Ude, M.

W. Blanc, T. L. Sebastian, B. Dussardier, C. Michel, B. Faure, M. Ude, and G. Monnom, “Thulium environment in a silica doped optical fibre,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 354(2-9), 435–439 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Watekar, P. R.

P. R. Watekar, S. Ju, and W. T. Hu, “800-nm upconversion emission in Yb-sensitized Tm-doped optical fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(15), 1609–1611 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. R. Watekar, S. Ju, and W. T. Hu, “A Nd-YAG laser-pumped Tm-doped silica glass optical fiber amplifier at 840 nm,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(15), 1651–1653 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yamamoto, T.

T. Komukai, T. Yamamoto, T. Sugawa, and Y. Miyajima, “Upconversion pumped thulium-doped fluoride fiber amplifier and laser operating at 1.47 um,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31(11), 1880–1888 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, X.

J. Chen, X. Zhu, and W. Sibbett, “Rate-equation studies of erbium-doped fiber lasers with common pump and laser energy bands,” J. Opt. Soc. B 9(10), 1876–1882 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Elctron. Lett. (1)

M. L. Dennis, J. W. Dixon, and I. Aggarwal, “High power upconversion lasing at 810 nm in Tm:ZBLAN fibre,” Elctron. Lett. 30(2), 136–137 (1994).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

T. Komukai, T. Yamamoto, T. Sugawa, and Y. Miyajima, “Upconversion pumped thulium-doped fluoride fiber amplifier and laser operating at 1.47 um,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31(11), 1880–1888 (1995).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

P. R. Watekar, S. Ju, and W. T. Hu, “800-nm upconversion emission in Yb-sensitized Tm-doped optical fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(15), 1609–1611 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. R. Watekar, S. Ju, and W. T. Hu, “A Nd-YAG laser-pumped Tm-doped silica glass optical fiber amplifier at 840 nm,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(15), 1651–1653 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

J. N. Carter, R. G. Smart, A. C. Troper, D. C. Hanna, S. F. Carter, and D. Szebesta, “Theoretical and experimental investigation of a resonantly pumped thulium doped fluorozirconate fiber amplifier at around 810 nm,” J. Lightwave Technol. 9(11), 1548–1553 (1991).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Jackson and T. A. King, “Theoretical modeling of Tm-doped silica fiber lasers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 17(5), 948–956 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Non-Cryst. Solids (2)

B. Faure, W. Blanc, B. Dussardier, and G. Monnom, “Improvement of the Tm3+:3H4 level lifetime in silica optical fibers by lowering the local phonon energy,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 353(29), 2767–2773 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. Blanc, T. L. Sebastian, B. Dussardier, C. Michel, B. Faure, M. Ude, and G. Monnom, “Thulium environment in a silica doped optical fibre,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 354(2-9), 435–439 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. B (1)

J. Chen, X. Zhu, and W. Sibbett, “Rate-equation studies of erbium-doped fiber lasers with common pump and laser energy bands,” J. Opt. Soc. B 9(10), 1876–1882 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Laser Phys. Lett. (1)

I. Bufetov and E. M. Dianov, “Bi-doped fiber lasers,” Laser Phys. Lett. 6(7), 487–504 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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M. Grinberg, D. L. Russell, and K. Holliday, “Continuous function decay analysis of a multisite impurity activated solid,” Opt. Commun. 156(4-6), 409–418 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Mater. (1)

P. Peterka, I. Kasik, V. Matejec, W. Blanc, B. Faure, B. Dussardier, G. Monnom, and V. Kubecek, “Thulium-doped silica-based optical fibers for cladding-pumped fiber amplifiers,” Opt. Mater. 30(1), 174–176 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Quantum Electron. (1)

P. Peterka, B. Faure, W. Blanc, M. Karasek, and B. Dussardier, “Theoretical modelling of S-band thulium-doped silica fibre amplifiers,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 36(1-3), 201–212 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (2)

W. Blanc, P. Peterka, B. Faure, B. Dussardier, G. Monnom, I. Kasik, J. Kanka, D. Simpson, and G. Baxter, “Characterization of thulium-doped silica-based optical fibre for S-band amplifier,” Proc. SPIE 6180, 61800V–1, 61800V-6 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Ohara, N. Sugimoto, Y. Kondo, K. Ochiai, Y. Kuroiwa, Y. Fukasawa, T. Hirose, H. Hayashi, and S. Tanabe, “Bi2O3-based glass for S-band amplification,” Proc. SPIE 4645, 8–15 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

M. L. Dennis, and B. Cole, “Amplification device utilizing thulium doped modified silicate optical fiber,” US patent No. 6,924,928 B2, August 2 (2005).

P. Peterka, I. Kasik, A. Dhar, B. Dussardier, and W. Blanc, “Theoretical analysis of fiber lasers emitting around 810 nm based on thulium-doped silica fibers with enhanced 3H4 level lifetime”, In Europhysics Conference Abstracts 34C, 4th EPS-QEOD Europhoton conference, Germany, WeP5 (2010).

E.-G. Neumann, Single mode fibers (Springer Verlag, Berlin, 1988) Chap. 6.3.

P. Peterka, I. Kasik, A. Dhar, B. Dussardier, and W. Blanc, “Thulium-doped silica fibers with enhanced 3H4 level lifetime: modelling the devices for 800-820 nm band,” Proc. SPIE CDS417 (to be published).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Thulium energy level diagrams with depicted (a) single- and (b) dual-wavelengths upconversion pumping schemes and the corresponding TDF laser setups for (c) single- and (d) dual-wavelength pumping.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Detail of the emission and absorption spectra around 800 nm of the TDF under test. (b) Backward emission of the TDF pumped by 500 mW at 1060 nm (thin black line). The thick blue line represents the change in the emission in the blue part of the spectrum when another 300 mW of pump at around 1440 nm was added.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Thulium energy level diagram with transitions involved in the theoretical model.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Thulium absorption and emission cross-section spectra used in the model.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Laser output power at 810 nm vs. fiber core radius for several values of NA and pump power of 5 W at 1064 nm. (b) Laser output at 810 nm vs. TDF length for three different host materials and three pump power levels.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Laser wavelength tuning characteristics. (b) Examples of the dual-wavelength pumped upconversion laser. The output power at 810 nm is plotted vs. the pump power at 1410 nm (ESA 3F4 3H4) for the three different host materials and for three pump power levels at 1560 nm (ground state absorption 3H6 3F4).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) Laser output at 810 nm and total power of the ASE originated from the 3F4 level vs. ratios of pump power at 1560 and 1410 nm. (b) Dependence of the laser output on the pump laser wavelengths.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Coefficients of best fits of absorption and emission spectra

Tables Icon

Table 2 Fluorescence lifetimes of thulium energy levels in three different fiber hosts.The values are given in μs.

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

d N 1 d t = N 0 ( W 01 + W 02 ) N 1 ( W 10 + W 13 + W 14 + A 1 n r + A 10 ) +       + N 3 ( W 31 + A 3 n r + A 32 + A 31 ) + N 5 ( A 51 + A 52 ) ,
d N 3 d t = N 0 ( W 03 + W 04 ) + N 1 ( W 13 + W 14 ) + N 5 ( A 5 n r + A 54 + A 53 )       N 3 ( W 35 + W 31 + W 30 + A 3 n r + j = 0 2 A 3 j ) ,
d N 5 d t = N 0 W 05 + N 3 W 35 N 5 ( W 50 + A 5 n r + j = 0 4 A 5 j ) ,
N t = N 0 + N 1 + N 3 + N 5 ,
d P ± ( λ ) d z = ± Γ ( λ ) P ± ( λ ) i j { 10 , 30 , 31 , 50 } ( N i σ i j ( λ ) N j σ j i ( λ ) )         Γ ( λ ) P ± ( λ ) ( N 0 σ 02 ( λ ) + N 0 σ 04 ( λ ) + N 1 σ 14 ( λ ) + N 3 σ 35 ( λ ) )         ± Γ ( λ ) i j { 10 , 30 , 31 , 50 } 2 M ( λ ) h ν i j Δ ν N i σ i j ( λ ) α ( λ ) P ± ( λ ) ,
σ ( λ ) = k = 1 4 a k exp [ 2 ( λ λ k Δ λ k ) 2 ]

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