Abstract

We demonstrated the operation of cw diode-pumped Yb:YAG laser in radial or azimuthal polarized (RP or AP) beams using a combination of birefringent uniaxial crystal (c-cut YVO4 or α-BBO) and lens as intra-cavity elements. RP and AP doughnut modes (M2 = 2-2.5, polarization extinction ratio 50-100:1) with output power up to 60mW were generated. Apart from doughnut modes, RP or AP ring-like off-axis oscillations and multi-ring beams with mixed RP and AP were also observed at the output of this laser scheme. Using intra-cavity short focus lenses with spherical aberrations AP or RP modes of higher orders was obtained. Mechanism of mode selection in the laser is discussed. The large variety of beams with axially symmetric polarizations from the output of the proposed laser scheme may find applications in different fields.

© 2011 OSA

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  28. Y. Kozawa and S. Sato, “Single higher-order transverse mode operation of a radially polarized Nd:YAG laser using an annularly reflectivity-modulated photonic crystal coupler,” Opt. Lett. 33(19), 2278–2280 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  29. Y. Kozawa and S. Sato, “Sharper focal spot formed by higher-order radially polarized laser beams,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24(6), 1793–1798 (2007).
    [CrossRef]

2010

M. P. Thirugnanasambandam, Yu. Senatsky, and K. Ueda, “Generation of very-high order Laguerre-Gaussian modes in Yb:YAG ceramic laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 7(9), 637–643 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

Yu. Senatsky, J.-F. Bisson, A. Shelobolin, A. Shirakawa, and K. Ueda, “Circular modes selection in Yb:YAG laser using an intracavity lens with spherical aberration,” Laser Phys. 19(5), 911–918 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Zhou, B. Ibarra-Escamilla, J. W. Haus, P. E. Powers, and Q. Zhan, “Fiber laser generating switchable radially and azimuthally polarized beams with 140 mW output power at 1.6µm wavelength,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(19), 191111 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Q. Zhan, “Cylindrical vector beams: from mathematical concepts to applications,” Adv. Opt. Photon. 1(1), 1–57 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. Peng, B. Yao, S. Yan, W. Zhao, and M. Lei, “Trapping of low-refractive-index particles with azimuthally polarized beam,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 26(12), 2242–2247 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

J.-L. Li, K. Ueda, L.-X. Zhong, M. Musha, A. Shirakawa, and T. Sato, “Efficient excitations of radially and azimuthally polarized Nd3+:YAG ceramic microchip laser by use of subwavelength multilayer concentric gratings composed of Nb2O5/SiO2.,” Opt. Express 16(14), 10841–10848 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Kozawa and S. Sato, “Single higher-order transverse mode operation of a radially polarized Nd:YAG laser using an annularly reflectivity-modulated photonic crystal coupler,” Opt. Lett. 33(19), 2278–2280 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

Y. Kozawa and S. Sato, “Sharper focal spot formed by higher-order radially polarized laser beams,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24(6), 1793–1798 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Yonezawa, Y. Kozawa, and S. Sato, “Compact Laser with Radial Polarization Using Birefringent Laser Medium,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(No. 8A), 5160–5163 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Meier, V. Romano, and T. Feurer, “Material processing with pulsed radially and azimuthally polarized laser radiation,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 86(3), 329–334 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Maurer, A. Jesacher, S. Fürhapter, S. Bernet, and M. Ritsch-Marte, “Tailoring of arbitrary optical vector beams,” N. J. Phys. 9(3), 78–98 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Ahmed, A. Voss, M. M. Vogel, and T. Graf, “Multilayer polarizing grating mirror used for the generation of radial polarization in Yb:YAG thin-disk lasers,” Opt. Lett. 32(22), 3272–3274 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Moshe, S. Jackel, A. Meir, Y. Lumer, and E. Leibush, “2 kW, M2 < 10 radially polarized beams from aberration-compensated rod-based Nd:YAG lasers,” Opt. Lett. 32(1), 47–49 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

J.-F. Bisson, J. Li, K. Ueda, and Yu. Senatsky, “Radially polarized ring and arc beams of a neodymium laser with an intra-cavity axicon,” Opt. Express 14(8), 3304–3311 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Yonezawa, Y. Kozawa, and S. Sato, “Generation of a radially polarized laser beam by use of the birefringence of a c-cut Nd:YVO4 crystal,” Opt. Lett. 31(14), 2151–2153 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. G. Niziev, R. S. Chang, and A. V. Nesterov, “Generation of inhomogeneously polarized laser beams by use of a Sagnac interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 45(33), 8393–8399 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

Y. Q. Zhao, Q. Zhan, Y. L. Zhang, and Y. P. Li, “Creation of a three-dimensional optical chain for controllable particle delivery,” Opt. Lett. 30(8), 848–850 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

Q. Zhan, “Trapping metallic Rayleigh particles with radial polarization,” Opt. Express 12(15), 3377–3382 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Moser, M. A. Ahmed, F. Pigeon, O. Parriaux, E. Wyss, and T. Graf, “Generation of radially polarized beams in Nd:YAG lasers with polarization selective mirrors,” Laser Phys. Lett. 1(5), 234–236 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002

Q. Zhan and J. R. Leger, “Microellipsometer with radial symmetry,” Appl. Opt. 41(22), 4630–4637 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000

A. V. Nesterov and V. G. Niziev, “Laser beams with axially symmetric polarization,” J. Phys. D 33(15), 1817–1822 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. Oron, S. Blit, N. Davidson, A. A. Friesem, Z. Bomzon, and E. Hasman, “The formation of laser beams with pure azimuthal or radial polarization,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(21), 3322–3324 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

V. G. Niziev and A. V. Nesterov, “Influence of beam polarization on laser cutting efficiency,” J. Phys. D 32(13), 1455–1461 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1996

M. Stalder and M. Schadt, “Linearly polarized light with axial symmetry generated by liquid-crystal polarization converters,” Opt. Lett. 21(23), 1948–1950 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993

S. C. Tidwell, G. H. Kim, and W. D. Kimura, “Efficient radially polarized laser beam generation with a double interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 32(27), 5222–5229 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1972

D. Pohl, “Operation of a ruby laser in purely transverse electric mode TE01,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 20(7), 266–267 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Ahmed, M. A.

M. A. Ahmed, A. Voss, M. M. Vogel, and T. Graf, “Multilayer polarizing grating mirror used for the generation of radial polarization in Yb:YAG thin-disk lasers,” Opt. Lett. 32(22), 3272–3274 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Moser, M. A. Ahmed, F. Pigeon, O. Parriaux, E. Wyss, and T. Graf, “Generation of radially polarized beams in Nd:YAG lasers with polarization selective mirrors,” Laser Phys. Lett. 1(5), 234–236 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bernet, S.

C. Maurer, A. Jesacher, S. Fürhapter, S. Bernet, and M. Ritsch-Marte, “Tailoring of arbitrary optical vector beams,” N. J. Phys. 9(3), 78–98 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bisson, J.-F.

Yu. Senatsky, J.-F. Bisson, A. Shelobolin, A. Shirakawa, and K. Ueda, “Circular modes selection in Yb:YAG laser using an intracavity lens with spherical aberration,” Laser Phys. 19(5), 911–918 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J.-F. Bisson, J. Li, K. Ueda, and Yu. Senatsky, “Radially polarized ring and arc beams of a neodymium laser with an intra-cavity axicon,” Opt. Express 14(8), 3304–3311 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Blit, S.

R. Oron, S. Blit, N. Davidson, A. A. Friesem, Z. Bomzon, and E. Hasman, “The formation of laser beams with pure azimuthal or radial polarization,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(21), 3322–3324 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bomzon, Z.

R. Oron, S. Blit, N. Davidson, A. A. Friesem, Z. Bomzon, and E. Hasman, “The formation of laser beams with pure azimuthal or radial polarization,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(21), 3322–3324 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chang, R. S.

V. G. Niziev, R. S. Chang, and A. V. Nesterov, “Generation of inhomogeneously polarized laser beams by use of a Sagnac interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 45(33), 8393–8399 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Davidson, N.

R. Oron, S. Blit, N. Davidson, A. A. Friesem, Z. Bomzon, and E. Hasman, “The formation of laser beams with pure azimuthal or radial polarization,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(21), 3322–3324 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Feurer, T.

M. Meier, V. Romano, and T. Feurer, “Material processing with pulsed radially and azimuthally polarized laser radiation,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 86(3), 329–334 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Friesem, A. A.

R. Oron, S. Blit, N. Davidson, A. A. Friesem, Z. Bomzon, and E. Hasman, “The formation of laser beams with pure azimuthal or radial polarization,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(21), 3322–3324 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Fürhapter, S.

C. Maurer, A. Jesacher, S. Fürhapter, S. Bernet, and M. Ritsch-Marte, “Tailoring of arbitrary optical vector beams,” N. J. Phys. 9(3), 78–98 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Graf, T.

M. A. Ahmed, A. Voss, M. M. Vogel, and T. Graf, “Multilayer polarizing grating mirror used for the generation of radial polarization in Yb:YAG thin-disk lasers,” Opt. Lett. 32(22), 3272–3274 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Moser, M. A. Ahmed, F. Pigeon, O. Parriaux, E. Wyss, and T. Graf, “Generation of radially polarized beams in Nd:YAG lasers with polarization selective mirrors,” Laser Phys. Lett. 1(5), 234–236 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hasman, E.

R. Oron, S. Blit, N. Davidson, A. A. Friesem, Z. Bomzon, and E. Hasman, “The formation of laser beams with pure azimuthal or radial polarization,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(21), 3322–3324 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Haus, J. W.

R. Zhou, B. Ibarra-Escamilla, J. W. Haus, P. E. Powers, and Q. Zhan, “Fiber laser generating switchable radially and azimuthally polarized beams with 140 mW output power at 1.6µm wavelength,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(19), 191111 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ibarra-Escamilla, B.

R. Zhou, B. Ibarra-Escamilla, J. W. Haus, P. E. Powers, and Q. Zhan, “Fiber laser generating switchable radially and azimuthally polarized beams with 140 mW output power at 1.6µm wavelength,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(19), 191111 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jackel, S.

I. Moshe, S. Jackel, A. Meir, Y. Lumer, and E. Leibush, “2 kW, M2 < 10 radially polarized beams from aberration-compensated rod-based Nd:YAG lasers,” Opt. Lett. 32(1), 47–49 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jesacher, A.

C. Maurer, A. Jesacher, S. Fürhapter, S. Bernet, and M. Ritsch-Marte, “Tailoring of arbitrary optical vector beams,” N. J. Phys. 9(3), 78–98 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kim, G. H.

S. C. Tidwell, G. H. Kim, and W. D. Kimura, “Efficient radially polarized laser beam generation with a double interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 32(27), 5222–5229 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kimura, W. D.

S. C. Tidwell, G. H. Kim, and W. D. Kimura, “Efficient radially polarized laser beam generation with a double interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 32(27), 5222–5229 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kozawa, Y.

Y. Kozawa and S. Sato, “Single higher-order transverse mode operation of a radially polarized Nd:YAG laser using an annularly reflectivity-modulated photonic crystal coupler,” Opt. Lett. 33(19), 2278–2280 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Kozawa and S. Sato, “Sharper focal spot formed by higher-order radially polarized laser beams,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24(6), 1793–1798 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Yonezawa, Y. Kozawa, and S. Sato, “Compact Laser with Radial Polarization Using Birefringent Laser Medium,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(No. 8A), 5160–5163 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Yonezawa, Y. Kozawa, and S. Sato, “Generation of a radially polarized laser beam by use of the birefringence of a c-cut Nd:YVO4 crystal,” Opt. Lett. 31(14), 2151–2153 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leger, J. R.

Q. Zhan and J. R. Leger, “Microellipsometer with radial symmetry,” Appl. Opt. 41(22), 4630–4637 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lei, M.

F. Peng, B. Yao, S. Yan, W. Zhao, and M. Lei, “Trapping of low-refractive-index particles with azimuthally polarized beam,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 26(12), 2242–2247 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Leibush, E.

I. Moshe, S. Jackel, A. Meir, Y. Lumer, and E. Leibush, “2 kW, M2 < 10 radially polarized beams from aberration-compensated rod-based Nd:YAG lasers,” Opt. Lett. 32(1), 47–49 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Li, J.

J.-F. Bisson, J. Li, K. Ueda, and Yu. Senatsky, “Radially polarized ring and arc beams of a neodymium laser with an intra-cavity axicon,” Opt. Express 14(8), 3304–3311 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, J.-L.

J.-L. Li, K. Ueda, L.-X. Zhong, M. Musha, A. Shirakawa, and T. Sato, “Efficient excitations of radially and azimuthally polarized Nd3+:YAG ceramic microchip laser by use of subwavelength multilayer concentric gratings composed of Nb2O5/SiO2.,” Opt. Express 16(14), 10841–10848 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, Y. P.

Y. Q. Zhao, Q. Zhan, Y. L. Zhang, and Y. P. Li, “Creation of a three-dimensional optical chain for controllable particle delivery,” Opt. Lett. 30(8), 848–850 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lumer, Y.

I. Moshe, S. Jackel, A. Meir, Y. Lumer, and E. Leibush, “2 kW, M2 < 10 radially polarized beams from aberration-compensated rod-based Nd:YAG lasers,” Opt. Lett. 32(1), 47–49 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Maurer, C.

C. Maurer, A. Jesacher, S. Fürhapter, S. Bernet, and M. Ritsch-Marte, “Tailoring of arbitrary optical vector beams,” N. J. Phys. 9(3), 78–98 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Meier, M.

M. Meier, V. Romano, and T. Feurer, “Material processing with pulsed radially and azimuthally polarized laser radiation,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 86(3), 329–334 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Meir, A.

I. Moshe, S. Jackel, A. Meir, Y. Lumer, and E. Leibush, “2 kW, M2 < 10 radially polarized beams from aberration-compensated rod-based Nd:YAG lasers,” Opt. Lett. 32(1), 47–49 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Moser, T.

T. Moser, M. A. Ahmed, F. Pigeon, O. Parriaux, E. Wyss, and T. Graf, “Generation of radially polarized beams in Nd:YAG lasers with polarization selective mirrors,” Laser Phys. Lett. 1(5), 234–236 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Moshe, I.

I. Moshe, S. Jackel, A. Meir, Y. Lumer, and E. Leibush, “2 kW, M2 < 10 radially polarized beams from aberration-compensated rod-based Nd:YAG lasers,” Opt. Lett. 32(1), 47–49 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Musha, M.

J.-L. Li, K. Ueda, L.-X. Zhong, M. Musha, A. Shirakawa, and T. Sato, “Efficient excitations of radially and azimuthally polarized Nd3+:YAG ceramic microchip laser by use of subwavelength multilayer concentric gratings composed of Nb2O5/SiO2.,” Opt. Express 16(14), 10841–10848 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nesterov, A. V.

V. G. Niziev, R. S. Chang, and A. V. Nesterov, “Generation of inhomogeneously polarized laser beams by use of a Sagnac interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 45(33), 8393–8399 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. V. Nesterov and V. G. Niziev, “Laser beams with axially symmetric polarization,” J. Phys. D 33(15), 1817–1822 (2000).
[CrossRef]

V. G. Niziev and A. V. Nesterov, “Influence of beam polarization on laser cutting efficiency,” J. Phys. D 32(13), 1455–1461 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Niziev, V. G.

V. G. Niziev, R. S. Chang, and A. V. Nesterov, “Generation of inhomogeneously polarized laser beams by use of a Sagnac interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 45(33), 8393–8399 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. V. Nesterov and V. G. Niziev, “Laser beams with axially symmetric polarization,” J. Phys. D 33(15), 1817–1822 (2000).
[CrossRef]

V. G. Niziev and A. V. Nesterov, “Influence of beam polarization on laser cutting efficiency,” J. Phys. D 32(13), 1455–1461 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Oron, R.

R. Oron, S. Blit, N. Davidson, A. A. Friesem, Z. Bomzon, and E. Hasman, “The formation of laser beams with pure azimuthal or radial polarization,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(21), 3322–3324 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Parriaux, O.

T. Moser, M. A. Ahmed, F. Pigeon, O. Parriaux, E. Wyss, and T. Graf, “Generation of radially polarized beams in Nd:YAG lasers with polarization selective mirrors,” Laser Phys. Lett. 1(5), 234–236 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Peng, F.

F. Peng, B. Yao, S. Yan, W. Zhao, and M. Lei, “Trapping of low-refractive-index particles with azimuthally polarized beam,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 26(12), 2242–2247 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Pigeon, F.

T. Moser, M. A. Ahmed, F. Pigeon, O. Parriaux, E. Wyss, and T. Graf, “Generation of radially polarized beams in Nd:YAG lasers with polarization selective mirrors,” Laser Phys. Lett. 1(5), 234–236 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Pohl, D.

D. Pohl, “Operation of a ruby laser in purely transverse electric mode TE01,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 20(7), 266–267 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Powers, P. E.

R. Zhou, B. Ibarra-Escamilla, J. W. Haus, P. E. Powers, and Q. Zhan, “Fiber laser generating switchable radially and azimuthally polarized beams with 140 mW output power at 1.6µm wavelength,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(19), 191111 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ritsch-Marte, M.

C. Maurer, A. Jesacher, S. Fürhapter, S. Bernet, and M. Ritsch-Marte, “Tailoring of arbitrary optical vector beams,” N. J. Phys. 9(3), 78–98 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Romano, V.

M. Meier, V. Romano, and T. Feurer, “Material processing with pulsed radially and azimuthally polarized laser radiation,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 86(3), 329–334 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sato, S.

Y. Kozawa and S. Sato, “Single higher-order transverse mode operation of a radially polarized Nd:YAG laser using an annularly reflectivity-modulated photonic crystal coupler,” Opt. Lett. 33(19), 2278–2280 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Kozawa and S. Sato, “Sharper focal spot formed by higher-order radially polarized laser beams,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24(6), 1793–1798 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Yonezawa, Y. Kozawa, and S. Sato, “Compact Laser with Radial Polarization Using Birefringent Laser Medium,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(No. 8A), 5160–5163 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Yonezawa, Y. Kozawa, and S. Sato, “Generation of a radially polarized laser beam by use of the birefringence of a c-cut Nd:YVO4 crystal,” Opt. Lett. 31(14), 2151–2153 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sato, T.

J.-L. Li, K. Ueda, L.-X. Zhong, M. Musha, A. Shirakawa, and T. Sato, “Efficient excitations of radially and azimuthally polarized Nd3+:YAG ceramic microchip laser by use of subwavelength multilayer concentric gratings composed of Nb2O5/SiO2.,” Opt. Express 16(14), 10841–10848 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schadt, M.

M. Stalder and M. Schadt, “Linearly polarized light with axial symmetry generated by liquid-crystal polarization converters,” Opt. Lett. 21(23), 1948–1950 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Senatsky, Yu.

M. P. Thirugnanasambandam, Yu. Senatsky, and K. Ueda, “Generation of very-high order Laguerre-Gaussian modes in Yb:YAG ceramic laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 7(9), 637–643 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yu. Senatsky, J.-F. Bisson, A. Shelobolin, A. Shirakawa, and K. Ueda, “Circular modes selection in Yb:YAG laser using an intracavity lens with spherical aberration,” Laser Phys. 19(5), 911–918 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J.-F. Bisson, J. Li, K. Ueda, and Yu. Senatsky, “Radially polarized ring and arc beams of a neodymium laser with an intra-cavity axicon,” Opt. Express 14(8), 3304–3311 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shelobolin, A.

Yu. Senatsky, J.-F. Bisson, A. Shelobolin, A. Shirakawa, and K. Ueda, “Circular modes selection in Yb:YAG laser using an intracavity lens with spherical aberration,” Laser Phys. 19(5), 911–918 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Shirakawa, A.

Yu. Senatsky, J.-F. Bisson, A. Shelobolin, A. Shirakawa, and K. Ueda, “Circular modes selection in Yb:YAG laser using an intracavity lens with spherical aberration,” Laser Phys. 19(5), 911–918 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J.-L. Li, K. Ueda, L.-X. Zhong, M. Musha, A. Shirakawa, and T. Sato, “Efficient excitations of radially and azimuthally polarized Nd3+:YAG ceramic microchip laser by use of subwavelength multilayer concentric gratings composed of Nb2O5/SiO2.,” Opt. Express 16(14), 10841–10848 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stalder, M.

M. Stalder and M. Schadt, “Linearly polarized light with axial symmetry generated by liquid-crystal polarization converters,” Opt. Lett. 21(23), 1948–1950 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thirugnanasambandam, M. P.

M. P. Thirugnanasambandam, Yu. Senatsky, and K. Ueda, “Generation of very-high order Laguerre-Gaussian modes in Yb:YAG ceramic laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 7(9), 637–643 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tidwell, S. C.

S. C. Tidwell, G. H. Kim, and W. D. Kimura, “Efficient radially polarized laser beam generation with a double interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 32(27), 5222–5229 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ueda, K.

M. P. Thirugnanasambandam, Yu. Senatsky, and K. Ueda, “Generation of very-high order Laguerre-Gaussian modes in Yb:YAG ceramic laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 7(9), 637–643 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yu. Senatsky, J.-F. Bisson, A. Shelobolin, A. Shirakawa, and K. Ueda, “Circular modes selection in Yb:YAG laser using an intracavity lens with spherical aberration,” Laser Phys. 19(5), 911–918 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J.-L. Li, K. Ueda, L.-X. Zhong, M. Musha, A. Shirakawa, and T. Sato, “Efficient excitations of radially and azimuthally polarized Nd3+:YAG ceramic microchip laser by use of subwavelength multilayer concentric gratings composed of Nb2O5/SiO2.,” Opt. Express 16(14), 10841–10848 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.-F. Bisson, J. Li, K. Ueda, and Yu. Senatsky, “Radially polarized ring and arc beams of a neodymium laser with an intra-cavity axicon,” Opt. Express 14(8), 3304–3311 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vogel, M. M.

M. A. Ahmed, A. Voss, M. M. Vogel, and T. Graf, “Multilayer polarizing grating mirror used for the generation of radial polarization in Yb:YAG thin-disk lasers,” Opt. Lett. 32(22), 3272–3274 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Voss, A.

M. A. Ahmed, A. Voss, M. M. Vogel, and T. Graf, “Multilayer polarizing grating mirror used for the generation of radial polarization in Yb:YAG thin-disk lasers,” Opt. Lett. 32(22), 3272–3274 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wyss, E.

T. Moser, M. A. Ahmed, F. Pigeon, O. Parriaux, E. Wyss, and T. Graf, “Generation of radially polarized beams in Nd:YAG lasers with polarization selective mirrors,” Laser Phys. Lett. 1(5), 234–236 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yan, S.

F. Peng, B. Yao, S. Yan, W. Zhao, and M. Lei, “Trapping of low-refractive-index particles with azimuthally polarized beam,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 26(12), 2242–2247 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yao, B.

F. Peng, B. Yao, S. Yan, W. Zhao, and M. Lei, “Trapping of low-refractive-index particles with azimuthally polarized beam,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 26(12), 2242–2247 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yonezawa, K.

K. Yonezawa, Y. Kozawa, and S. Sato, “Compact Laser with Radial Polarization Using Birefringent Laser Medium,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(No. 8A), 5160–5163 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Yonezawa, Y. Kozawa, and S. Sato, “Generation of a radially polarized laser beam by use of the birefringence of a c-cut Nd:YVO4 crystal,” Opt. Lett. 31(14), 2151–2153 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhan, Q.

R. Zhou, B. Ibarra-Escamilla, J. W. Haus, P. E. Powers, and Q. Zhan, “Fiber laser generating switchable radially and azimuthally polarized beams with 140 mW output power at 1.6µm wavelength,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(19), 191111 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Q. Zhan, “Cylindrical vector beams: from mathematical concepts to applications,” Adv. Opt. Photon. 1(1), 1–57 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Q. Zhao, Q. Zhan, Y. L. Zhang, and Y. P. Li, “Creation of a three-dimensional optical chain for controllable particle delivery,” Opt. Lett. 30(8), 848–850 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Zhan, “Trapping metallic Rayleigh particles with radial polarization,” Opt. Express 12(15), 3377–3382 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Zhan and J. R. Leger, “Microellipsometer with radial symmetry,” Appl. Opt. 41(22), 4630–4637 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, Y. L.

Y. Q. Zhao, Q. Zhan, Y. L. Zhang, and Y. P. Li, “Creation of a three-dimensional optical chain for controllable particle delivery,” Opt. Lett. 30(8), 848–850 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhao, W.

F. Peng, B. Yao, S. Yan, W. Zhao, and M. Lei, “Trapping of low-refractive-index particles with azimuthally polarized beam,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 26(12), 2242–2247 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, Y. Q.

Y. Q. Zhao, Q. Zhan, Y. L. Zhang, and Y. P. Li, “Creation of a three-dimensional optical chain for controllable particle delivery,” Opt. Lett. 30(8), 848–850 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhong, L.-X.

J.-L. Li, K. Ueda, L.-X. Zhong, M. Musha, A. Shirakawa, and T. Sato, “Efficient excitations of radially and azimuthally polarized Nd3+:YAG ceramic microchip laser by use of subwavelength multilayer concentric gratings composed of Nb2O5/SiO2.,” Opt. Express 16(14), 10841–10848 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhou, R.

R. Zhou, B. Ibarra-Escamilla, J. W. Haus, P. E. Powers, and Q. Zhan, “Fiber laser generating switchable radially and azimuthally polarized beams with 140 mW output power at 1.6µm wavelength,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(19), 191111 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Opt. Photon.

Q. Zhan, “Cylindrical vector beams: from mathematical concepts to applications,” Adv. Opt. Photon. 1(1), 1–57 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Q. Zhan and J. R. Leger, “Microellipsometer with radial symmetry,” Appl. Opt. 41(22), 4630–4637 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. C. Tidwell, G. H. Kim, and W. D. Kimura, “Efficient radially polarized laser beam generation with a double interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 32(27), 5222–5229 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. G. Niziev, R. S. Chang, and A. V. Nesterov, “Generation of inhomogeneously polarized laser beams by use of a Sagnac interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 45(33), 8393–8399 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

R. Oron, S. Blit, N. Davidson, A. A. Friesem, Z. Bomzon, and E. Hasman, “The formation of laser beams with pure azimuthal or radial polarization,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(21), 3322–3324 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. Zhou, B. Ibarra-Escamilla, J. W. Haus, P. E. Powers, and Q. Zhan, “Fiber laser generating switchable radially and azimuthally polarized beams with 140 mW output power at 1.6µm wavelength,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(19), 191111 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Pohl, “Operation of a ruby laser in purely transverse electric mode TE01,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 20(7), 266–267 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.

M. Meier, V. Romano, and T. Feurer, “Material processing with pulsed radially and azimuthally polarized laser radiation,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 86(3), 329–334 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

Y. Kozawa and S. Sato, “Sharper focal spot formed by higher-order radially polarized laser beams,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24(6), 1793–1798 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

F. Peng, B. Yao, S. Yan, W. Zhao, and M. Lei, “Trapping of low-refractive-index particles with azimuthally polarized beam,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 26(12), 2242–2247 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. D

V. G. Niziev and A. V. Nesterov, “Influence of beam polarization on laser cutting efficiency,” J. Phys. D 32(13), 1455–1461 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Nesterov and V. G. Niziev, “Laser beams with axially symmetric polarization,” J. Phys. D 33(15), 1817–1822 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.

K. Yonezawa, Y. Kozawa, and S. Sato, “Compact Laser with Radial Polarization Using Birefringent Laser Medium,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(No. 8A), 5160–5163 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Laser Phys.

Yu. Senatsky, J.-F. Bisson, A. Shelobolin, A. Shirakawa, and K. Ueda, “Circular modes selection in Yb:YAG laser using an intracavity lens with spherical aberration,” Laser Phys. 19(5), 911–918 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Laser Phys. Lett.

M. P. Thirugnanasambandam, Yu. Senatsky, and K. Ueda, “Generation of very-high order Laguerre-Gaussian modes in Yb:YAG ceramic laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 7(9), 637–643 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Moser, M. A. Ahmed, F. Pigeon, O. Parriaux, E. Wyss, and T. Graf, “Generation of radially polarized beams in Nd:YAG lasers with polarization selective mirrors,” Laser Phys. Lett. 1(5), 234–236 (2004).
[CrossRef]

N. J. Phys.

C. Maurer, A. Jesacher, S. Fürhapter, S. Bernet, and M. Ritsch-Marte, “Tailoring of arbitrary optical vector beams,” N. J. Phys. 9(3), 78–98 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Q. Zhan, “Trapping metallic Rayleigh particles with radial polarization,” Opt. Express 12(15), 3377–3382 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.-L. Li, K. Ueda, L.-X. Zhong, M. Musha, A. Shirakawa, and T. Sato, “Efficient excitations of radially and azimuthally polarized Nd3+:YAG ceramic microchip laser by use of subwavelength multilayer concentric gratings composed of Nb2O5/SiO2.,” Opt. Express 16(14), 10841–10848 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.-F. Bisson, J. Li, K. Ueda, and Yu. Senatsky, “Radially polarized ring and arc beams of a neodymium laser with an intra-cavity axicon,” Opt. Express 14(8), 3304–3311 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett.

K. Yonezawa, Y. Kozawa, and S. Sato, “Generation of a radially polarized laser beam by use of the birefringence of a c-cut Nd:YVO4 crystal,” Opt. Lett. 31(14), 2151–2153 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Kozawa and S. Sato, “Single higher-order transverse mode operation of a radially polarized Nd:YAG laser using an annularly reflectivity-modulated photonic crystal coupler,” Opt. Lett. 33(19), 2278–2280 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Ahmed, A. Voss, M. M. Vogel, and T. Graf, “Multilayer polarizing grating mirror used for the generation of radial polarization in Yb:YAG thin-disk lasers,” Opt. Lett. 32(22), 3272–3274 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Moshe, S. Jackel, A. Meir, Y. Lumer, and E. Leibush, “2 kW, M2 < 10 radially polarized beams from aberration-compensated rod-based Nd:YAG lasers,” Opt. Lett. 32(1), 47–49 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Q. Zhao, Q. Zhan, Y. L. Zhang, and Y. P. Li, “Creation of a three-dimensional optical chain for controllable particle delivery,” Opt. Lett. 30(8), 848–850 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Stalder and M. Schadt, “Linearly polarized light with axial symmetry generated by liquid-crystal polarization converters,” Opt. Lett. 21(23), 1948–1950 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

W. Koechner, Solid-State Laser Engineering (Springer science + business media, Inc., sixth revised and updated edition, 2006), Chap. 5.

N. Hodgson, and H. Weber, in Laser Resonators and Beam Propagation, (Springer science + business media, Inc., second edition, 2005).

F. D. Vanderwerf, Applied Prismatic and Reflective Optics, (SPIE Press, 2010), Chap. 3.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the laser set up.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

CCD camera images in near-field of AP and RP doughnut modes generated from Yb:YAG laser cavity with birefringent (a,b) c-cut YVO4 or (c,d) α-BBO crystals and lens f = 10cm placed at distance d<fax or d> fax from HR surface. The transmission axis of linear polarizer placed before the camera is indicated by arrows in the corresponding frames wherever used.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Mode profiles and polarization change observed on shifting the lens f = 5cm in the Yb:YAG laser cavity between HR and OC regions.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Sequence of modes registered at the output of laser (L = 114cm) by shifting intra-cavity lens: (a) near field images with YVO4 and lens f = 10cm; (b) near field images and far field intensity profiles with α-BBO and lens f = 7.5cm; (c) far field images with YVO4 and lens f = 3.5cm.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Schematic of resonator with intra-cavity lens showing ‘imaging’ (Type-1 trajectory) and ‘focusing’ (Type-2 trajectory) positions of the lens.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Dependence of width of the resonator stability region, (I-F) on the cavity length, L for intra-cavity lenses with different foci (dotted curves, calculations; rhombs- experimental data).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Schemes of mode selection in the laser with intra-cavity c-cut YVO4 crystal and lens: (a) AP mode at “focusing” (d = (fe)ax) and (b) RP mode at “imaging” (d = io) lens positions.

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