Abstract

Germano-silicate glass optical fiber incorporated with PbTe semiconductor quantum dots (SQDs) in the core was fabricated by using the atomization process in modified chemical vapor deposition (MCVD) process. The absorption bands attributed to PbTe semiconductor quantum dots in the fiber core were found to appear at around 687 nm and 1055 nm. The nonlinear refractive index measured by the long-period fiber grating (LPG) pair method upon pumping with laser diode at 976.4 nm was estimated to be ~1.5 × 10−16 m2/W.

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2010 (1)

P. R. Watekar, S. Ju, A. Lin, M. J. Kim, B. H. Lee, and W.-T. Han, “Linear and nonlinear optical properties of the PbSe quantum dots doped germane-silica glass optical fiber,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 356(44-49), 2384–2388 (2010), doi:.
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

P. R. Watekar, S. Moon, A. Lin, S. Ju, and W.-T. Han, “Linear and nonlinear optical properties of Si nanoparticles/ Er-ions doped optical fiber,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27(5), 568–575 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

E. Rodriguez, G. Kellermann, A. F. Craievich, E. Jimenez, C. L. César, and L. C. Barbosa, “All-optical switching device for infrared based on PbTe quantum dots,” Superlattices Microstruct. 43(5-6), 626–634 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

A. L. Rogach, A. Eychmüller, S. G. Hickey, and S. V. Kershaw, “Infrared-emitting colloidal nanocrystals: synthesis, assembly, spectroscopy, and applications,” Small 3(4), 536–557 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. M. Malyarevich, M. S. Gaponenko, V. G. Savitski, K. V. Yumashev, G. E. Rachkovskaya, and G. B. Zakharevich, “Nonlinear optical properties of PbS quantum dots in boro-silicate glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 353(11-12), 1195–1200 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (5)

S. Chowdhury, A. M. P. Hussain, G. A. Ahmed, D. Mohanta, and A. Choudhury, “Third order nonlinear optical response of PbS quantum dots,” Semicond. Phys. Quantum Electron. Optoelectron. 9, 45–48 (2006).

J. J. Peterson and T. D. Krauss, “Fluorescence spectroscopy of single lead sulfide quantum dots,” Nano Lett. 6(3), 510–514 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Haurylau, J. Zhang, S. M. Weiss, P. M. Fauchet, D. V. Martyshkin, V. I. Rupasov, and S. G. Krivoshlykov, “Nonlinear optical response of photonic bandgap structures containing PbSe quantum dots,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. Chem. 183(3), 329–333 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Brumer, M. Sirota, A. Kigel, A. Sashchiuk, E. Galun, Z. Burshtein, and E. Lifshitz, “Nanocrystals of PbSe core, PbSe/PbS, and PbSe/PbSxS(1-x) core/shell as saturable absorbers in passively Q-switched near-infrared lasers,” Appl. Opt. 45(28), 7488–7497 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. E. Murphy, M. C. Beard, A. G. Norman, S. P. Ahrenkiel, J. C. Johnson, P. Yu, O. I. Mićić, R. J. Ellingson, and A. J. Nozik, “PbTe colloidal nanocrystals: synthesis, characterization, and multiple exciton generation,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128(10), 3241–3247 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (5)

Y. H. Kim, U.-C. Paek, and W.-T. Han, “All-optical 2×2 switching with two independent Yb3+-doped nonlinear optical fibers with a long-period fiber grating pair,” Appl. Opt. 44(15), 3051–3057 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. V. Talapin and C. B. Murray, “PbSe nanocrystal solids for n- and p-channel thin film field-effect transistors,” Science 310(5745), 86–89 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. McDonald, G. Konstantatos, S. Zhang, P. W. Cyr, E. J. D. Klem, L. Levina, and E. H. Sargent, “Solution-processed PbS quantum dot infrared photodetectors and photovoltaics,” Nat. Mater. 4(2), 138–142 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. J. D. Klem, L. Levina, and E. H. Sargent, “PbS quantum dot electroabsorption modulation across the extended communications band 1200 - 1700 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(5), 053101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Dahan and G. Eisenstein, “Tunable all optical delay via slow and fast light propagation in a Raman assisted fiber optical parametric amplifier: a route to all optical buffering,” Opt. Express 13(16), 6234–6249 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (4)

G. M. Tosi-Beleffi, F. Curti, D. M. Forin, and F. Matera, “Polarization independent wavelength converter based on Kerr non-linearity in DS fiber,” Opt. Commun. 229(1-6), 187–190 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Sashchiuk, L. Amirav, M. Bashouti, M. Krueger, U. Sivan, and E. Lifshitz, “PbSe nanocrystal assemblies: synthesis and structural, optical, and electrical characterization,” Nano Lett. 4(1), 159–165 (2004).
[CrossRef]

W. Lu, J. Fang, K. L. Stokes, and J. Lin, “Shape evolution and self assembly of monodisperse PbTe nanocrystals,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 126(38), 11798–11799 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Pietryga, R. D. Schaller, D. Werder, M. H. Stewart, V. I. Klimov, and J. A. Hollingsworth, “Pushing the band gap envelope: mid-infrared emitting colloidal PbSe quantum dots,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 126(38), 11752–11753 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (4)

E. Lifshitz, M. Bashouti, V. Kloper, A. Kigel, M. S. Eisen, and S. Berger, “Synthesis and characterization of PbSe quantum wires, multipods, quantum rods, and cubes,” Nano Lett. 3(6), 857–862 (2003).
[CrossRef]

L. Bakueva, S. Musikhin, M. A. Hines, T.-W. F. Chang, M. Tzolov, G. D. Scholes, and E. H. Sargent, “Size-tunable infrared (1000–1600 nm) electroluminescence from PbS quantum-dot nanocrystals in a semiconducting polymer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(17), 2895–2897 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Hines and G. D. Scholes, “Colloidal PbS nanocrystals with size-tunable near-infrared emission: Observation of post-synthesis self-narrowing of the particle size distribution,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 15(21), 1844–1849 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Jackson and Y. Li, “Multiwavelength diode-cladding-pumped Nd3+-doped germao-aluminosilicate fiber laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39(9), 1118–1122 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (4)

Y. H. Kim, B. H. Lee, Y. Chung, U. C. Paek, and W.-T. Han, “Resonant optical nonlinearity measurement of Yb(3+) / Al(3+) codoped optical fibers by use of a long-period fiber grating pair,” Opt. Lett. 27(8), 580–582 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S.-M. Lee, Y.-W. Jun, S.-N. Cho, and J. Cheon, “Single-crystalline star-shaped nanocrystals and their evolution: programming the geometry of nano-building blocks,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 124(38), 11244–11245 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Du, C. Chen, R. Krishnan, T. D. Krauss, J. M. Harbold, F. W. Wise, M. G. Thomas, and J. Silcox, “Optical properties of colloidal PbSe nanocrystals,” Nano Lett. 2(11), 1321–1324 (2002).
[CrossRef]

B. L. Wehrenberg, C. J. Wang, and P. Guyot-Sionnest, “Interband and intraband optical studies of PbSe colloidal quantum dots,” J. Phys. Chem. B 106(41), 10634–10640 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

C. B. Murray, S. Sun, W. Gaschler, H. Doyle, T. A. Betley, and C. R. Kagan, “Colloidal synthesis of nanocrystals and nanocrystal superlattices,” IBM J. Res. Develop. 45(1), 47–56 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (6)

K. Wundke, S. Pötting, J. Auxier, A. Schülzgen, N. Peyghambarian, and N. F. Borrelli, “PbS quantum-dot-doped glasses for ultrashort-pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(1), 10–12 (2000).
[CrossRef]

F. W. Wise, “Lead salt quantum dots: the limit of strong quantum confinement,” Acc. Chem. Res. 33(11), 773–780 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. I. Klimov, “Optical nonlinearities and ultrafast carrier dynamics in semiconductor nanocrystals,” J. Phys. Chem. B 104(26), 6112–6123 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Fermann, V. I. Kruglov, B. C. Thomsen, J. M. Dudley, and J. D. Harvey, “Self-similar propagation and amplification of parabolic pulses in optical fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(26), 6010–6013 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B.-E. Olsson, P. Öhlén, L. Rau, and D. J. Blumenthal, “A simple and robust 40-Gb/s wavelength converter using fiber cross-phase modulation and optical filtering,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12(7), 846–848 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, and A. J. Stentz, “Visible continuum generation in air-silica microstructure optical fibers with anomalous dispersion at 800 nm,” Opt. Lett. 25(1), 25–27 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

G. Steinmeyer, D. H. Sutter, L. Gallmann, N. Matuschek, and U. Keller, “Frontiers in ultrashort pulse generation: pushing the limits in linear and nonlinear optics,” Science 286(5444), 1507–1512 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Lifshitz, M. Sirota, and H. Porteanu, “Continuous and time-resolved photoluminescence study of lead sulfide nanocrystals, ebmedded in polymer film,” J. Cryst. Growth 196(1), 126–134 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (5)

I. Kang and F. W. Wise, “Electronic structure and optical properties of PbS and PbSe quantum dots,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14(7), 1632–1646 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Lipovskii, E. Kolobkova, V. Petrikov, I. Kang, A. Olkhovets, T. Krauss, M. Thomas, J. Silcox, F. Wise, Q. Shen, and S. Kycia, “Synthesis and characterization of PbSe quantum dots in phosphate glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(23), 3406–3408 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Asobe, “Nonlinear optical properties of chalcogenide glass fibers and their application to all-optical switching,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 3(2), 142–148 (1997).
[CrossRef]

L. L. Beecroft and C. K. Ober, “Nanocomposite materials for optical applications,” Chem. Mater. 9(6), 1302–1317 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. J. F. Digonnet, R. W. Sadowski, H. J. Shaw, and R. H. Pantell, “Resonantly enhanced nonlinearity in doped fibers for low-power all-optical switching: a review,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 3(1), 44–64 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

M. E. Marhic, Y. Park, F. S. Yang, and L. G. Kazovsky, “Broadband fiber-optical parametric amplifiers and wavelength converters with low-ripple Chebyshev gain spectra,” Opt. Lett. 21(17), 1354–1356 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (1)

V. C. S. Reynoso, A. M. de Paula, R. F. Cuevas, J. A. Medeiros Neto, O. L. Alves, C. L. Cesar, and L. C. Barbosa, “PbTe quantum dot doped glasses with absorption edge in the 1.5 μm wavelength region,” Electron. Lett. 31(12), 1013–1014 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (2)

R. H. Pantell and M. J. F. Digonnet, “A model of nonlinear all-optical switching in doped fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 12(1), 149–156 (1994).
[CrossRef]

N. F. Borrelli and D. W. Smith, “Quantum confinement of PbS microcrystals in glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 180(1), 25–31 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

E. M. Vogel, M. J. Weber, and D. M. Krol, “Nonlinear optical phenomena in glass,” Phys. Chem. Glasses 32, 231–254 (1991).

1969 (1)

R. Dalven, “A review of the semiconductor properties of PbTe, PbSe, PbS and PbO,” Infrared Phys. 9(4), 141–184 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Ahmed, G. A.

S. Chowdhury, A. M. P. Hussain, G. A. Ahmed, D. Mohanta, and A. Choudhury, “Third order nonlinear optical response of PbS quantum dots,” Semicond. Phys. Quantum Electron. Optoelectron. 9, 45–48 (2006).

Ahrenkiel, S. P.

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S.-M. Lee, Y.-W. Jun, S.-N. Cho, and J. Cheon, “Single-crystalline star-shaped nanocrystals and their evolution: programming the geometry of nano-building blocks,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 124(38), 11244–11245 (2002).
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E. Rodriguez, G. Kellermann, A. F. Craievich, E. Jimenez, C. L. César, and L. C. Barbosa, “All-optical switching device for infrared based on PbTe quantum dots,” Superlattices Microstruct. 43(5-6), 626–634 (2008).
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A. L. Rogach, A. Eychmüller, S. G. Hickey, and S. V. Kershaw, “Infrared-emitting colloidal nanocrystals: synthesis, assembly, spectroscopy, and applications,” Small 3(4), 536–557 (2007).
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P. R. Watekar, S. Ju, A. Lin, M. J. Kim, B. H. Lee, and W.-T. Han, “Linear and nonlinear optical properties of the PbSe quantum dots doped germane-silica glass optical fiber,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 356(44-49), 2384–2388 (2010), doi:.
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Y. H. Kim, U.-C. Paek, and W.-T. Han, “All-optical 2×2 switching with two independent Yb3+-doped nonlinear optical fibers with a long-period fiber grating pair,” Appl. Opt. 44(15), 3051–3057 (2005).
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E. Lifshitz, M. Bashouti, V. Kloper, A. Kigel, M. S. Eisen, and S. Berger, “Synthesis and characterization of PbSe quantum wires, multipods, quantum rods, and cubes,” Nano Lett. 3(6), 857–862 (2003).
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A. M. Malyarevich, M. S. Gaponenko, V. G. Savitski, K. V. Yumashev, G. E. Rachkovskaya, and G. B. Zakharevich, “Nonlinear optical properties of PbS quantum dots in boro-silicate glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 353(11-12), 1195–1200 (2007).
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J. M. Pietryga, R. D. Schaller, D. Werder, M. H. Stewart, V. I. Klimov, and J. A. Hollingsworth, “Pushing the band gap envelope: mid-infrared emitting colloidal PbSe quantum dots,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 126(38), 11752–11753 (2004).
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W. Lu, J. Fang, K. L. Stokes, and J. Lin, “Shape evolution and self assembly of monodisperse PbTe nanocrystals,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 126(38), 11798–11799 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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C. B. Murray, S. Sun, W. Gaschler, H. Doyle, T. A. Betley, and C. R. Kagan, “Colloidal synthesis of nanocrystals and nanocrystal superlattices,” IBM J. Res. Develop. 45(1), 47–56 (2001).
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H. Du, C. Chen, R. Krishnan, T. D. Krauss, J. M. Harbold, F. W. Wise, M. G. Thomas, and J. Silcox, “Optical properties of colloidal PbSe nanocrystals,” Nano Lett. 2(11), 1321–1324 (2002).
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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the setup for nonlinearity measurement of the PbTe SQDs doped germano-silicate glass optical fiber by use of the LPG pair.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Effect of the doping process on the XRD patterns of the PbTe SQDs doped germano-silicate glass optical fiber preforms.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

TEM image and size distribution of the PbTe SQDs in the core of the fiber prefroms prepared by (a) atomization process and (b) soaking process. (0.03 mole).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Absorption spectra of the PbTe SQDs doped germano-silicate glass optical fibers prepared by atomization doping process and soaking process.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Wavelength shift of the interference fringes near 1523nm of the PbTe SQDs doped germano-silicate glass optical fibers by using the atomization process and the soaking process upon pumping with the LD at 976.4 nm.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Estimation of nonlinear refractive index, n2, of the PbTe SQDs doped fiber by using the atomization process upon pumping with the LD at 976.4 nm.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Optical parameters of the fibers incorporated with PbTe SQDs

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