Abstract

Abstract: In this paper a far field optical technique we call polarization modulation thermal lens microscopy (PM-TLM) is used for imaging the orientation and dichroism of non-spherical nanoparticles. In PM-TLM, the polarization state of a pump beam is periodically modulated which in turn causes morphology related intensity fluctuations in a continuous probe beam, thus allowing high signal to noise ratio detection with using lock-in amplification. Since PM-TLM uses nanoparticle absorption as the contrast mechanism, it may be used to detect and image nanoparticles of far smaller dimensions than can be observed by conventional dark field optical microscopy. The technique, its implementation and experiment results are presented.

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  1. J. Qian, T. Fu, Q. Zhan, and S. He, “Using Some Nanoparticles as Contrast Agents for Optical Bioimaging,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(3), 672–684 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. T. Hu, W. D. Li Ls, L. Yang, Manna, Wang Lw, and A. P. Alivisatos, “Linearly polarized emission from colloidal semiconductor quantum rods,” Science 292(5524), 2060–2063 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. P. K. Jain, K. S. Lee, I. H. El-Sayed, and M. A. El-Sayed, “Calculated absorption and scattering properties of gold nanoparticles of different size, shape, and composition: applications in biological imaging and biomedicine,” J. Phys. Chem. B 110(14), 7238–7248 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. M. Franko and C. D. Tran, “Analytical thermal lens instrumentation,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67(1), 1–18 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  5. S. Berciaud, D. Lasne, G. A. Blab, L. Cognet, and B. Lounis, “Photothermal heterodyne imaging of individual metallic nanoparticles: Theory versus experiment,” Phys. Rev. B 73(4), 045424 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  6. D. Lasne, G. A. Blab, S. Berciaud, M. Heine, L. Groc, D. Choquet, L. Cognet, and B. Lounis, “Single nanoparticle photothermal tracking (SNaPT) of 5-nm gold beads in live cells,” Biophys. J. 91(12), 4598–4604 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. D. Boyer, P. Tamarat, A. Maali, B. Lounis, and M. Orrit, “Photothermal imaging of nanometer-sized metal particles among scatterers,” Science 297(5584), 1160–1163 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. X. H. Huang, I. H. El-Sayed, W. Qian, and M. A. El-Sayed, “Cancer cell imaging and photothermal therapy in the near-infrared region by using gold nanorods,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128(6), 2115–2120 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. N. J. Durr, T. Larson, D. K. Smith, B. A. Korgel, K. Sokolov, and A. Ben-Yakar, “Two-photon luminescence imaging of cancer cells using molecularly targeted gold nanorods,” Nano Lett. 7(4), 941–945 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. C. Yu and J. Irudayaraj, “Multiplex biosensor using gold nanorods,” Anal. Chem. 79(2), 572–579 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. M. Yamauchi, K. Mawatari, A. Hibara, M. Tokeshi, and T. Kitamori, “Circular dichroism thermal lens microscope for sensitive chiral analysis on microchip,” Anal. Chem. 78(8), 2646–2650 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. W. S. Chang, J. W. Ha, L. S. Slaughter, and S. Link, “Plasmonic nanorod absorbers as orientation sensors,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(7), 2781–2786 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. D. R. Snook and R. D. Lowe, “Thermal Lens Spectrometry- A Review,” Analyst (Lond.) 120(8), 2051–2068 (1995).
    [CrossRef]

2010

J. Qian, T. Fu, Q. Zhan, and S. He, “Using Some Nanoparticles as Contrast Agents for Optical Bioimaging,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(3), 672–684 (2010).
[CrossRef]

W. S. Chang, J. W. Ha, L. S. Slaughter, and S. Link, “Plasmonic nanorod absorbers as orientation sensors,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(7), 2781–2786 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

N. J. Durr, T. Larson, D. K. Smith, B. A. Korgel, K. Sokolov, and A. Ben-Yakar, “Two-photon luminescence imaging of cancer cells using molecularly targeted gold nanorods,” Nano Lett. 7(4), 941–945 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Yu and J. Irudayaraj, “Multiplex biosensor using gold nanorods,” Anal. Chem. 79(2), 572–579 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

M. Yamauchi, K. Mawatari, A. Hibara, M. Tokeshi, and T. Kitamori, “Circular dichroism thermal lens microscope for sensitive chiral analysis on microchip,” Anal. Chem. 78(8), 2646–2650 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Berciaud, D. Lasne, G. A. Blab, L. Cognet, and B. Lounis, “Photothermal heterodyne imaging of individual metallic nanoparticles: Theory versus experiment,” Phys. Rev. B 73(4), 045424 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Lasne, G. A. Blab, S. Berciaud, M. Heine, L. Groc, D. Choquet, L. Cognet, and B. Lounis, “Single nanoparticle photothermal tracking (SNaPT) of 5-nm gold beads in live cells,” Biophys. J. 91(12), 4598–4604 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. K. Jain, K. S. Lee, I. H. El-Sayed, and M. A. El-Sayed, “Calculated absorption and scattering properties of gold nanoparticles of different size, shape, and composition: applications in biological imaging and biomedicine,” J. Phys. Chem. B 110(14), 7238–7248 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. H. Huang, I. H. El-Sayed, W. Qian, and M. A. El-Sayed, “Cancer cell imaging and photothermal therapy in the near-infrared region by using gold nanorods,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128(6), 2115–2120 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

D. Boyer, P. Tamarat, A. Maali, B. Lounis, and M. Orrit, “Photothermal imaging of nanometer-sized metal particles among scatterers,” Science 297(5584), 1160–1163 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001

J. T. Hu, W. D. Li Ls, L. Yang, Manna, Wang Lw, and A. P. Alivisatos, “Linearly polarized emission from colloidal semiconductor quantum rods,” Science 292(5524), 2060–2063 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996

M. Franko and C. D. Tran, “Analytical thermal lens instrumentation,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67(1), 1–18 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995

D. R. Snook and R. D. Lowe, “Thermal Lens Spectrometry- A Review,” Analyst (Lond.) 120(8), 2051–2068 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Alivisatos, A. P.

J. T. Hu, W. D. Li Ls, L. Yang, Manna, Wang Lw, and A. P. Alivisatos, “Linearly polarized emission from colloidal semiconductor quantum rods,” Science 292(5524), 2060–2063 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ben-Yakar, A.

N. J. Durr, T. Larson, D. K. Smith, B. A. Korgel, K. Sokolov, and A. Ben-Yakar, “Two-photon luminescence imaging of cancer cells using molecularly targeted gold nanorods,” Nano Lett. 7(4), 941–945 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Berciaud, S.

S. Berciaud, D. Lasne, G. A. Blab, L. Cognet, and B. Lounis, “Photothermal heterodyne imaging of individual metallic nanoparticles: Theory versus experiment,” Phys. Rev. B 73(4), 045424 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Lasne, G. A. Blab, S. Berciaud, M. Heine, L. Groc, D. Choquet, L. Cognet, and B. Lounis, “Single nanoparticle photothermal tracking (SNaPT) of 5-nm gold beads in live cells,” Biophys. J. 91(12), 4598–4604 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Blab, G. A.

D. Lasne, G. A. Blab, S. Berciaud, M. Heine, L. Groc, D. Choquet, L. Cognet, and B. Lounis, “Single nanoparticle photothermal tracking (SNaPT) of 5-nm gold beads in live cells,” Biophys. J. 91(12), 4598–4604 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Berciaud, D. Lasne, G. A. Blab, L. Cognet, and B. Lounis, “Photothermal heterodyne imaging of individual metallic nanoparticles: Theory versus experiment,” Phys. Rev. B 73(4), 045424 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Boyer, D.

D. Boyer, P. Tamarat, A. Maali, B. Lounis, and M. Orrit, “Photothermal imaging of nanometer-sized metal particles among scatterers,” Science 297(5584), 1160–1163 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, W. S.

W. S. Chang, J. W. Ha, L. S. Slaughter, and S. Link, “Plasmonic nanorod absorbers as orientation sensors,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(7), 2781–2786 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Choquet, D.

D. Lasne, G. A. Blab, S. Berciaud, M. Heine, L. Groc, D. Choquet, L. Cognet, and B. Lounis, “Single nanoparticle photothermal tracking (SNaPT) of 5-nm gold beads in live cells,” Biophys. J. 91(12), 4598–4604 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cognet, L.

D. Lasne, G. A. Blab, S. Berciaud, M. Heine, L. Groc, D. Choquet, L. Cognet, and B. Lounis, “Single nanoparticle photothermal tracking (SNaPT) of 5-nm gold beads in live cells,” Biophys. J. 91(12), 4598–4604 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Berciaud, D. Lasne, G. A. Blab, L. Cognet, and B. Lounis, “Photothermal heterodyne imaging of individual metallic nanoparticles: Theory versus experiment,” Phys. Rev. B 73(4), 045424 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Durr, N. J.

N. J. Durr, T. Larson, D. K. Smith, B. A. Korgel, K. Sokolov, and A. Ben-Yakar, “Two-photon luminescence imaging of cancer cells using molecularly targeted gold nanorods,” Nano Lett. 7(4), 941–945 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

El-Sayed, I. H.

X. H. Huang, I. H. El-Sayed, W. Qian, and M. A. El-Sayed, “Cancer cell imaging and photothermal therapy in the near-infrared region by using gold nanorods,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128(6), 2115–2120 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. K. Jain, K. S. Lee, I. H. El-Sayed, and M. A. El-Sayed, “Calculated absorption and scattering properties of gold nanoparticles of different size, shape, and composition: applications in biological imaging and biomedicine,” J. Phys. Chem. B 110(14), 7238–7248 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

El-Sayed, M. A.

P. K. Jain, K. S. Lee, I. H. El-Sayed, and M. A. El-Sayed, “Calculated absorption and scattering properties of gold nanoparticles of different size, shape, and composition: applications in biological imaging and biomedicine,” J. Phys. Chem. B 110(14), 7238–7248 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. H. Huang, I. H. El-Sayed, W. Qian, and M. A. El-Sayed, “Cancer cell imaging and photothermal therapy in the near-infrared region by using gold nanorods,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128(6), 2115–2120 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Franko, M.

M. Franko and C. D. Tran, “Analytical thermal lens instrumentation,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67(1), 1–18 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Fu, T.

J. Qian, T. Fu, Q. Zhan, and S. He, “Using Some Nanoparticles as Contrast Agents for Optical Bioimaging,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(3), 672–684 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Groc, L.

D. Lasne, G. A. Blab, S. Berciaud, M. Heine, L. Groc, D. Choquet, L. Cognet, and B. Lounis, “Single nanoparticle photothermal tracking (SNaPT) of 5-nm gold beads in live cells,” Biophys. J. 91(12), 4598–4604 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ha, J. W.

W. S. Chang, J. W. Ha, L. S. Slaughter, and S. Link, “Plasmonic nanorod absorbers as orientation sensors,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(7), 2781–2786 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

He, S.

J. Qian, T. Fu, Q. Zhan, and S. He, “Using Some Nanoparticles as Contrast Agents for Optical Bioimaging,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(3), 672–684 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Heine, M.

D. Lasne, G. A. Blab, S. Berciaud, M. Heine, L. Groc, D. Choquet, L. Cognet, and B. Lounis, “Single nanoparticle photothermal tracking (SNaPT) of 5-nm gold beads in live cells,” Biophys. J. 91(12), 4598–4604 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hibara, A.

M. Yamauchi, K. Mawatari, A. Hibara, M. Tokeshi, and T. Kitamori, “Circular dichroism thermal lens microscope for sensitive chiral analysis on microchip,” Anal. Chem. 78(8), 2646–2650 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hu, J. T.

J. T. Hu, W. D. Li Ls, L. Yang, Manna, Wang Lw, and A. P. Alivisatos, “Linearly polarized emission from colloidal semiconductor quantum rods,” Science 292(5524), 2060–2063 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, X. H.

X. H. Huang, I. H. El-Sayed, W. Qian, and M. A. El-Sayed, “Cancer cell imaging and photothermal therapy in the near-infrared region by using gold nanorods,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128(6), 2115–2120 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Irudayaraj, J.

C. Yu and J. Irudayaraj, “Multiplex biosensor using gold nanorods,” Anal. Chem. 79(2), 572–579 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jain, P. K.

P. K. Jain, K. S. Lee, I. H. El-Sayed, and M. A. El-Sayed, “Calculated absorption and scattering properties of gold nanoparticles of different size, shape, and composition: applications in biological imaging and biomedicine,” J. Phys. Chem. B 110(14), 7238–7248 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kitamori, T.

M. Yamauchi, K. Mawatari, A. Hibara, M. Tokeshi, and T. Kitamori, “Circular dichroism thermal lens microscope for sensitive chiral analysis on microchip,” Anal. Chem. 78(8), 2646–2650 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Korgel, B. A.

N. J. Durr, T. Larson, D. K. Smith, B. A. Korgel, K. Sokolov, and A. Ben-Yakar, “Two-photon luminescence imaging of cancer cells using molecularly targeted gold nanorods,” Nano Lett. 7(4), 941–945 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Larson, T.

N. J. Durr, T. Larson, D. K. Smith, B. A. Korgel, K. Sokolov, and A. Ben-Yakar, “Two-photon luminescence imaging of cancer cells using molecularly targeted gold nanorods,” Nano Lett. 7(4), 941–945 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lasne, D.

S. Berciaud, D. Lasne, G. A. Blab, L. Cognet, and B. Lounis, “Photothermal heterodyne imaging of individual metallic nanoparticles: Theory versus experiment,” Phys. Rev. B 73(4), 045424 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Lasne, G. A. Blab, S. Berciaud, M. Heine, L. Groc, D. Choquet, L. Cognet, and B. Lounis, “Single nanoparticle photothermal tracking (SNaPT) of 5-nm gold beads in live cells,” Biophys. J. 91(12), 4598–4604 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, K. S.

P. K. Jain, K. S. Lee, I. H. El-Sayed, and M. A. El-Sayed, “Calculated absorption and scattering properties of gold nanoparticles of different size, shape, and composition: applications in biological imaging and biomedicine,” J. Phys. Chem. B 110(14), 7238–7248 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li Ls, W. D.

J. T. Hu, W. D. Li Ls, L. Yang, Manna, Wang Lw, and A. P. Alivisatos, “Linearly polarized emission from colloidal semiconductor quantum rods,” Science 292(5524), 2060–2063 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Link, S.

W. S. Chang, J. W. Ha, L. S. Slaughter, and S. Link, “Plasmonic nanorod absorbers as orientation sensors,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(7), 2781–2786 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lounis, B.

S. Berciaud, D. Lasne, G. A. Blab, L. Cognet, and B. Lounis, “Photothermal heterodyne imaging of individual metallic nanoparticles: Theory versus experiment,” Phys. Rev. B 73(4), 045424 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Lasne, G. A. Blab, S. Berciaud, M. Heine, L. Groc, D. Choquet, L. Cognet, and B. Lounis, “Single nanoparticle photothermal tracking (SNaPT) of 5-nm gold beads in live cells,” Biophys. J. 91(12), 4598–4604 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Boyer, P. Tamarat, A. Maali, B. Lounis, and M. Orrit, “Photothermal imaging of nanometer-sized metal particles among scatterers,” Science 297(5584), 1160–1163 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lowe, R. D.

D. R. Snook and R. D. Lowe, “Thermal Lens Spectrometry- A Review,” Analyst (Lond.) 120(8), 2051–2068 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Maali, A.

D. Boyer, P. Tamarat, A. Maali, B. Lounis, and M. Orrit, “Photothermal imaging of nanometer-sized metal particles among scatterers,” Science 297(5584), 1160–1163 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Manna,

J. T. Hu, W. D. Li Ls, L. Yang, Manna, Wang Lw, and A. P. Alivisatos, “Linearly polarized emission from colloidal semiconductor quantum rods,” Science 292(5524), 2060–2063 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mawatari, K.

M. Yamauchi, K. Mawatari, A. Hibara, M. Tokeshi, and T. Kitamori, “Circular dichroism thermal lens microscope for sensitive chiral analysis on microchip,” Anal. Chem. 78(8), 2646–2650 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Orrit, M.

D. Boyer, P. Tamarat, A. Maali, B. Lounis, and M. Orrit, “Photothermal imaging of nanometer-sized metal particles among scatterers,” Science 297(5584), 1160–1163 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Qian, J.

J. Qian, T. Fu, Q. Zhan, and S. He, “Using Some Nanoparticles as Contrast Agents for Optical Bioimaging,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(3), 672–684 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Qian, W.

X. H. Huang, I. H. El-Sayed, W. Qian, and M. A. El-Sayed, “Cancer cell imaging and photothermal therapy in the near-infrared region by using gold nanorods,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128(6), 2115–2120 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Slaughter, L. S.

W. S. Chang, J. W. Ha, L. S. Slaughter, and S. Link, “Plasmonic nanorod absorbers as orientation sensors,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(7), 2781–2786 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smith, D. K.

N. J. Durr, T. Larson, D. K. Smith, B. A. Korgel, K. Sokolov, and A. Ben-Yakar, “Two-photon luminescence imaging of cancer cells using molecularly targeted gold nanorods,” Nano Lett. 7(4), 941–945 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Snook, D. R.

D. R. Snook and R. D. Lowe, “Thermal Lens Spectrometry- A Review,” Analyst (Lond.) 120(8), 2051–2068 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Sokolov, K.

N. J. Durr, T. Larson, D. K. Smith, B. A. Korgel, K. Sokolov, and A. Ben-Yakar, “Two-photon luminescence imaging of cancer cells using molecularly targeted gold nanorods,” Nano Lett. 7(4), 941–945 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tamarat, P.

D. Boyer, P. Tamarat, A. Maali, B. Lounis, and M. Orrit, “Photothermal imaging of nanometer-sized metal particles among scatterers,” Science 297(5584), 1160–1163 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tokeshi, M.

M. Yamauchi, K. Mawatari, A. Hibara, M. Tokeshi, and T. Kitamori, “Circular dichroism thermal lens microscope for sensitive chiral analysis on microchip,” Anal. Chem. 78(8), 2646–2650 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tran, C. D.

M. Franko and C. D. Tran, “Analytical thermal lens instrumentation,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67(1), 1–18 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wang Lw,

J. T. Hu, W. D. Li Ls, L. Yang, Manna, Wang Lw, and A. P. Alivisatos, “Linearly polarized emission from colloidal semiconductor quantum rods,” Science 292(5524), 2060–2063 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yamauchi, M.

M. Yamauchi, K. Mawatari, A. Hibara, M. Tokeshi, and T. Kitamori, “Circular dichroism thermal lens microscope for sensitive chiral analysis on microchip,” Anal. Chem. 78(8), 2646–2650 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, L.

J. T. Hu, W. D. Li Ls, L. Yang, Manna, Wang Lw, and A. P. Alivisatos, “Linearly polarized emission from colloidal semiconductor quantum rods,” Science 292(5524), 2060–2063 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yu, C.

C. Yu and J. Irudayaraj, “Multiplex biosensor using gold nanorods,” Anal. Chem. 79(2), 572–579 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhan, Q.

J. Qian, T. Fu, Q. Zhan, and S. He, “Using Some Nanoparticles as Contrast Agents for Optical Bioimaging,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(3), 672–684 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Anal. Chem.

C. Yu and J. Irudayaraj, “Multiplex biosensor using gold nanorods,” Anal. Chem. 79(2), 572–579 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Yamauchi, K. Mawatari, A. Hibara, M. Tokeshi, and T. Kitamori, “Circular dichroism thermal lens microscope for sensitive chiral analysis on microchip,” Anal. Chem. 78(8), 2646–2650 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Analyst (Lond.)

D. R. Snook and R. D. Lowe, “Thermal Lens Spectrometry- A Review,” Analyst (Lond.) 120(8), 2051–2068 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Biophys. J.

D. Lasne, G. A. Blab, S. Berciaud, M. Heine, L. Groc, D. Choquet, L. Cognet, and B. Lounis, “Single nanoparticle photothermal tracking (SNaPT) of 5-nm gold beads in live cells,” Biophys. J. 91(12), 4598–4604 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

J. Qian, T. Fu, Q. Zhan, and S. He, “Using Some Nanoparticles as Contrast Agents for Optical Bioimaging,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(3), 672–684 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Chem. Soc.

X. H. Huang, I. H. El-Sayed, W. Qian, and M. A. El-Sayed, “Cancer cell imaging and photothermal therapy in the near-infrared region by using gold nanorods,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128(6), 2115–2120 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Phys. Chem. B

P. K. Jain, K. S. Lee, I. H. El-Sayed, and M. A. El-Sayed, “Calculated absorption and scattering properties of gold nanoparticles of different size, shape, and composition: applications in biological imaging and biomedicine,” J. Phys. Chem. B 110(14), 7238–7248 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nano Lett.

N. J. Durr, T. Larson, D. K. Smith, B. A. Korgel, K. Sokolov, and A. Ben-Yakar, “Two-photon luminescence imaging of cancer cells using molecularly targeted gold nanorods,” Nano Lett. 7(4), 941–945 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. B

S. Berciaud, D. Lasne, G. A. Blab, L. Cognet, and B. Lounis, “Photothermal heterodyne imaging of individual metallic nanoparticles: Theory versus experiment,” Phys. Rev. B 73(4), 045424 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.

W. S. Chang, J. W. Ha, L. S. Slaughter, and S. Link, “Plasmonic nanorod absorbers as orientation sensors,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(7), 2781–2786 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rev. Sci. Instrum.

M. Franko and C. D. Tran, “Analytical thermal lens instrumentation,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67(1), 1–18 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Science

J. T. Hu, W. D. Li Ls, L. Yang, Manna, Wang Lw, and A. P. Alivisatos, “Linearly polarized emission from colloidal semiconductor quantum rods,” Science 292(5524), 2060–2063 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Boyer, P. Tamarat, A. Maali, B. Lounis, and M. Orrit, “Photothermal imaging of nanometer-sized metal particles among scatterers,” Science 297(5584), 1160–1163 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the PM-TLM microscope configuration, P- polarizer; PEM- photoelastic modulator; QW- quarter waveplate; M-mirror; BE-beam expander; DM- dichroic mirror; O1 and O2- objectives; F- filter; A- aperture. Two lock-in amplifiers are used to lock to the fundamental and second harmonic of the PEM modulation frequency. A widefield imaging channel (dashed squire) is used for sample location, RBS- removable beamsplitter; LED- light source; IO-illumination optics; BS- beamsplitter; TL-tube lens for imaging.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

SEM images of fabricated nanoparticles with several orientations (top, scale bar 100 nm) and the spectrum (bottom). The nanorods sample has nominal sizes of 120 x 60 nm, and the orientation of the rods rotates through 15 degrees in each row.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(Color online) Raw data recorded by the lock-in amplifiers, PM-TLM thermal intensity of the fundamental (top) and the second harmonic signals (bottom).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Plots of dichroism (arbitrary units) and (b) orientation (degrees) calculated from the data in Fig. 3. (c) Quiver plot representing the orientation (rotation) and dichroism (length).

Equations (6)

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I a b s = I 0 { ( a + b ) + ( a b ) cos 2 ( ϕ θ ) } / 2 ,
V = k σ { 2 cos ( 2 θ ) J 2 ( P ) cos ( 2 ω t ) + 2 cos ( 2 θ ) J 4 ( P ) cos ( 4 ω t ) + ... + 2 sin ( 2 θ ) J 1 ( P ) sin ( ω t ) + 2 sin ( 2 θ ) J 3 ( P ) sin ( 3 ω t ) + ... } ,
V ω = k σ sin ( 2 θ ) J 1 ( P ) ,
V 2 ω k σ cos ( 2 θ ) J 2 ( P ) ,
σ J 2 2 ( P ) V ω 2 + J 1 2 ( P ) V 2 ω 2 J 1 ( P ) J 2 ( P ) ,
θ = 1 2 tan 1 ( J 2 ( P ) V ω J 1 ( P ) V 2 ω ) .

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