Abstract

We show experimentally that polarization mode hopping in quantum dot vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs) takes place between nonorthogonal elliptically polarized modes. In contrast to quantum well VCSELs the average dwell time decreases with injection current. This decrease is by 8 orders of magnitude: from seconds to nanoseconds and is achieved without any modifications of the VCSEL internal anisotropies. The observed scaling happens in a range of currents as wide as 8 times the threshold value.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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  1. P. Hänggi, P. Talkner, and M. Borkovec, "Reaction-rate theory: fifty years after Kramers," Rev. Mod. Phys. 62, 251-341 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  2. H. A. Kramers, "Brownian motion in a field of force and the diffusion model of chemical reactions," Physica 7, 284-304 (1940).
    [CrossRef]
  3. C. J. Chang-Hasnain, J. P. Harbison, L. T. Florez, and N. G. Stoffel, "Polarisation characteristics of quantum well vertical cavity surface emitting lasers," Electron. Lett. 27, 163-165 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  4. K. D. Choquette, R. P. Schneider, K. L. Lear, and R. E. Leibenguth, "Gain-dependent polarization properties of vertical-cavity lasers," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 1, 661-666 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  5. K. Panajotov, J. Danckaert, G. Verschaffelt, M. Peeters, B. Nagler, J. Albert, B. Ryvkin, H. Thienpont, and I. Veretennicoff, "Polarization Behavior of Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers: Experiments, Models and Applications," Proc. AIP 560, 403-417 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. B. Willemsen, M. U. F. Khalid, M. P. van Exter, and J. P. Woerdman, "Polarization Switching of a Vertical-Cavity Semiconductor Laser as a Kramers Hopping Problem," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4815-4818 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  7. G. Giacomelli and F. Marin, "Statistics of polarization competition in VCSELs," Quantum Semiclass. Opt. 10, 469-476 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. Sondermann, M. Weinkath, T. Ackemann, J. Mulet, and S. Balle, "Two frequency emission and polarization dynamics at lasing threshold in vertical- cavity surface-emitting lasers," Phys. Rev. A 68, 033822 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. Kaiser, C. Degen, and W. Elsasser, "Polarization-switching influence on the intensity noise of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 672-677 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  10. B. Nagler, M. Peeters, J. Albert, G. Verschaffelt, K. Panajotov, H. Thienpont, I. Veretennicoff, J. Danckaert, S. Barbay, G. Giacomelli, and F. Marin, "Polarization-mode hopping in single-mode vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers: Theory and experiment," Phys. Rev. A 68, 013813 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  11. J. Houlihan, D. Goulding, Th. Busch, C. Masoller, and G. Huyet, "Experimental Investigation of a Bistable System in the Presence of Noise and Delay," Phys. Rev. Lett. 22, 050601 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  12. M. Sciamanna, K. Panajotov, H. Thienpont, I. Veretennicoff, P. Megret, and M. Blondel, "Optical feedback induces polarization mode hopping in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers," Opt. Lett. 28, 1543-1545 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. K. Panajotov, M. Sciamanna, A. Tabaka, P. Megret, M. Blondel, G. Giacomelli, F. Marin, H. Thienpont, and I. Veretennicoff, "Residence time distribution and coherence resonance of optical-feedback-induced polarization mode hopping in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers," Phys. Rev. A 69, 011801 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  14. I. Gatare, M. Triginer, H. Thienpont, K. Panajotov, and M. Sciamanna, "Experimental study of polarization switching and polarization mode hopping induced by optical injection in VCSELs," Proceedings Symposium IEEE/LEOS Benelux Chapter, Ghent, 143-146 (2004).
  15. U. Fiedler, G. Reiner, P. Schnitzer, and K. J. Ebeling, "Top surface-emitting vertical-cavity laser diodes for 10-Gb/s data transmission," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 746-748 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  16. T. Mukaihara, N. Ohnoki, Y. Hayashi, N. Hatori, F. Koyama, and K. Iga, "Excess intensity noise originated from polarization fluctuation in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 1113-1115 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  17. L. Olejniczak, M. Sciamanna, H. Thienpont, K. Panajotov, A. Mutig, F. Hopfer, and D. Bimberg, "Polarization Switching in Quantum-Dot Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 1008-1010 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  18. F. Hopfer, A. Mutig, A. M. Kuntz, G. Fiol, D. Bimberg, N. N. Ledentsov, V. A. Shchukin, S. S. Mikhrin, D. L. Livshits, I. L. Krestnikov, A. R. Kovsh, N. D. Zakharov, and P. Werner, "Single-mode submonolayer quantum-dot vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with high modulation bandwidth," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 141106 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  19. M. Sondermann, T. Ackemanna, S. Balleb, J. Muletb, and K. Panajotov, "Experimental and theoretical investigations on elliptically polarized dynamical transition states in the polarization switching of vertical-cavity surface emitting lasers," Opt. Commun. 235, 421-434 (2004).
    [CrossRef]

2009

L. Olejniczak, M. Sciamanna, H. Thienpont, K. Panajotov, A. Mutig, F. Hopfer, and D. Bimberg, "Polarization Switching in Quantum-Dot Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 1008-1010 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2006

F. Hopfer, A. Mutig, A. M. Kuntz, G. Fiol, D. Bimberg, N. N. Ledentsov, V. A. Shchukin, S. S. Mikhrin, D. L. Livshits, I. L. Krestnikov, A. R. Kovsh, N. D. Zakharov, and P. Werner, "Single-mode submonolayer quantum-dot vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with high modulation bandwidth," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 141106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004

M. Sondermann, T. Ackemanna, S. Balleb, J. Muletb, and K. Panajotov, "Experimental and theoretical investigations on elliptically polarized dynamical transition states in the polarization switching of vertical-cavity surface emitting lasers," Opt. Commun. 235, 421-434 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Houlihan, D. Goulding, Th. Busch, C. Masoller, and G. Huyet, "Experimental Investigation of a Bistable System in the Presence of Noise and Delay," Phys. Rev. Lett. 22, 050601 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Panajotov, M. Sciamanna, A. Tabaka, P. Megret, M. Blondel, G. Giacomelli, F. Marin, H. Thienpont, and I. Veretennicoff, "Residence time distribution and coherence resonance of optical-feedback-induced polarization mode hopping in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers," Phys. Rev. A 69, 011801 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

M. Sciamanna, K. Panajotov, H. Thienpont, I. Veretennicoff, P. Megret, and M. Blondel, "Optical feedback induces polarization mode hopping in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers," Opt. Lett. 28, 1543-1545 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Nagler, M. Peeters, J. Albert, G. Verschaffelt, K. Panajotov, H. Thienpont, I. Veretennicoff, J. Danckaert, S. Barbay, G. Giacomelli, and F. Marin, "Polarization-mode hopping in single-mode vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers: Theory and experiment," Phys. Rev. A 68, 013813 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Sondermann, M. Weinkath, T. Ackemann, J. Mulet, and S. Balle, "Two frequency emission and polarization dynamics at lasing threshold in vertical- cavity surface-emitting lasers," Phys. Rev. A 68, 033822 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

J. Kaiser, C. Degen, and W. Elsasser, "Polarization-switching influence on the intensity noise of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 672-677 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1999

M. B. Willemsen, M. U. F. Khalid, M. P. van Exter, and J. P. Woerdman, "Polarization Switching of a Vertical-Cavity Semiconductor Laser as a Kramers Hopping Problem," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4815-4818 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

G. Giacomelli and F. Marin, "Statistics of polarization competition in VCSELs," Quantum Semiclass. Opt. 10, 469-476 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996

U. Fiedler, G. Reiner, P. Schnitzer, and K. J. Ebeling, "Top surface-emitting vertical-cavity laser diodes for 10-Gb/s data transmission," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 746-748 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995

T. Mukaihara, N. Ohnoki, Y. Hayashi, N. Hatori, F. Koyama, and K. Iga, "Excess intensity noise originated from polarization fluctuation in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 1113-1115 (1995).
[CrossRef]

K. D. Choquette, R. P. Schneider, K. L. Lear, and R. E. Leibenguth, "Gain-dependent polarization properties of vertical-cavity lasers," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 1, 661-666 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1991

C. J. Chang-Hasnain, J. P. Harbison, L. T. Florez, and N. G. Stoffel, "Polarisation characteristics of quantum well vertical cavity surface emitting lasers," Electron. Lett. 27, 163-165 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990

P. Hänggi, P. Talkner, and M. Borkovec, "Reaction-rate theory: fifty years after Kramers," Rev. Mod. Phys. 62, 251-341 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1940

H. A. Kramers, "Brownian motion in a field of force and the diffusion model of chemical reactions," Physica 7, 284-304 (1940).
[CrossRef]

Ackemann, T.

M. Sondermann, M. Weinkath, T. Ackemann, J. Mulet, and S. Balle, "Two frequency emission and polarization dynamics at lasing threshold in vertical- cavity surface-emitting lasers," Phys. Rev. A 68, 033822 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ackemanna, T.

M. Sondermann, T. Ackemanna, S. Balleb, J. Muletb, and K. Panajotov, "Experimental and theoretical investigations on elliptically polarized dynamical transition states in the polarization switching of vertical-cavity surface emitting lasers," Opt. Commun. 235, 421-434 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Albert, J.

B. Nagler, M. Peeters, J. Albert, G. Verschaffelt, K. Panajotov, H. Thienpont, I. Veretennicoff, J. Danckaert, S. Barbay, G. Giacomelli, and F. Marin, "Polarization-mode hopping in single-mode vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers: Theory and experiment," Phys. Rev. A 68, 013813 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Balle, S.

M. Sondermann, M. Weinkath, T. Ackemann, J. Mulet, and S. Balle, "Two frequency emission and polarization dynamics at lasing threshold in vertical- cavity surface-emitting lasers," Phys. Rev. A 68, 033822 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Balleb, S.

M. Sondermann, T. Ackemanna, S. Balleb, J. Muletb, and K. Panajotov, "Experimental and theoretical investigations on elliptically polarized dynamical transition states in the polarization switching of vertical-cavity surface emitting lasers," Opt. Commun. 235, 421-434 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Barbay, S.

B. Nagler, M. Peeters, J. Albert, G. Verschaffelt, K. Panajotov, H. Thienpont, I. Veretennicoff, J. Danckaert, S. Barbay, G. Giacomelli, and F. Marin, "Polarization-mode hopping in single-mode vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers: Theory and experiment," Phys. Rev. A 68, 013813 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bimberg, D.

L. Olejniczak, M. Sciamanna, H. Thienpont, K. Panajotov, A. Mutig, F. Hopfer, and D. Bimberg, "Polarization Switching in Quantum-Dot Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 1008-1010 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. Hopfer, A. Mutig, A. M. Kuntz, G. Fiol, D. Bimberg, N. N. Ledentsov, V. A. Shchukin, S. S. Mikhrin, D. L. Livshits, I. L. Krestnikov, A. R. Kovsh, N. D. Zakharov, and P. Werner, "Single-mode submonolayer quantum-dot vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with high modulation bandwidth," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 141106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Blondel, M.

K. Panajotov, M. Sciamanna, A. Tabaka, P. Megret, M. Blondel, G. Giacomelli, F. Marin, H. Thienpont, and I. Veretennicoff, "Residence time distribution and coherence resonance of optical-feedback-induced polarization mode hopping in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers," Phys. Rev. A 69, 011801 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Sciamanna, K. Panajotov, H. Thienpont, I. Veretennicoff, P. Megret, and M. Blondel, "Optical feedback induces polarization mode hopping in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers," Opt. Lett. 28, 1543-1545 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Borkovec, M.

P. Hänggi, P. Talkner, and M. Borkovec, "Reaction-rate theory: fifty years after Kramers," Rev. Mod. Phys. 62, 251-341 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Busch, Th.

J. Houlihan, D. Goulding, Th. Busch, C. Masoller, and G. Huyet, "Experimental Investigation of a Bistable System in the Presence of Noise and Delay," Phys. Rev. Lett. 22, 050601 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chang-Hasnain, C. J.

C. J. Chang-Hasnain, J. P. Harbison, L. T. Florez, and N. G. Stoffel, "Polarisation characteristics of quantum well vertical cavity surface emitting lasers," Electron. Lett. 27, 163-165 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Choquette, K. D.

K. D. Choquette, R. P. Schneider, K. L. Lear, and R. E. Leibenguth, "Gain-dependent polarization properties of vertical-cavity lasers," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 1, 661-666 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Danckaert, J.

B. Nagler, M. Peeters, J. Albert, G. Verschaffelt, K. Panajotov, H. Thienpont, I. Veretennicoff, J. Danckaert, S. Barbay, G. Giacomelli, and F. Marin, "Polarization-mode hopping in single-mode vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers: Theory and experiment," Phys. Rev. A 68, 013813 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Degen, C.

J. Kaiser, C. Degen, and W. Elsasser, "Polarization-switching influence on the intensity noise of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 672-677 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ebeling, K. J.

U. Fiedler, G. Reiner, P. Schnitzer, and K. J. Ebeling, "Top surface-emitting vertical-cavity laser diodes for 10-Gb/s data transmission," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 746-748 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Elsasser, W.

J. Kaiser, C. Degen, and W. Elsasser, "Polarization-switching influence on the intensity noise of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 672-677 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Fiedler, U.

U. Fiedler, G. Reiner, P. Schnitzer, and K. J. Ebeling, "Top surface-emitting vertical-cavity laser diodes for 10-Gb/s data transmission," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 746-748 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Fiol, G.

F. Hopfer, A. Mutig, A. M. Kuntz, G. Fiol, D. Bimberg, N. N. Ledentsov, V. A. Shchukin, S. S. Mikhrin, D. L. Livshits, I. L. Krestnikov, A. R. Kovsh, N. D. Zakharov, and P. Werner, "Single-mode submonolayer quantum-dot vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with high modulation bandwidth," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 141106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Florez, L. T.

C. J. Chang-Hasnain, J. P. Harbison, L. T. Florez, and N. G. Stoffel, "Polarisation characteristics of quantum well vertical cavity surface emitting lasers," Electron. Lett. 27, 163-165 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Giacomelli, G.

K. Panajotov, M. Sciamanna, A. Tabaka, P. Megret, M. Blondel, G. Giacomelli, F. Marin, H. Thienpont, and I. Veretennicoff, "Residence time distribution and coherence resonance of optical-feedback-induced polarization mode hopping in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers," Phys. Rev. A 69, 011801 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B. Nagler, M. Peeters, J. Albert, G. Verschaffelt, K. Panajotov, H. Thienpont, I. Veretennicoff, J. Danckaert, S. Barbay, G. Giacomelli, and F. Marin, "Polarization-mode hopping in single-mode vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers: Theory and experiment," Phys. Rev. A 68, 013813 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. Giacomelli and F. Marin, "Statistics of polarization competition in VCSELs," Quantum Semiclass. Opt. 10, 469-476 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Goulding, D.

J. Houlihan, D. Goulding, Th. Busch, C. Masoller, and G. Huyet, "Experimental Investigation of a Bistable System in the Presence of Noise and Delay," Phys. Rev. Lett. 22, 050601 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hänggi, P.

P. Hänggi, P. Talkner, and M. Borkovec, "Reaction-rate theory: fifty years after Kramers," Rev. Mod. Phys. 62, 251-341 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Harbison, J. P.

C. J. Chang-Hasnain, J. P. Harbison, L. T. Florez, and N. G. Stoffel, "Polarisation characteristics of quantum well vertical cavity surface emitting lasers," Electron. Lett. 27, 163-165 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Hatori, N.

T. Mukaihara, N. Ohnoki, Y. Hayashi, N. Hatori, F. Koyama, and K. Iga, "Excess intensity noise originated from polarization fluctuation in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 1113-1115 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hayashi, Y.

T. Mukaihara, N. Ohnoki, Y. Hayashi, N. Hatori, F. Koyama, and K. Iga, "Excess intensity noise originated from polarization fluctuation in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 1113-1115 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hopfer, F.

L. Olejniczak, M. Sciamanna, H. Thienpont, K. Panajotov, A. Mutig, F. Hopfer, and D. Bimberg, "Polarization Switching in Quantum-Dot Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 1008-1010 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. Hopfer, A. Mutig, A. M. Kuntz, G. Fiol, D. Bimberg, N. N. Ledentsov, V. A. Shchukin, S. S. Mikhrin, D. L. Livshits, I. L. Krestnikov, A. R. Kovsh, N. D. Zakharov, and P. Werner, "Single-mode submonolayer quantum-dot vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with high modulation bandwidth," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 141106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Houlihan, J.

J. Houlihan, D. Goulding, Th. Busch, C. Masoller, and G. Huyet, "Experimental Investigation of a Bistable System in the Presence of Noise and Delay," Phys. Rev. Lett. 22, 050601 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Huyet, G.

J. Houlihan, D. Goulding, Th. Busch, C. Masoller, and G. Huyet, "Experimental Investigation of a Bistable System in the Presence of Noise and Delay," Phys. Rev. Lett. 22, 050601 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Iga, K.

T. Mukaihara, N. Ohnoki, Y. Hayashi, N. Hatori, F. Koyama, and K. Iga, "Excess intensity noise originated from polarization fluctuation in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 1113-1115 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kaiser, J.

J. Kaiser, C. Degen, and W. Elsasser, "Polarization-switching influence on the intensity noise of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 672-677 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Khalid, M. U. F.

M. B. Willemsen, M. U. F. Khalid, M. P. van Exter, and J. P. Woerdman, "Polarization Switching of a Vertical-Cavity Semiconductor Laser as a Kramers Hopping Problem," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4815-4818 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kovsh, A. R.

F. Hopfer, A. Mutig, A. M. Kuntz, G. Fiol, D. Bimberg, N. N. Ledentsov, V. A. Shchukin, S. S. Mikhrin, D. L. Livshits, I. L. Krestnikov, A. R. Kovsh, N. D. Zakharov, and P. Werner, "Single-mode submonolayer quantum-dot vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with high modulation bandwidth," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 141106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Koyama, F.

T. Mukaihara, N. Ohnoki, Y. Hayashi, N. Hatori, F. Koyama, and K. Iga, "Excess intensity noise originated from polarization fluctuation in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 1113-1115 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kramers, H. A.

H. A. Kramers, "Brownian motion in a field of force and the diffusion model of chemical reactions," Physica 7, 284-304 (1940).
[CrossRef]

Krestnikov, I. L.

F. Hopfer, A. Mutig, A. M. Kuntz, G. Fiol, D. Bimberg, N. N. Ledentsov, V. A. Shchukin, S. S. Mikhrin, D. L. Livshits, I. L. Krestnikov, A. R. Kovsh, N. D. Zakharov, and P. Werner, "Single-mode submonolayer quantum-dot vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with high modulation bandwidth," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 141106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kuntz, A. M.

F. Hopfer, A. Mutig, A. M. Kuntz, G. Fiol, D. Bimberg, N. N. Ledentsov, V. A. Shchukin, S. S. Mikhrin, D. L. Livshits, I. L. Krestnikov, A. R. Kovsh, N. D. Zakharov, and P. Werner, "Single-mode submonolayer quantum-dot vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with high modulation bandwidth," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 141106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lear, K. L.

K. D. Choquette, R. P. Schneider, K. L. Lear, and R. E. Leibenguth, "Gain-dependent polarization properties of vertical-cavity lasers," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 1, 661-666 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ledentsov, N. N.

F. Hopfer, A. Mutig, A. M. Kuntz, G. Fiol, D. Bimberg, N. N. Ledentsov, V. A. Shchukin, S. S. Mikhrin, D. L. Livshits, I. L. Krestnikov, A. R. Kovsh, N. D. Zakharov, and P. Werner, "Single-mode submonolayer quantum-dot vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with high modulation bandwidth," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 141106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Leibenguth, R. E.

K. D. Choquette, R. P. Schneider, K. L. Lear, and R. E. Leibenguth, "Gain-dependent polarization properties of vertical-cavity lasers," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 1, 661-666 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Livshits, D. L.

F. Hopfer, A. Mutig, A. M. Kuntz, G. Fiol, D. Bimberg, N. N. Ledentsov, V. A. Shchukin, S. S. Mikhrin, D. L. Livshits, I. L. Krestnikov, A. R. Kovsh, N. D. Zakharov, and P. Werner, "Single-mode submonolayer quantum-dot vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with high modulation bandwidth," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 141106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Marin, F.

K. Panajotov, M. Sciamanna, A. Tabaka, P. Megret, M. Blondel, G. Giacomelli, F. Marin, H. Thienpont, and I. Veretennicoff, "Residence time distribution and coherence resonance of optical-feedback-induced polarization mode hopping in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers," Phys. Rev. A 69, 011801 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B. Nagler, M. Peeters, J. Albert, G. Verschaffelt, K. Panajotov, H. Thienpont, I. Veretennicoff, J. Danckaert, S. Barbay, G. Giacomelli, and F. Marin, "Polarization-mode hopping in single-mode vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers: Theory and experiment," Phys. Rev. A 68, 013813 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. Giacomelli and F. Marin, "Statistics of polarization competition in VCSELs," Quantum Semiclass. Opt. 10, 469-476 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Masoller, C.

J. Houlihan, D. Goulding, Th. Busch, C. Masoller, and G. Huyet, "Experimental Investigation of a Bistable System in the Presence of Noise and Delay," Phys. Rev. Lett. 22, 050601 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Megret, P.

K. Panajotov, M. Sciamanna, A. Tabaka, P. Megret, M. Blondel, G. Giacomelli, F. Marin, H. Thienpont, and I. Veretennicoff, "Residence time distribution and coherence resonance of optical-feedback-induced polarization mode hopping in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers," Phys. Rev. A 69, 011801 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Sciamanna, K. Panajotov, H. Thienpont, I. Veretennicoff, P. Megret, and M. Blondel, "Optical feedback induces polarization mode hopping in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers," Opt. Lett. 28, 1543-1545 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mikhrin, S. S.

F. Hopfer, A. Mutig, A. M. Kuntz, G. Fiol, D. Bimberg, N. N. Ledentsov, V. A. Shchukin, S. S. Mikhrin, D. L. Livshits, I. L. Krestnikov, A. R. Kovsh, N. D. Zakharov, and P. Werner, "Single-mode submonolayer quantum-dot vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with high modulation bandwidth," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 141106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mukaihara, T.

T. Mukaihara, N. Ohnoki, Y. Hayashi, N. Hatori, F. Koyama, and K. Iga, "Excess intensity noise originated from polarization fluctuation in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 1113-1115 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Mulet, J.

M. Sondermann, M. Weinkath, T. Ackemann, J. Mulet, and S. Balle, "Two frequency emission and polarization dynamics at lasing threshold in vertical- cavity surface-emitting lasers," Phys. Rev. A 68, 033822 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Muletb, J.

M. Sondermann, T. Ackemanna, S. Balleb, J. Muletb, and K. Panajotov, "Experimental and theoretical investigations on elliptically polarized dynamical transition states in the polarization switching of vertical-cavity surface emitting lasers," Opt. Commun. 235, 421-434 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Mutig, A.

L. Olejniczak, M. Sciamanna, H. Thienpont, K. Panajotov, A. Mutig, F. Hopfer, and D. Bimberg, "Polarization Switching in Quantum-Dot Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 1008-1010 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. Hopfer, A. Mutig, A. M. Kuntz, G. Fiol, D. Bimberg, N. N. Ledentsov, V. A. Shchukin, S. S. Mikhrin, D. L. Livshits, I. L. Krestnikov, A. R. Kovsh, N. D. Zakharov, and P. Werner, "Single-mode submonolayer quantum-dot vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with high modulation bandwidth," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 141106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nagler, B.

B. Nagler, M. Peeters, J. Albert, G. Verschaffelt, K. Panajotov, H. Thienpont, I. Veretennicoff, J. Danckaert, S. Barbay, G. Giacomelli, and F. Marin, "Polarization-mode hopping in single-mode vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers: Theory and experiment," Phys. Rev. A 68, 013813 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ohnoki, N.

T. Mukaihara, N. Ohnoki, Y. Hayashi, N. Hatori, F. Koyama, and K. Iga, "Excess intensity noise originated from polarization fluctuation in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 1113-1115 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Olejniczak, L.

L. Olejniczak, M. Sciamanna, H. Thienpont, K. Panajotov, A. Mutig, F. Hopfer, and D. Bimberg, "Polarization Switching in Quantum-Dot Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 1008-1010 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Panajotov, K.

L. Olejniczak, M. Sciamanna, H. Thienpont, K. Panajotov, A. Mutig, F. Hopfer, and D. Bimberg, "Polarization Switching in Quantum-Dot Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 1008-1010 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Sondermann, T. Ackemanna, S. Balleb, J. Muletb, and K. Panajotov, "Experimental and theoretical investigations on elliptically polarized dynamical transition states in the polarization switching of vertical-cavity surface emitting lasers," Opt. Commun. 235, 421-434 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Panajotov, M. Sciamanna, A. Tabaka, P. Megret, M. Blondel, G. Giacomelli, F. Marin, H. Thienpont, and I. Veretennicoff, "Residence time distribution and coherence resonance of optical-feedback-induced polarization mode hopping in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers," Phys. Rev. A 69, 011801 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B. Nagler, M. Peeters, J. Albert, G. Verschaffelt, K. Panajotov, H. Thienpont, I. Veretennicoff, J. Danckaert, S. Barbay, G. Giacomelli, and F. Marin, "Polarization-mode hopping in single-mode vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers: Theory and experiment," Phys. Rev. A 68, 013813 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Sciamanna, K. Panajotov, H. Thienpont, I. Veretennicoff, P. Megret, and M. Blondel, "Optical feedback induces polarization mode hopping in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers," Opt. Lett. 28, 1543-1545 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Peeters, M.

B. Nagler, M. Peeters, J. Albert, G. Verschaffelt, K. Panajotov, H. Thienpont, I. Veretennicoff, J. Danckaert, S. Barbay, G. Giacomelli, and F. Marin, "Polarization-mode hopping in single-mode vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers: Theory and experiment," Phys. Rev. A 68, 013813 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Reiner, G.

U. Fiedler, G. Reiner, P. Schnitzer, and K. J. Ebeling, "Top surface-emitting vertical-cavity laser diodes for 10-Gb/s data transmission," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 746-748 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Schneider, R. P.

K. D. Choquette, R. P. Schneider, K. L. Lear, and R. E. Leibenguth, "Gain-dependent polarization properties of vertical-cavity lasers," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 1, 661-666 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Schnitzer, P.

U. Fiedler, G. Reiner, P. Schnitzer, and K. J. Ebeling, "Top surface-emitting vertical-cavity laser diodes for 10-Gb/s data transmission," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 746-748 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Sciamanna, M.

L. Olejniczak, M. Sciamanna, H. Thienpont, K. Panajotov, A. Mutig, F. Hopfer, and D. Bimberg, "Polarization Switching in Quantum-Dot Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 1008-1010 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Panajotov, M. Sciamanna, A. Tabaka, P. Megret, M. Blondel, G. Giacomelli, F. Marin, H. Thienpont, and I. Veretennicoff, "Residence time distribution and coherence resonance of optical-feedback-induced polarization mode hopping in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers," Phys. Rev. A 69, 011801 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Sciamanna, K. Panajotov, H. Thienpont, I. Veretennicoff, P. Megret, and M. Blondel, "Optical feedback induces polarization mode hopping in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers," Opt. Lett. 28, 1543-1545 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shchukin, V. A.

F. Hopfer, A. Mutig, A. M. Kuntz, G. Fiol, D. Bimberg, N. N. Ledentsov, V. A. Shchukin, S. S. Mikhrin, D. L. Livshits, I. L. Krestnikov, A. R. Kovsh, N. D. Zakharov, and P. Werner, "Single-mode submonolayer quantum-dot vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with high modulation bandwidth," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 141106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sondermann, M.

M. Sondermann, T. Ackemanna, S. Balleb, J. Muletb, and K. Panajotov, "Experimental and theoretical investigations on elliptically polarized dynamical transition states in the polarization switching of vertical-cavity surface emitting lasers," Opt. Commun. 235, 421-434 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Sondermann, M. Weinkath, T. Ackemann, J. Mulet, and S. Balle, "Two frequency emission and polarization dynamics at lasing threshold in vertical- cavity surface-emitting lasers," Phys. Rev. A 68, 033822 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Stoffel, N. G.

C. J. Chang-Hasnain, J. P. Harbison, L. T. Florez, and N. G. Stoffel, "Polarisation characteristics of quantum well vertical cavity surface emitting lasers," Electron. Lett. 27, 163-165 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Tabaka, A.

K. Panajotov, M. Sciamanna, A. Tabaka, P. Megret, M. Blondel, G. Giacomelli, F. Marin, H. Thienpont, and I. Veretennicoff, "Residence time distribution and coherence resonance of optical-feedback-induced polarization mode hopping in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers," Phys. Rev. A 69, 011801 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Talkner, P.

P. Hänggi, P. Talkner, and M. Borkovec, "Reaction-rate theory: fifty years after Kramers," Rev. Mod. Phys. 62, 251-341 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Thienpont, H.

L. Olejniczak, M. Sciamanna, H. Thienpont, K. Panajotov, A. Mutig, F. Hopfer, and D. Bimberg, "Polarization Switching in Quantum-Dot Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 1008-1010 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Panajotov, M. Sciamanna, A. Tabaka, P. Megret, M. Blondel, G. Giacomelli, F. Marin, H. Thienpont, and I. Veretennicoff, "Residence time distribution and coherence resonance of optical-feedback-induced polarization mode hopping in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers," Phys. Rev. A 69, 011801 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B. Nagler, M. Peeters, J. Albert, G. Verschaffelt, K. Panajotov, H. Thienpont, I. Veretennicoff, J. Danckaert, S. Barbay, G. Giacomelli, and F. Marin, "Polarization-mode hopping in single-mode vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers: Theory and experiment," Phys. Rev. A 68, 013813 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Sciamanna, K. Panajotov, H. Thienpont, I. Veretennicoff, P. Megret, and M. Blondel, "Optical feedback induces polarization mode hopping in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers," Opt. Lett. 28, 1543-1545 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van Exter, M. P.

M. B. Willemsen, M. U. F. Khalid, M. P. van Exter, and J. P. Woerdman, "Polarization Switching of a Vertical-Cavity Semiconductor Laser as a Kramers Hopping Problem," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4815-4818 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Veretennicoff, I.

K. Panajotov, M. Sciamanna, A. Tabaka, P. Megret, M. Blondel, G. Giacomelli, F. Marin, H. Thienpont, and I. Veretennicoff, "Residence time distribution and coherence resonance of optical-feedback-induced polarization mode hopping in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers," Phys. Rev. A 69, 011801 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B. Nagler, M. Peeters, J. Albert, G. Verschaffelt, K. Panajotov, H. Thienpont, I. Veretennicoff, J. Danckaert, S. Barbay, G. Giacomelli, and F. Marin, "Polarization-mode hopping in single-mode vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers: Theory and experiment," Phys. Rev. A 68, 013813 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Sciamanna, K. Panajotov, H. Thienpont, I. Veretennicoff, P. Megret, and M. Blondel, "Optical feedback induces polarization mode hopping in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers," Opt. Lett. 28, 1543-1545 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Verschaffelt, G.

B. Nagler, M. Peeters, J. Albert, G. Verschaffelt, K. Panajotov, H. Thienpont, I. Veretennicoff, J. Danckaert, S. Barbay, G. Giacomelli, and F. Marin, "Polarization-mode hopping in single-mode vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers: Theory and experiment," Phys. Rev. A 68, 013813 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Weinkath, M.

M. Sondermann, M. Weinkath, T. Ackemann, J. Mulet, and S. Balle, "Two frequency emission and polarization dynamics at lasing threshold in vertical- cavity surface-emitting lasers," Phys. Rev. A 68, 033822 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Werner, P.

F. Hopfer, A. Mutig, A. M. Kuntz, G. Fiol, D. Bimberg, N. N. Ledentsov, V. A. Shchukin, S. S. Mikhrin, D. L. Livshits, I. L. Krestnikov, A. R. Kovsh, N. D. Zakharov, and P. Werner, "Single-mode submonolayer quantum-dot vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with high modulation bandwidth," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 141106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Willemsen, M. B.

M. B. Willemsen, M. U. F. Khalid, M. P. van Exter, and J. P. Woerdman, "Polarization Switching of a Vertical-Cavity Semiconductor Laser as a Kramers Hopping Problem," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4815-4818 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Woerdman, J. P.

M. B. Willemsen, M. U. F. Khalid, M. P. van Exter, and J. P. Woerdman, "Polarization Switching of a Vertical-Cavity Semiconductor Laser as a Kramers Hopping Problem," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4815-4818 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zakharov, N. D.

F. Hopfer, A. Mutig, A. M. Kuntz, G. Fiol, D. Bimberg, N. N. Ledentsov, V. A. Shchukin, S. S. Mikhrin, D. L. Livshits, I. L. Krestnikov, A. R. Kovsh, N. D. Zakharov, and P. Werner, "Single-mode submonolayer quantum-dot vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with high modulation bandwidth," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 141106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

F. Hopfer, A. Mutig, A. M. Kuntz, G. Fiol, D. Bimberg, N. N. Ledentsov, V. A. Shchukin, S. S. Mikhrin, D. L. Livshits, I. L. Krestnikov, A. R. Kovsh, N. D. Zakharov, and P. Werner, "Single-mode submonolayer quantum-dot vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with high modulation bandwidth," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 141106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett.

C. J. Chang-Hasnain, J. P. Harbison, L. T. Florez, and N. G. Stoffel, "Polarisation characteristics of quantum well vertical cavity surface emitting lasers," Electron. Lett. 27, 163-165 (1991).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

K. D. Choquette, R. P. Schneider, K. L. Lear, and R. E. Leibenguth, "Gain-dependent polarization properties of vertical-cavity lasers," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 1, 661-666 (1995).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

U. Fiedler, G. Reiner, P. Schnitzer, and K. J. Ebeling, "Top surface-emitting vertical-cavity laser diodes for 10-Gb/s data transmission," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 746-748 (1996).
[CrossRef]

T. Mukaihara, N. Ohnoki, Y. Hayashi, N. Hatori, F. Koyama, and K. Iga, "Excess intensity noise originated from polarization fluctuation in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 1113-1115 (1995).
[CrossRef]

L. Olejniczak, M. Sciamanna, H. Thienpont, K. Panajotov, A. Mutig, F. Hopfer, and D. Bimberg, "Polarization Switching in Quantum-Dot Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 1008-1010 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

J. Kaiser, C. Degen, and W. Elsasser, "Polarization-switching influence on the intensity noise of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 672-677 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

M. Sondermann, T. Ackemanna, S. Balleb, J. Muletb, and K. Panajotov, "Experimental and theoretical investigations on elliptically polarized dynamical transition states in the polarization switching of vertical-cavity surface emitting lasers," Opt. Commun. 235, 421-434 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

M. Sciamanna, K. Panajotov, H. Thienpont, I. Veretennicoff, P. Megret, and M. Blondel, "Optical feedback induces polarization mode hopping in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers," Opt. Lett. 28, 1543-1545 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. A

K. Panajotov, M. Sciamanna, A. Tabaka, P. Megret, M. Blondel, G. Giacomelli, F. Marin, H. Thienpont, and I. Veretennicoff, "Residence time distribution and coherence resonance of optical-feedback-induced polarization mode hopping in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers," Phys. Rev. A 69, 011801 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Sondermann, M. Weinkath, T. Ackemann, J. Mulet, and S. Balle, "Two frequency emission and polarization dynamics at lasing threshold in vertical- cavity surface-emitting lasers," Phys. Rev. A 68, 033822 (2003).
[CrossRef]

B. Nagler, M. Peeters, J. Albert, G. Verschaffelt, K. Panajotov, H. Thienpont, I. Veretennicoff, J. Danckaert, S. Barbay, G. Giacomelli, and F. Marin, "Polarization-mode hopping in single-mode vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers: Theory and experiment," Phys. Rev. A 68, 013813 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

J. Houlihan, D. Goulding, Th. Busch, C. Masoller, and G. Huyet, "Experimental Investigation of a Bistable System in the Presence of Noise and Delay," Phys. Rev. Lett. 22, 050601 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. B. Willemsen, M. U. F. Khalid, M. P. van Exter, and J. P. Woerdman, "Polarization Switching of a Vertical-Cavity Semiconductor Laser as a Kramers Hopping Problem," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4815-4818 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Physica

H. A. Kramers, "Brownian motion in a field of force and the diffusion model of chemical reactions," Physica 7, 284-304 (1940).
[CrossRef]

Quantum Semiclass. Opt.

G. Giacomelli and F. Marin, "Statistics of polarization competition in VCSELs," Quantum Semiclass. Opt. 10, 469-476 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Mod. Phys.

P. Hänggi, P. Talkner, and M. Borkovec, "Reaction-rate theory: fifty years after Kramers," Rev. Mod. Phys. 62, 251-341 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Other

K. Panajotov, J. Danckaert, G. Verschaffelt, M. Peeters, B. Nagler, J. Albert, B. Ryvkin, H. Thienpont, and I. Veretennicoff, "Polarization Behavior of Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers: Experiments, Models and Applications," Proc. AIP 560, 403-417 (2001).
[CrossRef]

I. Gatare, M. Triginer, H. Thienpont, K. Panajotov, and M. Sciamanna, "Experimental study of polarization switching and polarization mode hopping induced by optical injection in VCSELs," Proceedings Symposium IEEE/LEOS Benelux Chapter, Ghent, 143-146 (2004).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Polarization resolved power-current characteristics of the investigated QD VCSEL. The inset shows schematically the orientation of elliptically polarized states after point IS.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Polarization resolved optical spectra at I = 1.85 mA for different orientations of the polarizer (P). The inset in panel a) shows RF spectrum captured at P45. Polarization angle is denoted as a subscript, e.g. P20 means 20 deg with respect to the y axis.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Relaxation oscillation frequency (black squares) as a function of the square root of the pump current. The solid gray curve is a linear fitting and the gray circle is extrapolation giving fRO = 7.31 GHz at I=1.85 mA.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Time traces at the current of a) 1.81 mA, b) 2.0 mA, c) 2.6 mA, d) 3.2 mA, e) 3.6 mA at the polarizer direction corresponding to the maximum amplitude of switching, i.e. P45.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Experimental data for the current dependence of the average dwell time for both EP modes calculated from the time traces captured at the polarizer orientation of P45.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Polarization resolved optical spectra at I = 4.45 mA. The inset shows RF spectrum captured at P45.

Equations (1)

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f R O = A I I T H

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