Abstract

Based on the adiabatic coupling principle, a new scheme of a broadband circular polarizer formed by twisting a high-birefringence (Hi-Bi) fiber with a slowly varying twist rate is proposed. The conditions of adiabatic coupling for the adiabatic polarizer are first identified through analytical derivations. These conditions are easily realized by choosing a reasonable variation of the twist rate. Moreover, the bandwidth of the polarizer is able to be directly determined by the twist rates at the two ends. Finally, the broadband characteristics of the polarizer are demonstrated by simulations. It is also shown that the performance of the polarizer can be remarkably improved by accomplishing a multi-mode phase-matching along the grating or by using of the couplings of the core mode to lossy modes.

© 2011 OSA

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. V. I. Kopp, V. M. Churikov, J. Singer, N. Chao, D. Neugroschl, and A. Z. Genack, “Chiral fiber gratings,” Science 305(5680), 74–75 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. V. I. Kopp, V. M. Churikov, G. Y. Zhang, J. Singer, C. W. Draper, N. Chao, D. Neugroschl, and A. Z. Genack, “Single- and double-helix chiral fiber sensors,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24(10), A48–A52 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  3. D. Neugroschl, V. I. Kopp, J. Singer, and G. Y. Zhang, “‘Vanishing-core’ tapered coupler for interconnect applications,” Proc. SPIE 7221, 72210G, 72210G-8 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  4. V. I. Kopp, V. M. Churikov, and A. Z. Genack, “Synchronization of optical polarization conversion and scattering in chiral fibers,” Opt. Lett. 31(5), 571–573 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. G. Shvets, S. Trendafilov, V. I. Kopp, D. Neugroschl, and A. Z. Genack, “Polarization properties of chiral fiber gratings,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 11(7), 074007 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. R. Qian, Q. Guo, and L. Li, “Spun linear birefringence fibers and their sensing mechanism in current sensors with temperature compensations,” IEE Proc., Optoelectron. 141(6), 373–380 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. R. Qian, J. Su, L. L. Xue, and L. Yang, “Coupled-mode analysis for chiral fiber long-period gratings using local mode approach” submitted toJ. Lightwave Technol.
  8. W. H. Louisell, “Analysis of the single tapered mode coupler,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 34(4), 853–870 (1955).
  9. J. D. Love, W. M. Henry, W. J. Stewart, R. J. Black, S. Lacroix, and F. Gonthier, “Tapered single-mode fibres and devices. Part 1: Adiabaticity criteria,” IEE Proc., J Optoelectron. 138(5), 343–354 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  10. X. Sun, H. C. Liu, and A. Yariv, “Adiabaticity criterion and the shortest adiabatic mode transformer in a coupled-waveguide system,” Opt. Lett. 34(3), 280–282 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. H. C. Huang, “Fiber-optic analogs of bulk-optic wave plates,” Appl. Opt. 36(18), 4241–4258 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. J.-R. Qian and W.-P. Huang, “Coupled-mode theory for LP modes,” J. Lightwave Technol. 4(6), 619–625 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  13. L. L. Xue, L. Yang, H. X. Xu, J. Su, and J. R. Qian, “A novel all-fiber circular polarizer PGC2010,” presented at Photonics Global Conference, Singapore, Dec.14–16, 2010.

2009

D. Neugroschl, V. I. Kopp, J. Singer, and G. Y. Zhang, “‘Vanishing-core’ tapered coupler for interconnect applications,” Proc. SPIE 7221, 72210G, 72210G-8 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Shvets, S. Trendafilov, V. I. Kopp, D. Neugroschl, and A. Z. Genack, “Polarization properties of chiral fiber gratings,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 11(7), 074007 (2009).
[CrossRef]

X. Sun, H. C. Liu, and A. Yariv, “Adiabaticity criterion and the shortest adiabatic mode transformer in a coupled-waveguide system,” Opt. Lett. 34(3), 280–282 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

V. I. Kopp, V. M. Churikov, and A. Z. Genack, “Synchronization of optical polarization conversion and scattering in chiral fibers,” Opt. Lett. 31(5), 571–573 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

V. I. Kopp, V. M. Churikov, J. Singer, N. Chao, D. Neugroschl, and A. Z. Genack, “Chiral fiber gratings,” Science 305(5680), 74–75 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997

H. C. Huang, “Fiber-optic analogs of bulk-optic wave plates,” Appl. Opt. 36(18), 4241–4258 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994

J. R. Qian, Q. Guo, and L. Li, “Spun linear birefringence fibers and their sensing mechanism in current sensors with temperature compensations,” IEE Proc., Optoelectron. 141(6), 373–380 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1991

J. D. Love, W. M. Henry, W. J. Stewart, R. J. Black, S. Lacroix, and F. Gonthier, “Tapered single-mode fibres and devices. Part 1: Adiabaticity criteria,” IEE Proc., J Optoelectron. 138(5), 343–354 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1986

J.-R. Qian and W.-P. Huang, “Coupled-mode theory for LP modes,” J. Lightwave Technol. 4(6), 619–625 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1955

W. H. Louisell, “Analysis of the single tapered mode coupler,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 34(4), 853–870 (1955).

and,

V. I. Kopp, V. M. Churikov, G. Y. Zhang, J. Singer, C. W. Draper, N. Chao, D. Neugroschl, and A. Z. Genack, “Single- and double-helix chiral fiber sensors,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24(10), A48–A52 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Black, R. J.

J. D. Love, W. M. Henry, W. J. Stewart, R. J. Black, S. Lacroix, and F. Gonthier, “Tapered single-mode fibres and devices. Part 1: Adiabaticity criteria,” IEE Proc., J Optoelectron. 138(5), 343–354 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Chao, N.

V. I. Kopp, V. M. Churikov, J. Singer, N. Chao, D. Neugroschl, and A. Z. Genack, “Chiral fiber gratings,” Science 305(5680), 74–75 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. I. Kopp, V. M. Churikov, G. Y. Zhang, J. Singer, C. W. Draper, N. Chao, D. Neugroschl, and A. Z. Genack, “Single- and double-helix chiral fiber sensors,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24(10), A48–A52 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Churikov, V. M.

V. I. Kopp, V. M. Churikov, and A. Z. Genack, “Synchronization of optical polarization conversion and scattering in chiral fibers,” Opt. Lett. 31(5), 571–573 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. I. Kopp, V. M. Churikov, J. Singer, N. Chao, D. Neugroschl, and A. Z. Genack, “Chiral fiber gratings,” Science 305(5680), 74–75 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. I. Kopp, V. M. Churikov, G. Y. Zhang, J. Singer, C. W. Draper, N. Chao, D. Neugroschl, and A. Z. Genack, “Single- and double-helix chiral fiber sensors,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24(10), A48–A52 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Draper, C. W.

V. I. Kopp, V. M. Churikov, G. Y. Zhang, J. Singer, C. W. Draper, N. Chao, D. Neugroschl, and A. Z. Genack, “Single- and double-helix chiral fiber sensors,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24(10), A48–A52 (2007).
[CrossRef]

fiber,

V. I. Kopp, V. M. Churikov, G. Y. Zhang, J. Singer, C. W. Draper, N. Chao, D. Neugroschl, and A. Z. Genack, “Single- and double-helix chiral fiber sensors,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24(10), A48–A52 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Genack, A. Z.

G. Shvets, S. Trendafilov, V. I. Kopp, D. Neugroschl, and A. Z. Genack, “Polarization properties of chiral fiber gratings,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 11(7), 074007 (2009).
[CrossRef]

V. I. Kopp, V. M. Churikov, and A. Z. Genack, “Synchronization of optical polarization conversion and scattering in chiral fibers,” Opt. Lett. 31(5), 571–573 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. I. Kopp, V. M. Churikov, J. Singer, N. Chao, D. Neugroschl, and A. Z. Genack, “Chiral fiber gratings,” Science 305(5680), 74–75 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. I. Kopp, V. M. Churikov, G. Y. Zhang, J. Singer, C. W. Draper, N. Chao, D. Neugroschl, and A. Z. Genack, “Single- and double-helix chiral fiber sensors,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24(10), A48–A52 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gonthier, F.

J. D. Love, W. M. Henry, W. J. Stewart, R. J. Black, S. Lacroix, and F. Gonthier, “Tapered single-mode fibres and devices. Part 1: Adiabaticity criteria,” IEE Proc., J Optoelectron. 138(5), 343–354 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Guo, Q.

J. R. Qian, Q. Guo, and L. Li, “Spun linear birefringence fibers and their sensing mechanism in current sensors with temperature compensations,” IEE Proc., Optoelectron. 141(6), 373–380 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Henry, W. M.

J. D. Love, W. M. Henry, W. J. Stewart, R. J. Black, S. Lacroix, and F. Gonthier, “Tapered single-mode fibres and devices. Part 1: Adiabaticity criteria,” IEE Proc., J Optoelectron. 138(5), 343–354 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Huang, H. C.

H. C. Huang, “Fiber-optic analogs of bulk-optic wave plates,” Appl. Opt. 36(18), 4241–4258 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, W.-P.

J.-R. Qian and W.-P. Huang, “Coupled-mode theory for LP modes,” J. Lightwave Technol. 4(6), 619–625 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Kopp, V. I.

D. Neugroschl, V. I. Kopp, J. Singer, and G. Y. Zhang, “‘Vanishing-core’ tapered coupler for interconnect applications,” Proc. SPIE 7221, 72210G, 72210G-8 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Shvets, S. Trendafilov, V. I. Kopp, D. Neugroschl, and A. Z. Genack, “Polarization properties of chiral fiber gratings,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 11(7), 074007 (2009).
[CrossRef]

V. I. Kopp, V. M. Churikov, and A. Z. Genack, “Synchronization of optical polarization conversion and scattering in chiral fibers,” Opt. Lett. 31(5), 571–573 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. I. Kopp, V. M. Churikov, J. Singer, N. Chao, D. Neugroschl, and A. Z. Genack, “Chiral fiber gratings,” Science 305(5680), 74–75 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. I. Kopp, V. M. Churikov, G. Y. Zhang, J. Singer, C. W. Draper, N. Chao, D. Neugroschl, and A. Z. Genack, “Single- and double-helix chiral fiber sensors,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24(10), A48–A52 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lacroix, S.

J. D. Love, W. M. Henry, W. J. Stewart, R. J. Black, S. Lacroix, and F. Gonthier, “Tapered single-mode fibres and devices. Part 1: Adiabaticity criteria,” IEE Proc., J Optoelectron. 138(5), 343–354 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Li, L.

J. R. Qian, Q. Guo, and L. Li, “Spun linear birefringence fibers and their sensing mechanism in current sensors with temperature compensations,” IEE Proc., Optoelectron. 141(6), 373–380 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Liu, H. C.

X. Sun, H. C. Liu, and A. Yariv, “Adiabaticity criterion and the shortest adiabatic mode transformer in a coupled-waveguide system,” Opt. Lett. 34(3), 280–282 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Louisell, W. H.

W. H. Louisell, “Analysis of the single tapered mode coupler,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 34(4), 853–870 (1955).

Love, J. D.

J. D. Love, W. M. Henry, W. J. Stewart, R. J. Black, S. Lacroix, and F. Gonthier, “Tapered single-mode fibres and devices. Part 1: Adiabaticity criteria,” IEE Proc., J Optoelectron. 138(5), 343–354 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Neugroschl, D.

G. Shvets, S. Trendafilov, V. I. Kopp, D. Neugroschl, and A. Z. Genack, “Polarization properties of chiral fiber gratings,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 11(7), 074007 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Neugroschl, V. I. Kopp, J. Singer, and G. Y. Zhang, “‘Vanishing-core’ tapered coupler for interconnect applications,” Proc. SPIE 7221, 72210G, 72210G-8 (2009).
[CrossRef]

V. I. Kopp, V. M. Churikov, J. Singer, N. Chao, D. Neugroschl, and A. Z. Genack, “Chiral fiber gratings,” Science 305(5680), 74–75 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. I. Kopp, V. M. Churikov, G. Y. Zhang, J. Singer, C. W. Draper, N. Chao, D. Neugroschl, and A. Z. Genack, “Single- and double-helix chiral fiber sensors,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24(10), A48–A52 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Qian, J. R.

J. R. Qian, Q. Guo, and L. Li, “Spun linear birefringence fibers and their sensing mechanism in current sensors with temperature compensations,” IEE Proc., Optoelectron. 141(6), 373–380 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Qian, J. Su, L. L. Xue, and L. Yang, “Coupled-mode analysis for chiral fiber long-period gratings using local mode approach” submitted toJ. Lightwave Technol.

Qian, J.-R.

J.-R. Qian and W.-P. Huang, “Coupled-mode theory for LP modes,” J. Lightwave Technol. 4(6), 619–625 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Shvets, G.

G. Shvets, S. Trendafilov, V. I. Kopp, D. Neugroschl, and A. Z. Genack, “Polarization properties of chiral fiber gratings,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 11(7), 074007 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Singer, J.

D. Neugroschl, V. I. Kopp, J. Singer, and G. Y. Zhang, “‘Vanishing-core’ tapered coupler for interconnect applications,” Proc. SPIE 7221, 72210G, 72210G-8 (2009).
[CrossRef]

V. I. Kopp, V. M. Churikov, J. Singer, N. Chao, D. Neugroschl, and A. Z. Genack, “Chiral fiber gratings,” Science 305(5680), 74–75 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. I. Kopp, V. M. Churikov, G. Y. Zhang, J. Singer, C. W. Draper, N. Chao, D. Neugroschl, and A. Z. Genack, “Single- and double-helix chiral fiber sensors,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24(10), A48–A52 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Stewart, W. J.

J. D. Love, W. M. Henry, W. J. Stewart, R. J. Black, S. Lacroix, and F. Gonthier, “Tapered single-mode fibres and devices. Part 1: Adiabaticity criteria,” IEE Proc., J Optoelectron. 138(5), 343–354 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Su, J.

J. R. Qian, J. Su, L. L. Xue, and L. Yang, “Coupled-mode analysis for chiral fiber long-period gratings using local mode approach” submitted toJ. Lightwave Technol.

Sun, X.

X. Sun, H. C. Liu, and A. Yariv, “Adiabaticity criterion and the shortest adiabatic mode transformer in a coupled-waveguide system,” Opt. Lett. 34(3), 280–282 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Trendafilov, S.

G. Shvets, S. Trendafilov, V. I. Kopp, D. Neugroschl, and A. Z. Genack, “Polarization properties of chiral fiber gratings,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 11(7), 074007 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Xue, L. L.

J. R. Qian, J. Su, L. L. Xue, and L. Yang, “Coupled-mode analysis for chiral fiber long-period gratings using local mode approach” submitted toJ. Lightwave Technol.

Yang, L.

J. R. Qian, J. Su, L. L. Xue, and L. Yang, “Coupled-mode analysis for chiral fiber long-period gratings using local mode approach” submitted toJ. Lightwave Technol.

Yariv, A.

X. Sun, H. C. Liu, and A. Yariv, “Adiabaticity criterion and the shortest adiabatic mode transformer in a coupled-waveguide system,” Opt. Lett. 34(3), 280–282 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, G. Y.

D. Neugroschl, V. I. Kopp, J. Singer, and G. Y. Zhang, “‘Vanishing-core’ tapered coupler for interconnect applications,” Proc. SPIE 7221, 72210G, 72210G-8 (2009).
[CrossRef]

V. I. Kopp, V. M. Churikov, G. Y. Zhang, J. Singer, C. W. Draper, N. Chao, D. Neugroschl, and A. Z. Genack, “Single- and double-helix chiral fiber sensors,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24(10), A48–A52 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

H. C. Huang, “Fiber-optic analogs of bulk-optic wave plates,” Appl. Opt. 36(18), 4241–4258 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bell Syst. Tech. J.

W. H. Louisell, “Analysis of the single tapered mode coupler,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 34(4), 853–870 (1955).

IEE Proc., J Optoelectron.

J. D. Love, W. M. Henry, W. J. Stewart, R. J. Black, S. Lacroix, and F. Gonthier, “Tapered single-mode fibres and devices. Part 1: Adiabaticity criteria,” IEE Proc., J Optoelectron. 138(5), 343–354 (1991).
[CrossRef]

IEE Proc., Optoelectron.

J. R. Qian, Q. Guo, and L. Li, “Spun linear birefringence fibers and their sensing mechanism in current sensors with temperature compensations,” IEE Proc., Optoelectron. 141(6), 373–380 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

J. R. Qian, J. Su, L. L. Xue, and L. Yang, “Coupled-mode analysis for chiral fiber long-period gratings using local mode approach” submitted toJ. Lightwave Technol.

J.-R. Qian and W.-P. Huang, “Coupled-mode theory for LP modes,” J. Lightwave Technol. 4(6), 619–625 (1986).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt.

G. Shvets, S. Trendafilov, V. I. Kopp, D. Neugroschl, and A. Z. Genack, “Polarization properties of chiral fiber gratings,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 11(7), 074007 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

V. I. Kopp, V. M. Churikov, G. Y. Zhang, J. Singer, C. W. Draper, N. Chao, D. Neugroschl, and A. Z. Genack, “Single- and double-helix chiral fiber sensors,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24(10), A48–A52 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

V. I. Kopp, V. M. Churikov, and A. Z. Genack, “Synchronization of optical polarization conversion and scattering in chiral fibers,” Opt. Lett. 31(5), 571–573 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Sun, H. C. Liu, and A. Yariv, “Adiabaticity criterion and the shortest adiabatic mode transformer in a coupled-waveguide system,” Opt. Lett. 34(3), 280–282 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE

D. Neugroschl, V. I. Kopp, J. Singer, and G. Y. Zhang, “‘Vanishing-core’ tapered coupler for interconnect applications,” Proc. SPIE 7221, 72210G, 72210G-8 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Science

V. I. Kopp, V. M. Churikov, J. Singer, N. Chao, D. Neugroschl, and A. Z. Genack, “Chiral fiber gratings,” Science 305(5680), 74–75 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

L. L. Xue, L. Yang, H. X. Xu, J. Su, and J. R. Qian, “A novel all-fiber circular polarizer PGC2010,” presented at Photonics Global Conference, Singapore, Dec.14–16, 2010.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

CLPG formed by twisting a panda fiber.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Transmission spectra of right-circular polarization core modes in CLPGs.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Transmission spectra of broadband circular polarizers with improved extinction ratios and relaxed adiabatic conditions. (a) Coupling to 7 coupled cladding modes. (b) Coupling to a lossy cladding mode.

Equations (14)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

d dz [ W co l W co r W cl l W cl r ] = j [ β co + τ ( z ) 0 κ ' j κ 0 β co τ ( z ) j κ κ ' κ ' j κ β cl + τ ( z ) 0 j κ κ ' 0 β cl τ ( z ) ] [ W co l W co r W cl l W cl r ]
κ = ω ε 0 ( Δ ε x e 11 x e 1 m x Δ ε y e 11 y e 1 m y ) d s / 2 κ ' = ω ε 0 ( Δ ε x e 11 x e 1 m x + Δ ε y e 11 y e 1 m y ) d s / 2
β co τ ( z ) = β cl + τ ( z )
d dz [ W co r W cl l ] = j [ β co τ ( z ) j κ j κ β cl + τ ( z ) ] [ W co r W cl l ]
δ ( z ) = β co β cl 2 τ ( z )
[ N 1 ( z ) N 2 ( z ) ] = [ cos [ φ ( z ) / 2 ] j sin [ φ ( z ) / 2 ] j sin [ φ ( z ) / 2 ] cos [ φ ( z ) / 2 ] ] [ W co r ( z ) W cl l ( z ) ]
φ ( z ) = arctan [ 2 κ / δ ( z ) ]
d dz [ N 1 ( z ) N 2 ( z ) ] = [ j [ ( β co + β cl ) / 2 + β ˜ ( z ) ] j φ ' ( z ) / 2 j φ ' ( z ) / 2 j [ ( β co + β cl ) / 2 β ˜ ( z ) ] ] [ N 1 ( z ) N 2 ( z ) ]
N 1 ( L ) exp [ j ρ 0 ( L ) +j ρ ( L ) ] { N 1 ( 0 ) + j N 2 ( 0 ) 0 L dz φ ' ( z ) exp [ 2j ρ ( z ) ] / 2 } N 2 ( L ) exp [ j ρ 0 ( L ) j ρ ( L ) ] { N 2 ( 0 ) + j N 1 ( 0 ) 0 L dz φ ' ( z ) exp [ 2j ρ ( z ) ] / 2 }
β co ( λ max ) β cl ( λ max ) = 2 τ ( 0 )
2 τ ( L ) [ β co ( λ max ) β cl ( λ max ) ] > > κ
β co ( λ min ) β cl ( λ min ) = 2 τ ( L )
β co ( λ min ) β cl ( λ min ) 2 τ ( 0 ) > > κ
2 [ τ ( L ) τ ( 0 ) ] > > κ

Metrics