Abstract

A multiwavelength array of distributed feedback (DFB) quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) that spans λ = 8.28 to 9.62 μm is wavelength beam combined (WBC) using both single-grating and dual-grating designs. WBC with a single grating results in a pointing error of 3-times the beam divergence for a single laser and arises from the nonlinear dispersion of the grating. By adding a second grating to compensate for the nonlinear dispersion, the pointing error is reduced to only 13% of the beam divergence for a single laser. A transceiver based on the dual-grating-WBC QCL was used to measure the transmittance of a polymer sheet placed between itself and a retroreflector over a round-trip distance of 70 meters.

© 2011 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
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2010

R. Curl, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, A. A. Kosterev, B. McManus, R. Lewicki, M. Pusharsky, G. Wysocki, and F. K. Tittel, “Quantum cascade lasers in chemical physics,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 487(1-3), 1–18 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Hugger, R. Aidam, W. Bronner, F. Fuchs, R. Lösch, Q. Yang, J. Wagner, E. Romasew, M. Raab, H. D. Tholl, B. Höfer, and A. L. Matthes, “Power scaling of quantum cascade lasers via multiemitter beam combining,” Opt. Eng. 49(11), 111111 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

B. G. Lee, J. Kansky, A. K. Goyal, C. Pflügl, L. Diehl, M. A. Belkin, A. Sanchez, and F. A. Capasso, “Beam combining of quantum cascade laser arrays,” Opt. Express 17(18), 16216–16224 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Hugi, R. Terazzi, Y. Bonetti, A. Wittmann, M. Fischer, M. Beck, J. Faist, and E. Gini, “External cavity quantum cascade laser tunable from 7.6 to 11.4 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(6), 061103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. G. Lee, H. A. Zhang, C. Pflügl, L. Diehl, M. A. Belkin, M. Fischer, A. Wittmann, J. Faist, and F. Capasso, “Broadband distributed-feedback quantum cascade laser array operating from 8.0 to 9.8 μm,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(13), 914–916 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. G. Lee, M. A. Belkin, C. Pflügl, L. Diehl, H. A. Zhang, R. M. Audet, J. MacArthur, D. P. Bour, S. W. Corzine, G. E. Höfler, and F. Capasso, “DFB quantum cascade laser arrays,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45(5), 554–565 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2007

B. G. Lee, M. A. Belkin, R. Audet, J. MacArthur, L. Diehl, C. Pflügl, F. Capasso, D. Oakley, D. Chapman, A. Napoleone, D. Bour, S. Corzine, G. Hofler, and J. Faist, “Widely tunable single-mode quantum cascade laser source for mid-infrared spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(23), 231101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

R. Maulini, A. Mohan, M. Giovannini, J. Faist, and E. Gini, “External cavity quantum-cascade lasers tunable from 8.2 to 10.4 μm using a gain element with a heterogeneous cascade,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(20), 201113 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

T. Y. Fan, “Laser beam combining for high-power, high-radiance sources,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(3), 567–577 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2002

F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, “Quantum cascade lasers,” Phys. Today 55(5), 34–40 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Kosterev and F. Tittel, “Chemical sensors based on quantum cascade lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38(6), 582–591 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Aidam, R.

S. Hugger, R. Aidam, W. Bronner, F. Fuchs, R. Lösch, Q. Yang, J. Wagner, E. Romasew, M. Raab, H. D. Tholl, B. Höfer, and A. L. Matthes, “Power scaling of quantum cascade lasers via multiemitter beam combining,” Opt. Eng. 49(11), 111111 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Audet, R.

B. G. Lee, M. A. Belkin, R. Audet, J. MacArthur, L. Diehl, C. Pflügl, F. Capasso, D. Oakley, D. Chapman, A. Napoleone, D. Bour, S. Corzine, G. Hofler, and J. Faist, “Widely tunable single-mode quantum cascade laser source for mid-infrared spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(23), 231101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Audet, R. M.

B. G. Lee, M. A. Belkin, C. Pflügl, L. Diehl, H. A. Zhang, R. M. Audet, J. MacArthur, D. P. Bour, S. W. Corzine, G. E. Höfler, and F. Capasso, “DFB quantum cascade laser arrays,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45(5), 554–565 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Beck, M.

A. Hugi, R. Terazzi, Y. Bonetti, A. Wittmann, M. Fischer, M. Beck, J. Faist, and E. Gini, “External cavity quantum cascade laser tunable from 7.6 to 11.4 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(6), 061103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Belkin, M. A.

B. G. Lee, J. Kansky, A. K. Goyal, C. Pflügl, L. Diehl, M. A. Belkin, A. Sanchez, and F. A. Capasso, “Beam combining of quantum cascade laser arrays,” Opt. Express 17(18), 16216–16224 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. G. Lee, H. A. Zhang, C. Pflügl, L. Diehl, M. A. Belkin, M. Fischer, A. Wittmann, J. Faist, and F. Capasso, “Broadband distributed-feedback quantum cascade laser array operating from 8.0 to 9.8 μm,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(13), 914–916 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. G. Lee, M. A. Belkin, C. Pflügl, L. Diehl, H. A. Zhang, R. M. Audet, J. MacArthur, D. P. Bour, S. W. Corzine, G. E. Höfler, and F. Capasso, “DFB quantum cascade laser arrays,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45(5), 554–565 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. G. Lee, M. A. Belkin, R. Audet, J. MacArthur, L. Diehl, C. Pflügl, F. Capasso, D. Oakley, D. Chapman, A. Napoleone, D. Bour, S. Corzine, G. Hofler, and J. Faist, “Widely tunable single-mode quantum cascade laser source for mid-infrared spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(23), 231101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bonetti, Y.

A. Hugi, R. Terazzi, Y. Bonetti, A. Wittmann, M. Fischer, M. Beck, J. Faist, and E. Gini, “External cavity quantum cascade laser tunable from 7.6 to 11.4 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(6), 061103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bour, D.

B. G. Lee, M. A. Belkin, R. Audet, J. MacArthur, L. Diehl, C. Pflügl, F. Capasso, D. Oakley, D. Chapman, A. Napoleone, D. Bour, S. Corzine, G. Hofler, and J. Faist, “Widely tunable single-mode quantum cascade laser source for mid-infrared spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(23), 231101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bour, D. P.

B. G. Lee, M. A. Belkin, C. Pflügl, L. Diehl, H. A. Zhang, R. M. Audet, J. MacArthur, D. P. Bour, S. W. Corzine, G. E. Höfler, and F. Capasso, “DFB quantum cascade laser arrays,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45(5), 554–565 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bronner, W.

S. Hugger, R. Aidam, W. Bronner, F. Fuchs, R. Lösch, Q. Yang, J. Wagner, E. Romasew, M. Raab, H. D. Tholl, B. Höfer, and A. L. Matthes, “Power scaling of quantum cascade lasers via multiemitter beam combining,” Opt. Eng. 49(11), 111111 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Capasso, F.

R. Curl, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, A. A. Kosterev, B. McManus, R. Lewicki, M. Pusharsky, G. Wysocki, and F. K. Tittel, “Quantum cascade lasers in chemical physics,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 487(1-3), 1–18 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. G. Lee, M. A. Belkin, C. Pflügl, L. Diehl, H. A. Zhang, R. M. Audet, J. MacArthur, D. P. Bour, S. W. Corzine, G. E. Höfler, and F. Capasso, “DFB quantum cascade laser arrays,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45(5), 554–565 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. G. Lee, H. A. Zhang, C. Pflügl, L. Diehl, M. A. Belkin, M. Fischer, A. Wittmann, J. Faist, and F. Capasso, “Broadband distributed-feedback quantum cascade laser array operating from 8.0 to 9.8 μm,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(13), 914–916 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. G. Lee, M. A. Belkin, R. Audet, J. MacArthur, L. Diehl, C. Pflügl, F. Capasso, D. Oakley, D. Chapman, A. Napoleone, D. Bour, S. Corzine, G. Hofler, and J. Faist, “Widely tunable single-mode quantum cascade laser source for mid-infrared spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(23), 231101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, “Quantum cascade lasers,” Phys. Today 55(5), 34–40 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Capasso, F. A.

Chapman, D.

B. G. Lee, M. A. Belkin, R. Audet, J. MacArthur, L. Diehl, C. Pflügl, F. Capasso, D. Oakley, D. Chapman, A. Napoleone, D. Bour, S. Corzine, G. Hofler, and J. Faist, “Widely tunable single-mode quantum cascade laser source for mid-infrared spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(23), 231101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cho, A. Y.

F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, “Quantum cascade lasers,” Phys. Today 55(5), 34–40 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Corzine, S.

B. G. Lee, M. A. Belkin, R. Audet, J. MacArthur, L. Diehl, C. Pflügl, F. Capasso, D. Oakley, D. Chapman, A. Napoleone, D. Bour, S. Corzine, G. Hofler, and J. Faist, “Widely tunable single-mode quantum cascade laser source for mid-infrared spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(23), 231101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Corzine, S. W.

B. G. Lee, M. A. Belkin, C. Pflügl, L. Diehl, H. A. Zhang, R. M. Audet, J. MacArthur, D. P. Bour, S. W. Corzine, G. E. Höfler, and F. Capasso, “DFB quantum cascade laser arrays,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45(5), 554–565 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Curl, R.

R. Curl, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, A. A. Kosterev, B. McManus, R. Lewicki, M. Pusharsky, G. Wysocki, and F. K. Tittel, “Quantum cascade lasers in chemical physics,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 487(1-3), 1–18 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Diehl, L.

B. G. Lee, M. A. Belkin, C. Pflügl, L. Diehl, H. A. Zhang, R. M. Audet, J. MacArthur, D. P. Bour, S. W. Corzine, G. E. Höfler, and F. Capasso, “DFB quantum cascade laser arrays,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45(5), 554–565 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. G. Lee, H. A. Zhang, C. Pflügl, L. Diehl, M. A. Belkin, M. Fischer, A. Wittmann, J. Faist, and F. Capasso, “Broadband distributed-feedback quantum cascade laser array operating from 8.0 to 9.8 μm,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(13), 914–916 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. G. Lee, J. Kansky, A. K. Goyal, C. Pflügl, L. Diehl, M. A. Belkin, A. Sanchez, and F. A. Capasso, “Beam combining of quantum cascade laser arrays,” Opt. Express 17(18), 16216–16224 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. G. Lee, M. A. Belkin, R. Audet, J. MacArthur, L. Diehl, C. Pflügl, F. Capasso, D. Oakley, D. Chapman, A. Napoleone, D. Bour, S. Corzine, G. Hofler, and J. Faist, “Widely tunable single-mode quantum cascade laser source for mid-infrared spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(23), 231101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Faist, J.

A. Hugi, R. Terazzi, Y. Bonetti, A. Wittmann, M. Fischer, M. Beck, J. Faist, and E. Gini, “External cavity quantum cascade laser tunable from 7.6 to 11.4 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(6), 061103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. G. Lee, H. A. Zhang, C. Pflügl, L. Diehl, M. A. Belkin, M. Fischer, A. Wittmann, J. Faist, and F. Capasso, “Broadband distributed-feedback quantum cascade laser array operating from 8.0 to 9.8 μm,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(13), 914–916 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. G. Lee, M. A. Belkin, R. Audet, J. MacArthur, L. Diehl, C. Pflügl, F. Capasso, D. Oakley, D. Chapman, A. Napoleone, D. Bour, S. Corzine, G. Hofler, and J. Faist, “Widely tunable single-mode quantum cascade laser source for mid-infrared spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(23), 231101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. Maulini, A. Mohan, M. Giovannini, J. Faist, and E. Gini, “External cavity quantum-cascade lasers tunable from 8.2 to 10.4 μm using a gain element with a heterogeneous cascade,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(20), 201113 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fan, T. Y.

T. Y. Fan, “Laser beam combining for high-power, high-radiance sources,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(3), 567–577 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Fischer, M.

B. G. Lee, H. A. Zhang, C. Pflügl, L. Diehl, M. A. Belkin, M. Fischer, A. Wittmann, J. Faist, and F. Capasso, “Broadband distributed-feedback quantum cascade laser array operating from 8.0 to 9.8 μm,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(13), 914–916 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Hugi, R. Terazzi, Y. Bonetti, A. Wittmann, M. Fischer, M. Beck, J. Faist, and E. Gini, “External cavity quantum cascade laser tunable from 7.6 to 11.4 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(6), 061103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fuchs, F.

S. Hugger, R. Aidam, W. Bronner, F. Fuchs, R. Lösch, Q. Yang, J. Wagner, E. Romasew, M. Raab, H. D. Tholl, B. Höfer, and A. L. Matthes, “Power scaling of quantum cascade lasers via multiemitter beam combining,” Opt. Eng. 49(11), 111111 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gini, E.

A. Hugi, R. Terazzi, Y. Bonetti, A. Wittmann, M. Fischer, M. Beck, J. Faist, and E. Gini, “External cavity quantum cascade laser tunable from 7.6 to 11.4 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(6), 061103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Maulini, A. Mohan, M. Giovannini, J. Faist, and E. Gini, “External cavity quantum-cascade lasers tunable from 8.2 to 10.4 μm using a gain element with a heterogeneous cascade,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(20), 201113 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Giovannini, M.

R. Maulini, A. Mohan, M. Giovannini, J. Faist, and E. Gini, “External cavity quantum-cascade lasers tunable from 8.2 to 10.4 μm using a gain element with a heterogeneous cascade,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(20), 201113 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gmachl, C.

R. Curl, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, A. A. Kosterev, B. McManus, R. Lewicki, M. Pusharsky, G. Wysocki, and F. K. Tittel, “Quantum cascade lasers in chemical physics,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 487(1-3), 1–18 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, “Quantum cascade lasers,” Phys. Today 55(5), 34–40 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Goyal, A. K.

Höfer, B.

S. Hugger, R. Aidam, W. Bronner, F. Fuchs, R. Lösch, Q. Yang, J. Wagner, E. Romasew, M. Raab, H. D. Tholl, B. Höfer, and A. L. Matthes, “Power scaling of quantum cascade lasers via multiemitter beam combining,” Opt. Eng. 49(11), 111111 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hofler, G.

B. G. Lee, M. A. Belkin, R. Audet, J. MacArthur, L. Diehl, C. Pflügl, F. Capasso, D. Oakley, D. Chapman, A. Napoleone, D. Bour, S. Corzine, G. Hofler, and J. Faist, “Widely tunable single-mode quantum cascade laser source for mid-infrared spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(23), 231101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Höfler, G. E.

B. G. Lee, M. A. Belkin, C. Pflügl, L. Diehl, H. A. Zhang, R. M. Audet, J. MacArthur, D. P. Bour, S. W. Corzine, G. E. Höfler, and F. Capasso, “DFB quantum cascade laser arrays,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45(5), 554–565 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hugger, S.

S. Hugger, R. Aidam, W. Bronner, F. Fuchs, R. Lösch, Q. Yang, J. Wagner, E. Romasew, M. Raab, H. D. Tholl, B. Höfer, and A. L. Matthes, “Power scaling of quantum cascade lasers via multiemitter beam combining,” Opt. Eng. 49(11), 111111 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hugi, A.

A. Hugi, R. Terazzi, Y. Bonetti, A. Wittmann, M. Fischer, M. Beck, J. Faist, and E. Gini, “External cavity quantum cascade laser tunable from 7.6 to 11.4 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(6), 061103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kansky, J.

Kosterev, A.

A. Kosterev and F. Tittel, “Chemical sensors based on quantum cascade lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38(6), 582–591 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kosterev, A. A.

R. Curl, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, A. A. Kosterev, B. McManus, R. Lewicki, M. Pusharsky, G. Wysocki, and F. K. Tittel, “Quantum cascade lasers in chemical physics,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 487(1-3), 1–18 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lee, B. G.

B. G. Lee, J. Kansky, A. K. Goyal, C. Pflügl, L. Diehl, M. A. Belkin, A. Sanchez, and F. A. Capasso, “Beam combining of quantum cascade laser arrays,” Opt. Express 17(18), 16216–16224 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. G. Lee, H. A. Zhang, C. Pflügl, L. Diehl, M. A. Belkin, M. Fischer, A. Wittmann, J. Faist, and F. Capasso, “Broadband distributed-feedback quantum cascade laser array operating from 8.0 to 9.8 μm,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(13), 914–916 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. G. Lee, M. A. Belkin, C. Pflügl, L. Diehl, H. A. Zhang, R. M. Audet, J. MacArthur, D. P. Bour, S. W. Corzine, G. E. Höfler, and F. Capasso, “DFB quantum cascade laser arrays,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45(5), 554–565 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. G. Lee, M. A. Belkin, R. Audet, J. MacArthur, L. Diehl, C. Pflügl, F. Capasso, D. Oakley, D. Chapman, A. Napoleone, D. Bour, S. Corzine, G. Hofler, and J. Faist, “Widely tunable single-mode quantum cascade laser source for mid-infrared spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(23), 231101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lewicki, R.

R. Curl, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, A. A. Kosterev, B. McManus, R. Lewicki, M. Pusharsky, G. Wysocki, and F. K. Tittel, “Quantum cascade lasers in chemical physics,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 487(1-3), 1–18 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lösch, R.

S. Hugger, R. Aidam, W. Bronner, F. Fuchs, R. Lösch, Q. Yang, J. Wagner, E. Romasew, M. Raab, H. D. Tholl, B. Höfer, and A. L. Matthes, “Power scaling of quantum cascade lasers via multiemitter beam combining,” Opt. Eng. 49(11), 111111 (2010).
[CrossRef]

MacArthur, J.

B. G. Lee, M. A. Belkin, C. Pflügl, L. Diehl, H. A. Zhang, R. M. Audet, J. MacArthur, D. P. Bour, S. W. Corzine, G. E. Höfler, and F. Capasso, “DFB quantum cascade laser arrays,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45(5), 554–565 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. G. Lee, M. A. Belkin, R. Audet, J. MacArthur, L. Diehl, C. Pflügl, F. Capasso, D. Oakley, D. Chapman, A. Napoleone, D. Bour, S. Corzine, G. Hofler, and J. Faist, “Widely tunable single-mode quantum cascade laser source for mid-infrared spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(23), 231101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Matthes, A. L.

S. Hugger, R. Aidam, W. Bronner, F. Fuchs, R. Lösch, Q. Yang, J. Wagner, E. Romasew, M. Raab, H. D. Tholl, B. Höfer, and A. L. Matthes, “Power scaling of quantum cascade lasers via multiemitter beam combining,” Opt. Eng. 49(11), 111111 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Maulini, R.

R. Maulini, A. Mohan, M. Giovannini, J. Faist, and E. Gini, “External cavity quantum-cascade lasers tunable from 8.2 to 10.4 μm using a gain element with a heterogeneous cascade,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(20), 201113 (2006).
[CrossRef]

McManus, B.

R. Curl, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, A. A. Kosterev, B. McManus, R. Lewicki, M. Pusharsky, G. Wysocki, and F. K. Tittel, “Quantum cascade lasers in chemical physics,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 487(1-3), 1–18 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Mohan, A.

R. Maulini, A. Mohan, M. Giovannini, J. Faist, and E. Gini, “External cavity quantum-cascade lasers tunable from 8.2 to 10.4 μm using a gain element with a heterogeneous cascade,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(20), 201113 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Napoleone, A.

B. G. Lee, M. A. Belkin, R. Audet, J. MacArthur, L. Diehl, C. Pflügl, F. Capasso, D. Oakley, D. Chapman, A. Napoleone, D. Bour, S. Corzine, G. Hofler, and J. Faist, “Widely tunable single-mode quantum cascade laser source for mid-infrared spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(23), 231101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Oakley, D.

B. G. Lee, M. A. Belkin, R. Audet, J. MacArthur, L. Diehl, C. Pflügl, F. Capasso, D. Oakley, D. Chapman, A. Napoleone, D. Bour, S. Corzine, G. Hofler, and J. Faist, “Widely tunable single-mode quantum cascade laser source for mid-infrared spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(23), 231101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pflügl, C.

B. G. Lee, M. A. Belkin, C. Pflügl, L. Diehl, H. A. Zhang, R. M. Audet, J. MacArthur, D. P. Bour, S. W. Corzine, G. E. Höfler, and F. Capasso, “DFB quantum cascade laser arrays,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45(5), 554–565 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. G. Lee, H. A. Zhang, C. Pflügl, L. Diehl, M. A. Belkin, M. Fischer, A. Wittmann, J. Faist, and F. Capasso, “Broadband distributed-feedback quantum cascade laser array operating from 8.0 to 9.8 μm,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(13), 914–916 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. G. Lee, J. Kansky, A. K. Goyal, C. Pflügl, L. Diehl, M. A. Belkin, A. Sanchez, and F. A. Capasso, “Beam combining of quantum cascade laser arrays,” Opt. Express 17(18), 16216–16224 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. G. Lee, M. A. Belkin, R. Audet, J. MacArthur, L. Diehl, C. Pflügl, F. Capasso, D. Oakley, D. Chapman, A. Napoleone, D. Bour, S. Corzine, G. Hofler, and J. Faist, “Widely tunable single-mode quantum cascade laser source for mid-infrared spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(23), 231101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pusharsky, M.

R. Curl, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, A. A. Kosterev, B. McManus, R. Lewicki, M. Pusharsky, G. Wysocki, and F. K. Tittel, “Quantum cascade lasers in chemical physics,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 487(1-3), 1–18 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Raab, M.

S. Hugger, R. Aidam, W. Bronner, F. Fuchs, R. Lösch, Q. Yang, J. Wagner, E. Romasew, M. Raab, H. D. Tholl, B. Höfer, and A. L. Matthes, “Power scaling of quantum cascade lasers via multiemitter beam combining,” Opt. Eng. 49(11), 111111 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Romasew, E.

S. Hugger, R. Aidam, W. Bronner, F. Fuchs, R. Lösch, Q. Yang, J. Wagner, E. Romasew, M. Raab, H. D. Tholl, B. Höfer, and A. L. Matthes, “Power scaling of quantum cascade lasers via multiemitter beam combining,” Opt. Eng. 49(11), 111111 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sanchez, A.

Sivco, D. L.

F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, “Quantum cascade lasers,” Phys. Today 55(5), 34–40 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Terazzi, R.

A. Hugi, R. Terazzi, Y. Bonetti, A. Wittmann, M. Fischer, M. Beck, J. Faist, and E. Gini, “External cavity quantum cascade laser tunable from 7.6 to 11.4 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(6), 061103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tholl, H. D.

S. Hugger, R. Aidam, W. Bronner, F. Fuchs, R. Lösch, Q. Yang, J. Wagner, E. Romasew, M. Raab, H. D. Tholl, B. Höfer, and A. L. Matthes, “Power scaling of quantum cascade lasers via multiemitter beam combining,” Opt. Eng. 49(11), 111111 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tittel, F.

A. Kosterev and F. Tittel, “Chemical sensors based on quantum cascade lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38(6), 582–591 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tittel, F. K.

R. Curl, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, A. A. Kosterev, B. McManus, R. Lewicki, M. Pusharsky, G. Wysocki, and F. K. Tittel, “Quantum cascade lasers in chemical physics,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 487(1-3), 1–18 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wagner, J.

S. Hugger, R. Aidam, W. Bronner, F. Fuchs, R. Lösch, Q. Yang, J. Wagner, E. Romasew, M. Raab, H. D. Tholl, B. Höfer, and A. L. Matthes, “Power scaling of quantum cascade lasers via multiemitter beam combining,” Opt. Eng. 49(11), 111111 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wittmann, A.

A. Hugi, R. Terazzi, Y. Bonetti, A. Wittmann, M. Fischer, M. Beck, J. Faist, and E. Gini, “External cavity quantum cascade laser tunable from 7.6 to 11.4 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(6), 061103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. G. Lee, H. A. Zhang, C. Pflügl, L. Diehl, M. A. Belkin, M. Fischer, A. Wittmann, J. Faist, and F. Capasso, “Broadband distributed-feedback quantum cascade laser array operating from 8.0 to 9.8 μm,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(13), 914–916 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wysocki, G.

R. Curl, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, A. A. Kosterev, B. McManus, R. Lewicki, M. Pusharsky, G. Wysocki, and F. K. Tittel, “Quantum cascade lasers in chemical physics,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 487(1-3), 1–18 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yang, Q.

S. Hugger, R. Aidam, W. Bronner, F. Fuchs, R. Lösch, Q. Yang, J. Wagner, E. Romasew, M. Raab, H. D. Tholl, B. Höfer, and A. L. Matthes, “Power scaling of quantum cascade lasers via multiemitter beam combining,” Opt. Eng. 49(11), 111111 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, H. A.

B. G. Lee, H. A. Zhang, C. Pflügl, L. Diehl, M. A. Belkin, M. Fischer, A. Wittmann, J. Faist, and F. Capasso, “Broadband distributed-feedback quantum cascade laser array operating from 8.0 to 9.8 μm,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(13), 914–916 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. G. Lee, M. A. Belkin, C. Pflügl, L. Diehl, H. A. Zhang, R. M. Audet, J. MacArthur, D. P. Bour, S. W. Corzine, G. E. Höfler, and F. Capasso, “DFB quantum cascade laser arrays,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45(5), 554–565 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

R. Maulini, A. Mohan, M. Giovannini, J. Faist, and E. Gini, “External cavity quantum-cascade lasers tunable from 8.2 to 10.4 μm using a gain element with a heterogeneous cascade,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(20), 201113 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Hugi, R. Terazzi, Y. Bonetti, A. Wittmann, M. Fischer, M. Beck, J. Faist, and E. Gini, “External cavity quantum cascade laser tunable from 7.6 to 11.4 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(6), 061103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. G. Lee, M. A. Belkin, R. Audet, J. MacArthur, L. Diehl, C. Pflügl, F. Capasso, D. Oakley, D. Chapman, A. Napoleone, D. Bour, S. Corzine, G. Hofler, and J. Faist, “Widely tunable single-mode quantum cascade laser source for mid-infrared spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(23), 231101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Lett.

R. Curl, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, A. A. Kosterev, B. McManus, R. Lewicki, M. Pusharsky, G. Wysocki, and F. K. Tittel, “Quantum cascade lasers in chemical physics,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 487(1-3), 1–18 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

A. Kosterev and F. Tittel, “Chemical sensors based on quantum cascade lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38(6), 582–591 (2002).
[CrossRef]

B. G. Lee, M. A. Belkin, C. Pflügl, L. Diehl, H. A. Zhang, R. M. Audet, J. MacArthur, D. P. Bour, S. W. Corzine, G. E. Höfler, and F. Capasso, “DFB quantum cascade laser arrays,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45(5), 554–565 (2009).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

T. Y. Fan, “Laser beam combining for high-power, high-radiance sources,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(3), 567–577 (2005).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

B. G. Lee, H. A. Zhang, C. Pflügl, L. Diehl, M. A. Belkin, M. Fischer, A. Wittmann, J. Faist, and F. Capasso, “Broadband distributed-feedback quantum cascade laser array operating from 8.0 to 9.8 μm,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(13), 914–916 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng.

S. Hugger, R. Aidam, W. Bronner, F. Fuchs, R. Lösch, Q. Yang, J. Wagner, E. Romasew, M. Raab, H. D. Tholl, B. Höfer, and A. L. Matthes, “Power scaling of quantum cascade lasers via multiemitter beam combining,” Opt. Eng. 49(11), 111111 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Phys. Today

F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, “Quantum cascade lasers,” Phys. Today 55(5), 34–40 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Other

G. M. Russwurm and J. W. Childers, “Open-path Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy,” in Handbook of Vibrational Spectroscopy, J. M. Chalmers and P. R. Griffiths, ed. (Wiley, 2002).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Laser frequency versus laser number for the multiwavelength DFB QCL array used in this work. The inset is a photograph of an array.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Ray-trace diagram of the single-grating WBC configuration (left). Pointing error versus laser number for the single-grating WBC configuration (right). The peak-to-peak pointing error is 3.6 mrad. The inset shows an image of the far-field of a single laser which has a beam divergence of 1.2 mrad FW1/e2 in the WBC dimension.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Ray-trace diagram of the dual-grating WBC configuration that was implemented in this work (left). Calculated peak-to-peak pointing error versus the groove densities for the two gratings in a dual-grating WBC configuration (right). The pointing error is normalized by 1 radian and plotted on a log10 scale for a transform lens with focal length of fT = 2.5 cm. The design point is indicated.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Measured (a) near-field beam position and (b) far-field beam pointing versus laser number for the dual-grating WBC configuration. The length of the bars represents the FW1/e2 dimensions and the points represent the centroids.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Double-pass transmittance of a polymer sheet measured using the QCL-based transceiver and a retroreflector at a round-trip path of 70 meters are shown as circles. The inset shows the experimental configuration. The solid line is the reference spectrum taken using a laboratory FTIR spectrometer.

Equations (1)

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α i = sin 1 { sin[ β o tan 1 ( Δx f T ) ] λ i d }

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