Abstract

We report on the development of a Faraday rotation spectroscopy (FRS) instrument using a DFB diode laser operating at 2.8 µm for the hydroxyl (OH) free radical detection. The highest absorption line intensity and the largest gJ value make the Q (1.5) double lines of the 2Π3/2 state (υ = 1← 0) at 2.8 µm clearly the best choice for sensitive detection in the infrared region by FRS. The prototype instrument shows shot-noise dominated performance and, with an active optical pathlength of only 25 cm and a lock-in time constant of 100 ms, achieves a 1σ detection limit of 8.2 × 108 OH radicals/cm3.

© 2011 OSA

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. D. E. Heard and M. J. Pilling, “Measurement of OH and HO2 in the troposphere,” Chem. Rev. 103(12), 5163–5198 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. L. Corner, J. S. Gibb, G. Hancock, A. Hutchinson, V. L. Kasyutich, R. Peverall, and G. A. D. Ritchie, “Sum frequency generation at 309 nm using a violet and a near-IR DFB diode laser for detection of OH,” Appl. Phys. B 74(4-5), 441–444 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  3. T. A. Blake, C. Chackerian, and J. R. Podolske, “Prognosis for a mid-infrared magnetic rotation spectrometer for the in situ detection of atmospheric free radicals,” Appl. Opt. 35(6), 973–985 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. R. Lewicki, J. H. Doty, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, and G. Wysocki, “Ultrasensitive detection of nitric oxide at 5.33  m by using external cavity quantum cascade laser-based Faraday rotation spectroscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106(31), 12587–12592 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. G. Litfin, C. R. Pollock, R. F. Curl, and F. K. Tittel, “Sensitivity enhancement of laser absorption spectroscopy by magnetic rotation effect,” J. Chem. Phys. 72(12), 6602–6605 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. Pfeiffer, D. Kirsten, P. Kalkert, and W. Urban, “Sensitive magnetic rotation spectroscopy of the OH free radical fundamental band with a color centre laser,” Appl. Phys. B 26(3), 173–177 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  7. L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, K. Chance, L. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 96(2), 139–204 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  8. W. Zhao, X. Gao, L. Hao, M. Huang, T. Huang, T. Wu, W. Zhang, and W. Chen, “Use of integrated cavity output spectroscopy for studying gas phase chemistry in a smog chamber: Characterizing the photolysis of methyl nitrite (CH3ONO),” Vib. Spectrosc. 44(2), 388–393 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  9. H. Ganser, W. Urban, and J. M. Brown, “The sensitive detection of NO by Faraday modulation spectroscopy with a quantum cascade laser,” Mol. Phys. 101(4), 545–550 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  10. H. E. Radford, “Microwave Zeeman effect of free hydroxyl radicals,” Phys. Rev. 122(1), 114–130 (1961).
    [CrossRef]
  11. H. E. Radford, “Microwave Zeeman effect of free hydroxyl radicals: 2Π1/2 levels,” Phys. Rev. 126(3), 1035–1045 (1962).
    [CrossRef]
  12. G. Pesce, G. Rusciano, and A. Sasso, “Detection and spectroscopy of OH fundamental vibrational band based on a difference frequency generation at 3 µm,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 374(5-6), 425–431 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  13. D. C. Scott, R. L. Herman, C. R. Webster, R. D. May, G. J. Flesch, and E. J. Moyer, “Airborne laser infrared absorption spectrometer (ALIAS-II) for in situ atmospheric measurements of N2O, CH4, CO, HCl, and NO2 from balloon or remotely piloted aircraft platforms,” Appl. Opt. 38(21), 4609–4622 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  14. J. Mao, X. Ren, W. H. Brune, J. R. Olson, J. H. Crawford, A. Fried, L. G. Huey, R. C. Cohen, B. Heikes, H. B. Singh, D. R. Blake, G. W. Sachse, G. S. Diskin, S. R. Hall, and R. E. Shetter, “Airborne measurement of OH reactivity during INTEX-B,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 9(1), 163–173 (2009).
    [CrossRef]

2009

R. Lewicki, J. H. Doty, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, and G. Wysocki, “Ultrasensitive detection of nitric oxide at 5.33  m by using external cavity quantum cascade laser-based Faraday rotation spectroscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106(31), 12587–12592 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Mao, X. Ren, W. H. Brune, J. R. Olson, J. H. Crawford, A. Fried, L. G. Huey, R. C. Cohen, B. Heikes, H. B. Singh, D. R. Blake, G. W. Sachse, G. S. Diskin, S. R. Hall, and R. E. Shetter, “Airborne measurement of OH reactivity during INTEX-B,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 9(1), 163–173 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2007

W. Zhao, X. Gao, L. Hao, M. Huang, T. Huang, T. Wu, W. Zhang, and W. Chen, “Use of integrated cavity output spectroscopy for studying gas phase chemistry in a smog chamber: Characterizing the photolysis of methyl nitrite (CH3ONO),” Vib. Spectrosc. 44(2), 388–393 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, K. Chance, L. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 96(2), 139–204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003

H. Ganser, W. Urban, and J. M. Brown, “The sensitive detection of NO by Faraday modulation spectroscopy with a quantum cascade laser,” Mol. Phys. 101(4), 545–550 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. E. Heard and M. J. Pilling, “Measurement of OH and HO2 in the troposphere,” Chem. Rev. 103(12), 5163–5198 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Pesce, G. Rusciano, and A. Sasso, “Detection and spectroscopy of OH fundamental vibrational band based on a difference frequency generation at 3 µm,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 374(5-6), 425–431 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

L. Corner, J. S. Gibb, G. Hancock, A. Hutchinson, V. L. Kasyutich, R. Peverall, and G. A. D. Ritchie, “Sum frequency generation at 309 nm using a violet and a near-IR DFB diode laser for detection of OH,” Appl. Phys. B 74(4-5), 441–444 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1999

D. C. Scott, R. L. Herman, C. R. Webster, R. D. May, G. J. Flesch, and E. J. Moyer, “Airborne laser infrared absorption spectrometer (ALIAS-II) for in situ atmospheric measurements of N2O, CH4, CO, HCl, and NO2 from balloon or remotely piloted aircraft platforms,” Appl. Opt. 38(21), 4609–4622 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1996

T. A. Blake, C. Chackerian, and J. R. Podolske, “Prognosis for a mid-infrared magnetic rotation spectrometer for the in situ detection of atmospheric free radicals,” Appl. Opt. 35(6), 973–985 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1981

J. Pfeiffer, D. Kirsten, P. Kalkert, and W. Urban, “Sensitive magnetic rotation spectroscopy of the OH free radical fundamental band with a color centre laser,” Appl. Phys. B 26(3), 173–177 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1980

G. Litfin, C. R. Pollock, R. F. Curl, and F. K. Tittel, “Sensitivity enhancement of laser absorption spectroscopy by magnetic rotation effect,” J. Chem. Phys. 72(12), 6602–6605 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1962

H. E. Radford, “Microwave Zeeman effect of free hydroxyl radicals: 2Π1/2 levels,” Phys. Rev. 126(3), 1035–1045 (1962).
[CrossRef]

1961

H. E. Radford, “Microwave Zeeman effect of free hydroxyl radicals,” Phys. Rev. 122(1), 114–130 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Barbe, A.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, K. Chance, L. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 96(2), 139–204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Benner, D. C.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, K. Chance, L. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 96(2), 139–204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Birk, M.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, K. Chance, L. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 96(2), 139–204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Blake, D. R.

J. Mao, X. Ren, W. H. Brune, J. R. Olson, J. H. Crawford, A. Fried, L. G. Huey, R. C. Cohen, B. Heikes, H. B. Singh, D. R. Blake, G. W. Sachse, G. S. Diskin, S. R. Hall, and R. E. Shetter, “Airborne measurement of OH reactivity during INTEX-B,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 9(1), 163–173 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Blake, T. A.

T. A. Blake, C. Chackerian, and J. R. Podolske, “Prognosis for a mid-infrared magnetic rotation spectrometer for the in situ detection of atmospheric free radicals,” Appl. Opt. 35(6), 973–985 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brown, J. M.

H. Ganser, W. Urban, and J. M. Brown, “The sensitive detection of NO by Faraday modulation spectroscopy with a quantum cascade laser,” Mol. Phys. 101(4), 545–550 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Brown, L. R.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, K. Chance, L. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 96(2), 139–204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Brune, W. H.

J. Mao, X. Ren, W. H. Brune, J. R. Olson, J. H. Crawford, A. Fried, L. G. Huey, R. C. Cohen, B. Heikes, H. B. Singh, D. R. Blake, G. W. Sachse, G. S. Diskin, S. R. Hall, and R. E. Shetter, “Airborne measurement of OH reactivity during INTEX-B,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 9(1), 163–173 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Carleer, M. R.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, K. Chance, L. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 96(2), 139–204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chackerian, C.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, K. Chance, L. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 96(2), 139–204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. A. Blake, C. Chackerian, and J. R. Podolske, “Prognosis for a mid-infrared magnetic rotation spectrometer for the in situ detection of atmospheric free radicals,” Appl. Opt. 35(6), 973–985 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chance, K.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, K. Chance, L. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 96(2), 139–204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chen, W.

W. Zhao, X. Gao, L. Hao, M. Huang, T. Huang, T. Wu, W. Zhang, and W. Chen, “Use of integrated cavity output spectroscopy for studying gas phase chemistry in a smog chamber: Characterizing the photolysis of methyl nitrite (CH3ONO),” Vib. Spectrosc. 44(2), 388–393 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cohen, R. C.

J. Mao, X. Ren, W. H. Brune, J. R. Olson, J. H. Crawford, A. Fried, L. G. Huey, R. C. Cohen, B. Heikes, H. B. Singh, D. R. Blake, G. W. Sachse, G. S. Diskin, S. R. Hall, and R. E. Shetter, “Airborne measurement of OH reactivity during INTEX-B,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 9(1), 163–173 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Corner, L.

L. Corner, J. S. Gibb, G. Hancock, A. Hutchinson, V. L. Kasyutich, R. Peverall, and G. A. D. Ritchie, “Sum frequency generation at 309 nm using a violet and a near-IR DFB diode laser for detection of OH,” Appl. Phys. B 74(4-5), 441–444 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Coudert, L.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, K. Chance, L. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 96(2), 139–204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Crawford, J. H.

J. Mao, X. Ren, W. H. Brune, J. R. Olson, J. H. Crawford, A. Fried, L. G. Huey, R. C. Cohen, B. Heikes, H. B. Singh, D. R. Blake, G. W. Sachse, G. S. Diskin, S. R. Hall, and R. E. Shetter, “Airborne measurement of OH reactivity during INTEX-B,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 9(1), 163–173 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Curl, R. F.

R. Lewicki, J. H. Doty, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, and G. Wysocki, “Ultrasensitive detection of nitric oxide at 5.33  m by using external cavity quantum cascade laser-based Faraday rotation spectroscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106(31), 12587–12592 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Litfin, C. R. Pollock, R. F. Curl, and F. K. Tittel, “Sensitivity enhancement of laser absorption spectroscopy by magnetic rotation effect,” J. Chem. Phys. 72(12), 6602–6605 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Dana, V.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, K. Chance, L. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 96(2), 139–204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Devi, V. M.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, K. Chance, L. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 96(2), 139–204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Diskin, G. S.

J. Mao, X. Ren, W. H. Brune, J. R. Olson, J. H. Crawford, A. Fried, L. G. Huey, R. C. Cohen, B. Heikes, H. B. Singh, D. R. Blake, G. W. Sachse, G. S. Diskin, S. R. Hall, and R. E. Shetter, “Airborne measurement of OH reactivity during INTEX-B,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 9(1), 163–173 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Doty, J. H.

R. Lewicki, J. H. Doty, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, and G. Wysocki, “Ultrasensitive detection of nitric oxide at 5.33  m by using external cavity quantum cascade laser-based Faraday rotation spectroscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106(31), 12587–12592 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Flaud, J.-M.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, K. Chance, L. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 96(2), 139–204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Flesch, G. J.

D. C. Scott, R. L. Herman, C. R. Webster, R. D. May, G. J. Flesch, and E. J. Moyer, “Airborne laser infrared absorption spectrometer (ALIAS-II) for in situ atmospheric measurements of N2O, CH4, CO, HCl, and NO2 from balloon or remotely piloted aircraft platforms,” Appl. Opt. 38(21), 4609–4622 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Fried, A.

J. Mao, X. Ren, W. H. Brune, J. R. Olson, J. H. Crawford, A. Fried, L. G. Huey, R. C. Cohen, B. Heikes, H. B. Singh, D. R. Blake, G. W. Sachse, G. S. Diskin, S. R. Hall, and R. E. Shetter, “Airborne measurement of OH reactivity during INTEX-B,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 9(1), 163–173 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gamache, R. R.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, K. Chance, L. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 96(2), 139–204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ganser, H.

H. Ganser, W. Urban, and J. M. Brown, “The sensitive detection of NO by Faraday modulation spectroscopy with a quantum cascade laser,” Mol. Phys. 101(4), 545–550 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gao, X.

W. Zhao, X. Gao, L. Hao, M. Huang, T. Huang, T. Wu, W. Zhang, and W. Chen, “Use of integrated cavity output spectroscopy for studying gas phase chemistry in a smog chamber: Characterizing the photolysis of methyl nitrite (CH3ONO),” Vib. Spectrosc. 44(2), 388–393 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gibb, J. S.

L. Corner, J. S. Gibb, G. Hancock, A. Hutchinson, V. L. Kasyutich, R. Peverall, and G. A. D. Ritchie, “Sum frequency generation at 309 nm using a violet and a near-IR DFB diode laser for detection of OH,” Appl. Phys. B 74(4-5), 441–444 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Goldman, A.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, K. Chance, L. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 96(2), 139–204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hall, S. R.

J. Mao, X. Ren, W. H. Brune, J. R. Olson, J. H. Crawford, A. Fried, L. G. Huey, R. C. Cohen, B. Heikes, H. B. Singh, D. R. Blake, G. W. Sachse, G. S. Diskin, S. R. Hall, and R. E. Shetter, “Airborne measurement of OH reactivity during INTEX-B,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 9(1), 163–173 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hancock, G.

L. Corner, J. S. Gibb, G. Hancock, A. Hutchinson, V. L. Kasyutich, R. Peverall, and G. A. D. Ritchie, “Sum frequency generation at 309 nm using a violet and a near-IR DFB diode laser for detection of OH,” Appl. Phys. B 74(4-5), 441–444 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hao, L.

W. Zhao, X. Gao, L. Hao, M. Huang, T. Huang, T. Wu, W. Zhang, and W. Chen, “Use of integrated cavity output spectroscopy for studying gas phase chemistry in a smog chamber: Characterizing the photolysis of methyl nitrite (CH3ONO),” Vib. Spectrosc. 44(2), 388–393 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hartmann, J.-M.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, K. Chance, L. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 96(2), 139–204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Heard, D. E.

D. E. Heard and M. J. Pilling, “Measurement of OH and HO2 in the troposphere,” Chem. Rev. 103(12), 5163–5198 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heikes, B.

J. Mao, X. Ren, W. H. Brune, J. R. Olson, J. H. Crawford, A. Fried, L. G. Huey, R. C. Cohen, B. Heikes, H. B. Singh, D. R. Blake, G. W. Sachse, G. S. Diskin, S. R. Hall, and R. E. Shetter, “Airborne measurement of OH reactivity during INTEX-B,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 9(1), 163–173 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Herman, R. L.

D. C. Scott, R. L. Herman, C. R. Webster, R. D. May, G. J. Flesch, and E. J. Moyer, “Airborne laser infrared absorption spectrometer (ALIAS-II) for in situ atmospheric measurements of N2O, CH4, CO, HCl, and NO2 from balloon or remotely piloted aircraft platforms,” Appl. Opt. 38(21), 4609–4622 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Huang, M.

W. Zhao, X. Gao, L. Hao, M. Huang, T. Huang, T. Wu, W. Zhang, and W. Chen, “Use of integrated cavity output spectroscopy for studying gas phase chemistry in a smog chamber: Characterizing the photolysis of methyl nitrite (CH3ONO),” Vib. Spectrosc. 44(2), 388–393 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Huang, T.

W. Zhao, X. Gao, L. Hao, M. Huang, T. Huang, T. Wu, W. Zhang, and W. Chen, “Use of integrated cavity output spectroscopy for studying gas phase chemistry in a smog chamber: Characterizing the photolysis of methyl nitrite (CH3ONO),” Vib. Spectrosc. 44(2), 388–393 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Huey, L. G.

J. Mao, X. Ren, W. H. Brune, J. R. Olson, J. H. Crawford, A. Fried, L. G. Huey, R. C. Cohen, B. Heikes, H. B. Singh, D. R. Blake, G. W. Sachse, G. S. Diskin, S. R. Hall, and R. E. Shetter, “Airborne measurement of OH reactivity during INTEX-B,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 9(1), 163–173 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hutchinson, A.

L. Corner, J. S. Gibb, G. Hancock, A. Hutchinson, V. L. Kasyutich, R. Peverall, and G. A. D. Ritchie, “Sum frequency generation at 309 nm using a violet and a near-IR DFB diode laser for detection of OH,” Appl. Phys. B 74(4-5), 441–444 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Jacquemart, D.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, K. Chance, L. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 96(2), 139–204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jucks, K. W.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, K. Chance, L. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 96(2), 139–204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kalkert, P.

J. Pfeiffer, D. Kirsten, P. Kalkert, and W. Urban, “Sensitive magnetic rotation spectroscopy of the OH free radical fundamental band with a color centre laser,” Appl. Phys. B 26(3), 173–177 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Kasyutich, V. L.

L. Corner, J. S. Gibb, G. Hancock, A. Hutchinson, V. L. Kasyutich, R. Peverall, and G. A. D. Ritchie, “Sum frequency generation at 309 nm using a violet and a near-IR DFB diode laser for detection of OH,” Appl. Phys. B 74(4-5), 441–444 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kirsten, D.

J. Pfeiffer, D. Kirsten, P. Kalkert, and W. Urban, “Sensitive magnetic rotation spectroscopy of the OH free radical fundamental band with a color centre laser,” Appl. Phys. B 26(3), 173–177 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Lewicki, R.

R. Lewicki, J. H. Doty, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, and G. Wysocki, “Ultrasensitive detection of nitric oxide at 5.33  m by using external cavity quantum cascade laser-based Faraday rotation spectroscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106(31), 12587–12592 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Litfin, G.

G. Litfin, C. R. Pollock, R. F. Curl, and F. K. Tittel, “Sensitivity enhancement of laser absorption spectroscopy by magnetic rotation effect,” J. Chem. Phys. 72(12), 6602–6605 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Maki, A. G.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, K. Chance, L. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 96(2), 139–204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mandin, J.-Y.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, K. Chance, L. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 96(2), 139–204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mao, J.

J. Mao, X. Ren, W. H. Brune, J. R. Olson, J. H. Crawford, A. Fried, L. G. Huey, R. C. Cohen, B. Heikes, H. B. Singh, D. R. Blake, G. W. Sachse, G. S. Diskin, S. R. Hall, and R. E. Shetter, “Airborne measurement of OH reactivity during INTEX-B,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 9(1), 163–173 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Massie, S. T.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, K. Chance, L. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 96(2), 139–204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

May, R. D.

D. C. Scott, R. L. Herman, C. R. Webster, R. D. May, G. J. Flesch, and E. J. Moyer, “Airborne laser infrared absorption spectrometer (ALIAS-II) for in situ atmospheric measurements of N2O, CH4, CO, HCl, and NO2 from balloon or remotely piloted aircraft platforms,” Appl. Opt. 38(21), 4609–4622 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Moyer, E. J.

D. C. Scott, R. L. Herman, C. R. Webster, R. D. May, G. J. Flesch, and E. J. Moyer, “Airborne laser infrared absorption spectrometer (ALIAS-II) for in situ atmospheric measurements of N2O, CH4, CO, HCl, and NO2 from balloon or remotely piloted aircraft platforms,” Appl. Opt. 38(21), 4609–4622 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Olson, J. R.

J. Mao, X. Ren, W. H. Brune, J. R. Olson, J. H. Crawford, A. Fried, L. G. Huey, R. C. Cohen, B. Heikes, H. B. Singh, D. R. Blake, G. W. Sachse, G. S. Diskin, S. R. Hall, and R. E. Shetter, “Airborne measurement of OH reactivity during INTEX-B,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 9(1), 163–173 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Orphal, J.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, K. Chance, L. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 96(2), 139–204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Perrin, A.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, K. Chance, L. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 96(2), 139–204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Pesce, G.

G. Pesce, G. Rusciano, and A. Sasso, “Detection and spectroscopy of OH fundamental vibrational band based on a difference frequency generation at 3 µm,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 374(5-6), 425–431 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Peverall, R.

L. Corner, J. S. Gibb, G. Hancock, A. Hutchinson, V. L. Kasyutich, R. Peverall, and G. A. D. Ritchie, “Sum frequency generation at 309 nm using a violet and a near-IR DFB diode laser for detection of OH,” Appl. Phys. B 74(4-5), 441–444 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Pfeiffer, J.

J. Pfeiffer, D. Kirsten, P. Kalkert, and W. Urban, “Sensitive magnetic rotation spectroscopy of the OH free radical fundamental band with a color centre laser,” Appl. Phys. B 26(3), 173–177 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Pilling, M. J.

D. E. Heard and M. J. Pilling, “Measurement of OH and HO2 in the troposphere,” Chem. Rev. 103(12), 5163–5198 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Podolske, J. R.

T. A. Blake, C. Chackerian, and J. R. Podolske, “Prognosis for a mid-infrared magnetic rotation spectrometer for the in situ detection of atmospheric free radicals,” Appl. Opt. 35(6), 973–985 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pollock, C. R.

G. Litfin, C. R. Pollock, R. F. Curl, and F. K. Tittel, “Sensitivity enhancement of laser absorption spectroscopy by magnetic rotation effect,” J. Chem. Phys. 72(12), 6602–6605 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Radford, H. E.

H. E. Radford, “Microwave Zeeman effect of free hydroxyl radicals: 2Π1/2 levels,” Phys. Rev. 126(3), 1035–1045 (1962).
[CrossRef]

H. E. Radford, “Microwave Zeeman effect of free hydroxyl radicals,” Phys. Rev. 122(1), 114–130 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Ren, X.

J. Mao, X. Ren, W. H. Brune, J. R. Olson, J. H. Crawford, A. Fried, L. G. Huey, R. C. Cohen, B. Heikes, H. B. Singh, D. R. Blake, G. W. Sachse, G. S. Diskin, S. R. Hall, and R. E. Shetter, “Airborne measurement of OH reactivity during INTEX-B,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 9(1), 163–173 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rinsland, C. P.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, K. Chance, L. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 96(2), 139–204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ritchie, G. A. D.

L. Corner, J. S. Gibb, G. Hancock, A. Hutchinson, V. L. Kasyutich, R. Peverall, and G. A. D. Ritchie, “Sum frequency generation at 309 nm using a violet and a near-IR DFB diode laser for detection of OH,” Appl. Phys. B 74(4-5), 441–444 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Rothman, L. S.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, K. Chance, L. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 96(2), 139–204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rusciano, G.

G. Pesce, G. Rusciano, and A. Sasso, “Detection and spectroscopy of OH fundamental vibrational band based on a difference frequency generation at 3 µm,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 374(5-6), 425–431 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sachse, G. W.

J. Mao, X. Ren, W. H. Brune, J. R. Olson, J. H. Crawford, A. Fried, L. G. Huey, R. C. Cohen, B. Heikes, H. B. Singh, D. R. Blake, G. W. Sachse, G. S. Diskin, S. R. Hall, and R. E. Shetter, “Airborne measurement of OH reactivity during INTEX-B,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 9(1), 163–173 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sasso, A.

G. Pesce, G. Rusciano, and A. Sasso, “Detection and spectroscopy of OH fundamental vibrational band based on a difference frequency generation at 3 µm,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 374(5-6), 425–431 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Scott, D. C.

D. C. Scott, R. L. Herman, C. R. Webster, R. D. May, G. J. Flesch, and E. J. Moyer, “Airborne laser infrared absorption spectrometer (ALIAS-II) for in situ atmospheric measurements of N2O, CH4, CO, HCl, and NO2 from balloon or remotely piloted aircraft platforms,” Appl. Opt. 38(21), 4609–4622 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Shetter, R. E.

J. Mao, X. Ren, W. H. Brune, J. R. Olson, J. H. Crawford, A. Fried, L. G. Huey, R. C. Cohen, B. Heikes, H. B. Singh, D. R. Blake, G. W. Sachse, G. S. Diskin, S. R. Hall, and R. E. Shetter, “Airborne measurement of OH reactivity during INTEX-B,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 9(1), 163–173 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Singh, H. B.

J. Mao, X. Ren, W. H. Brune, J. R. Olson, J. H. Crawford, A. Fried, L. G. Huey, R. C. Cohen, B. Heikes, H. B. Singh, D. R. Blake, G. W. Sachse, G. S. Diskin, S. R. Hall, and R. E. Shetter, “Airborne measurement of OH reactivity during INTEX-B,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 9(1), 163–173 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Smith, M. A. H.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, K. Chance, L. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 96(2), 139–204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tennyson, J.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, K. Chance, L. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 96(2), 139–204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tittel, F. K.

R. Lewicki, J. H. Doty, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, and G. Wysocki, “Ultrasensitive detection of nitric oxide at 5.33  m by using external cavity quantum cascade laser-based Faraday rotation spectroscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106(31), 12587–12592 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Litfin, C. R. Pollock, R. F. Curl, and F. K. Tittel, “Sensitivity enhancement of laser absorption spectroscopy by magnetic rotation effect,” J. Chem. Phys. 72(12), 6602–6605 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Tolchenov, R. N.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, K. Chance, L. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 96(2), 139–204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Toth, R. A.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, K. Chance, L. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 96(2), 139–204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Urban, W.

H. Ganser, W. Urban, and J. M. Brown, “The sensitive detection of NO by Faraday modulation spectroscopy with a quantum cascade laser,” Mol. Phys. 101(4), 545–550 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Pfeiffer, D. Kirsten, P. Kalkert, and W. Urban, “Sensitive magnetic rotation spectroscopy of the OH free radical fundamental band with a color centre laser,” Appl. Phys. B 26(3), 173–177 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Vander Auwera, J.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, K. Chance, L. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 96(2), 139–204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Varanasi, P.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, K. Chance, L. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 96(2), 139–204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wagner, G.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, K. Chance, L. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 96(2), 139–204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Webster, C. R.

D. C. Scott, R. L. Herman, C. R. Webster, R. D. May, G. J. Flesch, and E. J. Moyer, “Airborne laser infrared absorption spectrometer (ALIAS-II) for in situ atmospheric measurements of N2O, CH4, CO, HCl, and NO2 from balloon or remotely piloted aircraft platforms,” Appl. Opt. 38(21), 4609–4622 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wu, T.

W. Zhao, X. Gao, L. Hao, M. Huang, T. Huang, T. Wu, W. Zhang, and W. Chen, “Use of integrated cavity output spectroscopy for studying gas phase chemistry in a smog chamber: Characterizing the photolysis of methyl nitrite (CH3ONO),” Vib. Spectrosc. 44(2), 388–393 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wysocki, G.

R. Lewicki, J. H. Doty, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, and G. Wysocki, “Ultrasensitive detection of nitric oxide at 5.33  m by using external cavity quantum cascade laser-based Faraday rotation spectroscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106(31), 12587–12592 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, W.

W. Zhao, X. Gao, L. Hao, M. Huang, T. Huang, T. Wu, W. Zhang, and W. Chen, “Use of integrated cavity output spectroscopy for studying gas phase chemistry in a smog chamber: Characterizing the photolysis of methyl nitrite (CH3ONO),” Vib. Spectrosc. 44(2), 388–393 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, W.

W. Zhao, X. Gao, L. Hao, M. Huang, T. Huang, T. Wu, W. Zhang, and W. Chen, “Use of integrated cavity output spectroscopy for studying gas phase chemistry in a smog chamber: Characterizing the photolysis of methyl nitrite (CH3ONO),” Vib. Spectrosc. 44(2), 388–393 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

T. A. Blake, C. Chackerian, and J. R. Podolske, “Prognosis for a mid-infrared magnetic rotation spectrometer for the in situ detection of atmospheric free radicals,” Appl. Opt. 35(6), 973–985 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. C. Scott, R. L. Herman, C. R. Webster, R. D. May, G. J. Flesch, and E. J. Moyer, “Airborne laser infrared absorption spectrometer (ALIAS-II) for in situ atmospheric measurements of N2O, CH4, CO, HCl, and NO2 from balloon or remotely piloted aircraft platforms,” Appl. Opt. 38(21), 4609–4622 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B

L. Corner, J. S. Gibb, G. Hancock, A. Hutchinson, V. L. Kasyutich, R. Peverall, and G. A. D. Ritchie, “Sum frequency generation at 309 nm using a violet and a near-IR DFB diode laser for detection of OH,” Appl. Phys. B 74(4-5), 441–444 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Pfeiffer, D. Kirsten, P. Kalkert, and W. Urban, “Sensitive magnetic rotation spectroscopy of the OH free radical fundamental band with a color centre laser,” Appl. Phys. B 26(3), 173–177 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Atmos. Chem. Phys.

J. Mao, X. Ren, W. H. Brune, J. R. Olson, J. H. Crawford, A. Fried, L. G. Huey, R. C. Cohen, B. Heikes, H. B. Singh, D. R. Blake, G. W. Sachse, G. S. Diskin, S. R. Hall, and R. E. Shetter, “Airborne measurement of OH reactivity during INTEX-B,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 9(1), 163–173 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Lett.

G. Pesce, G. Rusciano, and A. Sasso, “Detection and spectroscopy of OH fundamental vibrational band based on a difference frequency generation at 3 µm,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 374(5-6), 425–431 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Rev.

D. E. Heard and M. J. Pilling, “Measurement of OH and HO2 in the troposphere,” Chem. Rev. 103(12), 5163–5198 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Chem. Phys.

G. Litfin, C. R. Pollock, R. F. Curl, and F. K. Tittel, “Sensitivity enhancement of laser absorption spectroscopy by magnetic rotation effect,” J. Chem. Phys. 72(12), 6602–6605 (1980).
[CrossRef]

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, K. Chance, L. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 96(2), 139–204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mol. Phys.

H. Ganser, W. Urban, and J. M. Brown, “The sensitive detection of NO by Faraday modulation spectroscopy with a quantum cascade laser,” Mol. Phys. 101(4), 545–550 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev.

H. E. Radford, “Microwave Zeeman effect of free hydroxyl radicals,” Phys. Rev. 122(1), 114–130 (1961).
[CrossRef]

H. E. Radford, “Microwave Zeeman effect of free hydroxyl radicals: 2Π1/2 levels,” Phys. Rev. 126(3), 1035–1045 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.

R. Lewicki, J. H. Doty, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, and G. Wysocki, “Ultrasensitive detection of nitric oxide at 5.33  m by using external cavity quantum cascade laser-based Faraday rotation spectroscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106(31), 12587–12592 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vib. Spectrosc.

W. Zhao, X. Gao, L. Hao, M. Huang, T. Huang, T. Wu, W. Zhang, and W. Chen, “Use of integrated cavity output spectroscopy for studying gas phase chemistry in a smog chamber: Characterizing the photolysis of methyl nitrite (CH3ONO),” Vib. Spectrosc. 44(2), 388–393 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of Faraday rotation spectroscopic system. PM: parabolic mirror; F: lens, PC: personal computer.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Total noise measured and fitted results as a function of analyzer angle φ. The insert shows the SNR at different analyzer angle φ. Maximum SNR was achieved at φ = 6°.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a): OH absorption line intensities listed in the HITRAN database (at 296 K); (b): effective gJ factors of the 2Π1/2 and 2Π3/2 states of OH radical.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) A WMS spectrum of OH and H2O absorption. The H2O absorption line at 3568.79816 cm−11 band, 423 ← 432 transition) was used for the OH concentration calibration. The inset shows the 2f peak amplitude of H2O absorption line at different H2O concentrations; (b) A simulated (solid curve) and experimental (circles) lineshapes for the Faraday rotation spectrum of OH Q (1.5) double lines with an analyzer off-set angle of 6°. The OH concentration deduced from 2f method was ~2.2 × 1012 molecules/cm3. The corresponding 1σ Minimum Detection Limit was 8.2 × 108 OH radicals/cm3. The simulated lineshape was calculated with [OH] = 0.95 × 1012 OH radicals/cm3, L = 25 cm, T = 296 K, B = 177 Gauss.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

P ( ϕ ) = P 0 2 ( 1 cos 2 ϕ + R Δ L sin 2 ϕ )
N t o t ( ϕ ) = N 0 2 + N 1 2 ( sin 2 ( ϕ ) + ξ ) + N 2 2 ( sin 2 ( ϕ ) + ξ ) 2
R Δ = N S ln 2 π γ D M J , M J ( 1 ) M J M J Re Z { ln 2 γ D [ ( ν ν 0 ) ( g J M J g J M J ) μ B B h c + i γ C ] }
I 2 f ( O H ) I 2 f ( H 2 O ) = [ O H ] × S O H [ H 2 O ] × S H 2 O

Metrics