Abstract

A 1 x 8 fiber array is used as the front-end of a receiver system. Each channel has a different length of fiber, resulting in each channel signal arriving at the detector at a pre-determined interval relative to a constant repetitive frequency signal. We demonstrate that these eight channels can be efficiently coupled to an individual single-photon detector such that the arrival-time of a photon in each is distinguishable from the next. Thus, we demonstrate spatial position to time information exchange, resulting in a photon-counting array using a single detector. The receiver system could be implemented in numerous applications, including time-resolved photoluminescence, low-light level spectroscopy and quantum information processing.

© 2011 OSA

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References

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  1. L. Zhang, L. Neves, J. S. Lundeen, and I. A. Walmsley, “A Characterization of the Single-photon Sensitivity of an Electron Multiplying Charge-Coupled Device,” J. Phys. B 42(11), 114011 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  2. F. Zappa, S. Tisa, S. Cova, P. Maccagnani, D. B. Calia, R. Saletti, R. Roncella, G. Bonanno, and M. Belluso, “Single-Photon Avalanche Diode Arrays for Fast Transients and Adaptive Optics,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 55(1), 365–374 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  3. A. R. Altman, K. G. Köprülü, E. Corndorf, P. Kumar, and G. A. Barbosa, “Quantum imaging of nonlocal spatial correlations induced by orbital angular momentum,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(12), 123601 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. H. Dautet, P. Deschamps, B. Dion, A. D. Macgregor, D. Macsween, R. J. McIntyre, C. Trottier, and P. P. Webb, “Photon counting techniques with silicon avalanche photodiodes,” Appl. Opt. 32(21), 3894–3900 (1993).
    [PubMed]
  5. S. Cova, A. Longoni, and A. Andreoni, “Towards picosecond resolution with single-photon avalanche diodes,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 52(3), 408–412 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  6. G. S. Buller and R. J. Collins, “Single–photon generation and detection,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 21(1), 012002 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  7. C. E. Shannon, “A mathematical theory of communication,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 27, 379 (1948).
  8. Y. Hiraoka, T. Shimi, and T. Haraguchi, “Multispectral imaging fluorescence microscopy for living cells,” Cell Struct. Funct. 27(5), 367–374 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. J. J. Field, R. Carriles, and J. Squier, “Photon-Counting Photobleaching Measurements and the Effect of Dispersion in Two-Photon Microscopy,” Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/International Quantum Electronics Conference, Optical Society of America, JTuD58, (2009)
  10. A. McCarthy, R. J. Collins, N. J. Krichel, V. Fernández, A. M. Wallace, and G. S. Buller, “Long-range time-of-flight scanning sensor based on high-speed time-correlated single-photon counting,” Appl. Opt. 48(32), 6241–6251 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. M. N. O’Sullivan-Hale, I. A. Khan, R. W. Boyd, and J. C. Howell, “Pixel entanglement: experimental realization of optically entangled d=3 and d=6 qudits,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(22), 220501 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (1)

G. S. Buller and R. J. Collins, “Single–photon generation and detection,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 21(1), 012002 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (2)

A. McCarthy, R. J. Collins, N. J. Krichel, V. Fernández, A. M. Wallace, and G. S. Buller, “Long-range time-of-flight scanning sensor based on high-speed time-correlated single-photon counting,” Appl. Opt. 48(32), 6241–6251 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Zhang, L. Neves, J. S. Lundeen, and I. A. Walmsley, “A Characterization of the Single-photon Sensitivity of an Electron Multiplying Charge-Coupled Device,” J. Phys. B 42(11), 114011 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

F. Zappa, S. Tisa, S. Cova, P. Maccagnani, D. B. Calia, R. Saletti, R. Roncella, G. Bonanno, and M. Belluso, “Single-Photon Avalanche Diode Arrays for Fast Transients and Adaptive Optics,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 55(1), 365–374 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

A. R. Altman, K. G. Köprülü, E. Corndorf, P. Kumar, and G. A. Barbosa, “Quantum imaging of nonlocal spatial correlations induced by orbital angular momentum,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(12), 123601 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. N. O’Sullivan-Hale, I. A. Khan, R. W. Boyd, and J. C. Howell, “Pixel entanglement: experimental realization of optically entangled d=3 and d=6 qudits,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(22), 220501 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

Y. Hiraoka, T. Shimi, and T. Haraguchi, “Multispectral imaging fluorescence microscopy for living cells,” Cell Struct. Funct. 27(5), 367–374 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (1)

H. Dautet, P. Deschamps, B. Dion, A. D. Macgregor, D. Macsween, R. J. McIntyre, C. Trottier, and P. P. Webb, “Photon counting techniques with silicon avalanche photodiodes,” Appl. Opt. 32(21), 3894–3900 (1993).
[PubMed]

1981 (1)

S. Cova, A. Longoni, and A. Andreoni, “Towards picosecond resolution with single-photon avalanche diodes,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 52(3), 408–412 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1948 (1)

C. E. Shannon, “A mathematical theory of communication,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 27, 379 (1948).

Altman, A. R.

A. R. Altman, K. G. Köprülü, E. Corndorf, P. Kumar, and G. A. Barbosa, “Quantum imaging of nonlocal spatial correlations induced by orbital angular momentum,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(12), 123601 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Andreoni, A.

S. Cova, A. Longoni, and A. Andreoni, “Towards picosecond resolution with single-photon avalanche diodes,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 52(3), 408–412 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Barbosa, G. A.

A. R. Altman, K. G. Köprülü, E. Corndorf, P. Kumar, and G. A. Barbosa, “Quantum imaging of nonlocal spatial correlations induced by orbital angular momentum,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(12), 123601 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Belluso, M.

F. Zappa, S. Tisa, S. Cova, P. Maccagnani, D. B. Calia, R. Saletti, R. Roncella, G. Bonanno, and M. Belluso, “Single-Photon Avalanche Diode Arrays for Fast Transients and Adaptive Optics,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 55(1), 365–374 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bonanno, G.

F. Zappa, S. Tisa, S. Cova, P. Maccagnani, D. B. Calia, R. Saletti, R. Roncella, G. Bonanno, and M. Belluso, “Single-Photon Avalanche Diode Arrays for Fast Transients and Adaptive Optics,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 55(1), 365–374 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Boyd, R. W.

M. N. O’Sullivan-Hale, I. A. Khan, R. W. Boyd, and J. C. Howell, “Pixel entanglement: experimental realization of optically entangled d=3 and d=6 qudits,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(22), 220501 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Buller, G. S.

G. S. Buller and R. J. Collins, “Single–photon generation and detection,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 21(1), 012002 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. McCarthy, R. J. Collins, N. J. Krichel, V. Fernández, A. M. Wallace, and G. S. Buller, “Long-range time-of-flight scanning sensor based on high-speed time-correlated single-photon counting,” Appl. Opt. 48(32), 6241–6251 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Calia, D. B.

F. Zappa, S. Tisa, S. Cova, P. Maccagnani, D. B. Calia, R. Saletti, R. Roncella, G. Bonanno, and M. Belluso, “Single-Photon Avalanche Diode Arrays for Fast Transients and Adaptive Optics,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 55(1), 365–374 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Collins, R. J.

G. S. Buller and R. J. Collins, “Single–photon generation and detection,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 21(1), 012002 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. McCarthy, R. J. Collins, N. J. Krichel, V. Fernández, A. M. Wallace, and G. S. Buller, “Long-range time-of-flight scanning sensor based on high-speed time-correlated single-photon counting,” Appl. Opt. 48(32), 6241–6251 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Corndorf, E.

A. R. Altman, K. G. Köprülü, E. Corndorf, P. Kumar, and G. A. Barbosa, “Quantum imaging of nonlocal spatial correlations induced by orbital angular momentum,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(12), 123601 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cova, S.

F. Zappa, S. Tisa, S. Cova, P. Maccagnani, D. B. Calia, R. Saletti, R. Roncella, G. Bonanno, and M. Belluso, “Single-Photon Avalanche Diode Arrays for Fast Transients and Adaptive Optics,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 55(1), 365–374 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Cova, A. Longoni, and A. Andreoni, “Towards picosecond resolution with single-photon avalanche diodes,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 52(3), 408–412 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Dautet, H.

H. Dautet, P. Deschamps, B. Dion, A. D. Macgregor, D. Macsween, R. J. McIntyre, C. Trottier, and P. P. Webb, “Photon counting techniques with silicon avalanche photodiodes,” Appl. Opt. 32(21), 3894–3900 (1993).
[PubMed]

Deschamps, P.

H. Dautet, P. Deschamps, B. Dion, A. D. Macgregor, D. Macsween, R. J. McIntyre, C. Trottier, and P. P. Webb, “Photon counting techniques with silicon avalanche photodiodes,” Appl. Opt. 32(21), 3894–3900 (1993).
[PubMed]

Dion, B.

H. Dautet, P. Deschamps, B. Dion, A. D. Macgregor, D. Macsween, R. J. McIntyre, C. Trottier, and P. P. Webb, “Photon counting techniques with silicon avalanche photodiodes,” Appl. Opt. 32(21), 3894–3900 (1993).
[PubMed]

Fernández, V.

A. McCarthy, R. J. Collins, N. J. Krichel, V. Fernández, A. M. Wallace, and G. S. Buller, “Long-range time-of-flight scanning sensor based on high-speed time-correlated single-photon counting,” Appl. Opt. 48(32), 6241–6251 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Haraguchi, T.

Y. Hiraoka, T. Shimi, and T. Haraguchi, “Multispectral imaging fluorescence microscopy for living cells,” Cell Struct. Funct. 27(5), 367–374 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hiraoka, Y.

Y. Hiraoka, T. Shimi, and T. Haraguchi, “Multispectral imaging fluorescence microscopy for living cells,” Cell Struct. Funct. 27(5), 367–374 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Howell, J. C.

M. N. O’Sullivan-Hale, I. A. Khan, R. W. Boyd, and J. C. Howell, “Pixel entanglement: experimental realization of optically entangled d=3 and d=6 qudits,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(22), 220501 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Khan, I. A.

M. N. O’Sullivan-Hale, I. A. Khan, R. W. Boyd, and J. C. Howell, “Pixel entanglement: experimental realization of optically entangled d=3 and d=6 qudits,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(22), 220501 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Köprülü, K. G.

A. R. Altman, K. G. Köprülü, E. Corndorf, P. Kumar, and G. A. Barbosa, “Quantum imaging of nonlocal spatial correlations induced by orbital angular momentum,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(12), 123601 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krichel, N. J.

A. McCarthy, R. J. Collins, N. J. Krichel, V. Fernández, A. M. Wallace, and G. S. Buller, “Long-range time-of-flight scanning sensor based on high-speed time-correlated single-photon counting,” Appl. Opt. 48(32), 6241–6251 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kumar, P.

A. R. Altman, K. G. Köprülü, E. Corndorf, P. Kumar, and G. A. Barbosa, “Quantum imaging of nonlocal spatial correlations induced by orbital angular momentum,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(12), 123601 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Longoni, A.

S. Cova, A. Longoni, and A. Andreoni, “Towards picosecond resolution with single-photon avalanche diodes,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 52(3), 408–412 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Lundeen, J. S.

L. Zhang, L. Neves, J. S. Lundeen, and I. A. Walmsley, “A Characterization of the Single-photon Sensitivity of an Electron Multiplying Charge-Coupled Device,” J. Phys. B 42(11), 114011 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Maccagnani, P.

F. Zappa, S. Tisa, S. Cova, P. Maccagnani, D. B. Calia, R. Saletti, R. Roncella, G. Bonanno, and M. Belluso, “Single-Photon Avalanche Diode Arrays for Fast Transients and Adaptive Optics,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 55(1), 365–374 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Macgregor, A. D.

H. Dautet, P. Deschamps, B. Dion, A. D. Macgregor, D. Macsween, R. J. McIntyre, C. Trottier, and P. P. Webb, “Photon counting techniques with silicon avalanche photodiodes,” Appl. Opt. 32(21), 3894–3900 (1993).
[PubMed]

Macsween, D.

H. Dautet, P. Deschamps, B. Dion, A. D. Macgregor, D. Macsween, R. J. McIntyre, C. Trottier, and P. P. Webb, “Photon counting techniques with silicon avalanche photodiodes,” Appl. Opt. 32(21), 3894–3900 (1993).
[PubMed]

McCarthy, A.

A. McCarthy, R. J. Collins, N. J. Krichel, V. Fernández, A. M. Wallace, and G. S. Buller, “Long-range time-of-flight scanning sensor based on high-speed time-correlated single-photon counting,” Appl. Opt. 48(32), 6241–6251 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McIntyre, R. J.

H. Dautet, P. Deschamps, B. Dion, A. D. Macgregor, D. Macsween, R. J. McIntyre, C. Trottier, and P. P. Webb, “Photon counting techniques with silicon avalanche photodiodes,” Appl. Opt. 32(21), 3894–3900 (1993).
[PubMed]

Neves, L.

L. Zhang, L. Neves, J. S. Lundeen, and I. A. Walmsley, “A Characterization of the Single-photon Sensitivity of an Electron Multiplying Charge-Coupled Device,” J. Phys. B 42(11), 114011 (2009).
[CrossRef]

O’Sullivan-Hale, M. N.

M. N. O’Sullivan-Hale, I. A. Khan, R. W. Boyd, and J. C. Howell, “Pixel entanglement: experimental realization of optically entangled d=3 and d=6 qudits,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(22), 220501 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Roncella, R.

F. Zappa, S. Tisa, S. Cova, P. Maccagnani, D. B. Calia, R. Saletti, R. Roncella, G. Bonanno, and M. Belluso, “Single-Photon Avalanche Diode Arrays for Fast Transients and Adaptive Optics,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 55(1), 365–374 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Saletti, R.

F. Zappa, S. Tisa, S. Cova, P. Maccagnani, D. B. Calia, R. Saletti, R. Roncella, G. Bonanno, and M. Belluso, “Single-Photon Avalanche Diode Arrays for Fast Transients and Adaptive Optics,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 55(1), 365–374 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Shannon, C. E.

C. E. Shannon, “A mathematical theory of communication,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 27, 379 (1948).

Shimi, T.

Y. Hiraoka, T. Shimi, and T. Haraguchi, “Multispectral imaging fluorescence microscopy for living cells,” Cell Struct. Funct. 27(5), 367–374 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tisa, S.

F. Zappa, S. Tisa, S. Cova, P. Maccagnani, D. B. Calia, R. Saletti, R. Roncella, G. Bonanno, and M. Belluso, “Single-Photon Avalanche Diode Arrays for Fast Transients and Adaptive Optics,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 55(1), 365–374 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Trottier, C.

H. Dautet, P. Deschamps, B. Dion, A. D. Macgregor, D. Macsween, R. J. McIntyre, C. Trottier, and P. P. Webb, “Photon counting techniques with silicon avalanche photodiodes,” Appl. Opt. 32(21), 3894–3900 (1993).
[PubMed]

Wallace, A. M.

A. McCarthy, R. J. Collins, N. J. Krichel, V. Fernández, A. M. Wallace, and G. S. Buller, “Long-range time-of-flight scanning sensor based on high-speed time-correlated single-photon counting,” Appl. Opt. 48(32), 6241–6251 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Walmsley, I. A.

L. Zhang, L. Neves, J. S. Lundeen, and I. A. Walmsley, “A Characterization of the Single-photon Sensitivity of an Electron Multiplying Charge-Coupled Device,” J. Phys. B 42(11), 114011 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Webb, P. P.

H. Dautet, P. Deschamps, B. Dion, A. D. Macgregor, D. Macsween, R. J. McIntyre, C. Trottier, and P. P. Webb, “Photon counting techniques with silicon avalanche photodiodes,” Appl. Opt. 32(21), 3894–3900 (1993).
[PubMed]

Zappa, F.

F. Zappa, S. Tisa, S. Cova, P. Maccagnani, D. B. Calia, R. Saletti, R. Roncella, G. Bonanno, and M. Belluso, “Single-Photon Avalanche Diode Arrays for Fast Transients and Adaptive Optics,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 55(1), 365–374 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, L.

L. Zhang, L. Neves, J. S. Lundeen, and I. A. Walmsley, “A Characterization of the Single-photon Sensitivity of an Electron Multiplying Charge-Coupled Device,” J. Phys. B 42(11), 114011 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

H. Dautet, P. Deschamps, B. Dion, A. D. Macgregor, D. Macsween, R. J. McIntyre, C. Trottier, and P. P. Webb, “Photon counting techniques with silicon avalanche photodiodes,” Appl. Opt. 32(21), 3894–3900 (1993).
[PubMed]

A. McCarthy, R. J. Collins, N. J. Krichel, V. Fernández, A. M. Wallace, and G. S. Buller, “Long-range time-of-flight scanning sensor based on high-speed time-correlated single-photon counting,” Appl. Opt. 48(32), 6241–6251 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bell Syst. Tech. J. (1)

C. E. Shannon, “A mathematical theory of communication,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 27, 379 (1948).

Cell Struct. Funct. (1)

Y. Hiraoka, T. Shimi, and T. Haraguchi, “Multispectral imaging fluorescence microscopy for living cells,” Cell Struct. Funct. 27(5), 367–374 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. (1)

F. Zappa, S. Tisa, S. Cova, P. Maccagnani, D. B. Calia, R. Saletti, R. Roncella, G. Bonanno, and M. Belluso, “Single-Photon Avalanche Diode Arrays for Fast Transients and Adaptive Optics,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 55(1), 365–374 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. B (1)

L. Zhang, L. Neves, J. S. Lundeen, and I. A. Walmsley, “A Characterization of the Single-photon Sensitivity of an Electron Multiplying Charge-Coupled Device,” J. Phys. B 42(11), 114011 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Meas. Sci. Technol. (1)

G. S. Buller and R. J. Collins, “Single–photon generation and detection,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 21(1), 012002 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

A. R. Altman, K. G. Köprülü, E. Corndorf, P. Kumar, and G. A. Barbosa, “Quantum imaging of nonlocal spatial correlations induced by orbital angular momentum,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(12), 123601 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. N. O’Sullivan-Hale, I. A. Khan, R. W. Boyd, and J. C. Howell, “Pixel entanglement: experimental realization of optically entangled d=3 and d=6 qudits,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(22), 220501 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

S. Cova, A. Longoni, and A. Andreoni, “Towards picosecond resolution with single-photon avalanche diodes,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 52(3), 408–412 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

J. J. Field, R. Carriles, and J. Squier, “Photon-Counting Photobleaching Measurements and the Effect of Dispersion in Two-Photon Microscopy,” Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/International Quantum Electronics Conference, Optical Society of America, JTuD58, (2009)

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Characterization setup (for clarity, only four V-groove fibers are shown).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Histogram for thin-junction (solid line) and thick-junction (dotted line) SPAD showing experimental data when the fiber combiner is directly connected to the respective SPAD.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Position to time measurements using the fiber array and the thin junction SPAD. The lower part of the Figure represents the positioning of the transmission slit, demonstrating its position relative to that of the peak in the photon-counting histogram. The slight variations in peak height are due to the nominal differences in efficiency of each channel within the combiner.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Comparison of the single-photon detection efficiency and the jitter of selected SPADs

Tables Icon

Table 2 Comparison of the number of modes and bits per photon for different detectors and binned data

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

C = H ( a : b ) = H ( a ) H ( a | b )
H ( a ) = a i P ( a i ) log 2 P ( a i )
H ( a | b ) = a i b i P ( a i , b i ) log 2 P ( a i | b i )

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