Abstract

We demonstrate optical fiber-pigtailed temperature sensors based on dielectric-loaded surface plasmon-polariton waveguide-ring resonators (DLSPP-WRRs), whose transmission depends on the ambient temperature. The DLSPP-WRR-based temperature sensors represent polymer ridge waveguides (~1×1 µm2 in cross section) forming 5-µm-radius rings coupled to straight waveguides fabricated by UV-lithography on a 50-nm-thick gold layer atop a 2.3-µm-thick CYTOP layer covering a Si wafer. A broadband light source is used to characterize the DLSPP-WRR wavelength-dependent transmission in the range of 1480-1600 nm and to select the DLSPP-WRR component for temperature sensing. In- and out-coupling single-mode optical fibers are then glued to the corresponding access (photonic) waveguides made of 10-µm-wide polymer ridges. The sample is heated from 21°C to 46 °C resulting in the transmission change of ~0.7 dB at the operation wavelength of ~1510 nm. The minimum detectable temperature change is estimated to be ~5.1∙10−3 °C for the bandwidth of 1 Hz when using standard commercial optical detectors.

© 2011 OSA

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  1. P. R. N. Childs, J. R. Greenwood, and C. A. Long, “Review of temperature measurement,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71(8), 2959–2978 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  2. B. Lee, “Review of the present status of optical fiber sensors,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 9(2), 57–79 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  4. D. K. Gramotnev and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Plasmonics beyond the diffraction limit,” Nat. Photonics 4(2), 83–91 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. Gosciniak, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, T. B. Andersen, V. S. Volkov, J. Kjelstrup-Hansen, L. Markey, and A. Dereux, “Thermo-optic control of dielectric-loaded plasmonic waveguide components,” Opt. Express 18(2), 1207–1216 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. T. Holmgaard, Z. Chen, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Markey, and A. Dereux, “Dielectric-loaded plasmonic waveguide-ring resonators,” Opt. Express 17(4), 2968–2975 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. T. Holmgaard and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Theoretical analysis of dielectric-loaded surface plasmon-polariton waveguides,” Phys. Rev. B 75(24), 245405 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  13. A. Kumar, J. Gosciniak, T. B. Andersen, L. Markey, A. Dereux, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Power monitoring in dielectric-loaded surface plasmon-polariton waveguides,” Opt. Express 19(4), 2972–2978 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. J.-C. Weeber, K. Hassan, A. Bouhelier, G. Colas-des-Francs, J. Arocas, L. Markey, and A. Dereux, “Thermo-electric detection of waveguided surface plasmon propagation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(3), 031113 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  15. S. Papaioannou, K. Vyrsokinos, O. Tsilipakos, A. Pitilakis, K. Hassan, J.-C. Weeber, L. Markey, A. Dereux, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, A. Miliou, E. E. Kriezis, and N. Pleros, “A 320 Gb/s-throughput capable 2×2 silicon-plasmonic router architecture for optical interconnects,” J. Lightwave Technol. 29(21), 3185–3195 (2011).
    [CrossRef]

2011 (6)

T. B. Andersen, Z. H. Han, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Compact on-chip temperature sensors based on dielectric-loaded plasmonic waveguide-ring resonators,” Sensors (Basel Switzerland) 11(2), 1992–2000 (2011).
[CrossRef]

O. Tsilipakos, E. E. Kriezis, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Thermo-optic microring resonator switching elements made of dielectric-loaded plasmonic waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(7), 073111 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Randhawa, A. V. Krasavin, T. Holmgaard, J. Renger, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, A. V. Zayats, and R. Quidant, “Experimental demonstration of dielectric-loaded plasmonic waveguide disk resonators at telecom wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(16), 161102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Kumar, J. Gosciniak, T. B. Andersen, L. Markey, A. Dereux, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Power monitoring in dielectric-loaded surface plasmon-polariton waveguides,” Opt. Express 19(4), 2972–2978 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.-C. Weeber, K. Hassan, A. Bouhelier, G. Colas-des-Francs, J. Arocas, L. Markey, and A. Dereux, “Thermo-electric detection of waveguided surface plasmon propagation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(3), 031113 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Papaioannou, K. Vyrsokinos, O. Tsilipakos, A. Pitilakis, K. Hassan, J.-C. Weeber, L. Markey, A. Dereux, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, A. Miliou, E. E. Kriezis, and N. Pleros, “A 320 Gb/s-throughput capable 2×2 silicon-plasmonic router architecture for optical interconnects,” J. Lightwave Technol. 29(21), 3185–3195 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (3)

2009 (2)

2007 (2)

T. Holmgaard and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Theoretical analysis of dielectric-loaded surface plasmon-polariton waveguides,” Phys. Rev. B 75(24), 245405 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. K. Sharma, R. Jha, and B. D. Gupta, “Fiber-optic sensors based on surface plasmon resonance: A comprehensive review,” IEEE Sens. J. 7(8), 1118–1129 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

B. Lee, “Review of the present status of optical fiber sensors,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 9(2), 57–79 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

P. R. N. Childs, J. R. Greenwood, and C. A. Long, “Review of temperature measurement,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71(8), 2959–2978 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Andersen, T. B.

Arocas, J.

J.-C. Weeber, K. Hassan, A. Bouhelier, G. Colas-des-Francs, J. Arocas, L. Markey, and A. Dereux, “Thermo-electric detection of waveguided surface plasmon propagation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(3), 031113 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bouhelier, A.

J.-C. Weeber, K. Hassan, A. Bouhelier, G. Colas-des-Francs, J. Arocas, L. Markey, and A. Dereux, “Thermo-electric detection of waveguided surface plasmon propagation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(3), 031113 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bozhevolnyi, S. I.

T. B. Andersen, Z. H. Han, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Compact on-chip temperature sensors based on dielectric-loaded plasmonic waveguide-ring resonators,” Sensors (Basel Switzerland) 11(2), 1992–2000 (2011).
[CrossRef]

O. Tsilipakos, E. E. Kriezis, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Thermo-optic microring resonator switching elements made of dielectric-loaded plasmonic waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(7), 073111 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Randhawa, A. V. Krasavin, T. Holmgaard, J. Renger, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, A. V. Zayats, and R. Quidant, “Experimental demonstration of dielectric-loaded plasmonic waveguide disk resonators at telecom wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(16), 161102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Kumar, J. Gosciniak, T. B. Andersen, L. Markey, A. Dereux, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Power monitoring in dielectric-loaded surface plasmon-polariton waveguides,” Opt. Express 19(4), 2972–2978 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Papaioannou, K. Vyrsokinos, O. Tsilipakos, A. Pitilakis, K. Hassan, J.-C. Weeber, L. Markey, A. Dereux, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, A. Miliou, E. E. Kriezis, and N. Pleros, “A 320 Gb/s-throughput capable 2×2 silicon-plasmonic router architecture for optical interconnects,” J. Lightwave Technol. 29(21), 3185–3195 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Gosciniak, V. S. Volkov, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Markey, S. Massenot, and A. Dereux, “Fiber-coupled dielectric-loaded plasmonic waveguides,” Opt. Express 18(5), 5314–5319 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Gosciniak, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, T. B. Andersen, V. S. Volkov, J. Kjelstrup-Hansen, L. Markey, and A. Dereux, “Thermo-optic control of dielectric-loaded plasmonic waveguide components,” Opt. Express 18(2), 1207–1216 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. K. Gramotnev and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Plasmonics beyond the diffraction limit,” Nat. Photonics 4(2), 83–91 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Holmgaard, Z. Chen, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Markey, and A. Dereux, “Dielectric-loaded plasmonic waveguide-ring resonators,” Opt. Express 17(4), 2968–2975 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Holmgaard and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Theoretical analysis of dielectric-loaded surface plasmon-polariton waveguides,” Phys. Rev. B 75(24), 245405 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y.-H.

Chen, Z.

Childs, P. R. N.

P. R. N. Childs, J. R. Greenwood, and C. A. Long, “Review of temperature measurement,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71(8), 2959–2978 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Colas-des-Francs, G.

J.-C. Weeber, K. Hassan, A. Bouhelier, G. Colas-des-Francs, J. Arocas, L. Markey, and A. Dereux, “Thermo-electric detection of waveguided surface plasmon propagation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(3), 031113 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Dereux, A.

Gong, Y.

Gosciniak, J.

Gramotnev, D. K.

D. K. Gramotnev and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Plasmonics beyond the diffraction limit,” Nat. Photonics 4(2), 83–91 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Greenwood, J. R.

P. R. N. Childs, J. R. Greenwood, and C. A. Long, “Review of temperature measurement,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71(8), 2959–2978 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Gupta, B. D.

A. K. Sharma, R. Jha, and B. D. Gupta, “Fiber-optic sensors based on surface plasmon resonance: A comprehensive review,” IEEE Sens. J. 7(8), 1118–1129 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Han, Z. H.

T. B. Andersen, Z. H. Han, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Compact on-chip temperature sensors based on dielectric-loaded plasmonic waveguide-ring resonators,” Sensors (Basel Switzerland) 11(2), 1992–2000 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hassan, K.

Holmgaard, T.

S. Randhawa, A. V. Krasavin, T. Holmgaard, J. Renger, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, A. V. Zayats, and R. Quidant, “Experimental demonstration of dielectric-loaded plasmonic waveguide disk resonators at telecom wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(16), 161102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. Holmgaard, Z. Chen, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Markey, and A. Dereux, “Dielectric-loaded plasmonic waveguide-ring resonators,” Opt. Express 17(4), 2968–2975 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Holmgaard and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Theoretical analysis of dielectric-loaded surface plasmon-polariton waveguides,” Phys. Rev. B 75(24), 245405 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jha, R.

A. K. Sharma, R. Jha, and B. D. Gupta, “Fiber-optic sensors based on surface plasmon resonance: A comprehensive review,” IEEE Sens. J. 7(8), 1118–1129 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kjelstrup-Hansen, J.

Krasavin, A. V.

S. Randhawa, A. V. Krasavin, T. Holmgaard, J. Renger, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, A. V. Zayats, and R. Quidant, “Experimental demonstration of dielectric-loaded plasmonic waveguide disk resonators at telecom wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(16), 161102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kriezis, E. E.

Kumar, A.

Lee, B.

B. Lee, “Review of the present status of optical fiber sensors,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 9(2), 57–79 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Long, C. A.

P. R. N. Childs, J. R. Greenwood, and C. A. Long, “Review of temperature measurement,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71(8), 2959–2978 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Markey, L.

Massenot, S.

Miliou, A.

Papaioannou, S.

Pitilakis, A.

Pleros, N.

Quidant, R.

S. Randhawa, A. V. Krasavin, T. Holmgaard, J. Renger, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, A. V. Zayats, and R. Quidant, “Experimental demonstration of dielectric-loaded plasmonic waveguide disk resonators at telecom wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(16), 161102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Randhawa, S.

S. Randhawa, A. V. Krasavin, T. Holmgaard, J. Renger, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, A. V. Zayats, and R. Quidant, “Experimental demonstration of dielectric-loaded plasmonic waveguide disk resonators at telecom wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(16), 161102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Rao, Y.-J.

Renger, J.

S. Randhawa, A. V. Krasavin, T. Holmgaard, J. Renger, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, A. V. Zayats, and R. Quidant, “Experimental demonstration of dielectric-loaded plasmonic waveguide disk resonators at telecom wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(16), 161102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sharma, A. K.

A. K. Sharma, R. Jha, and B. D. Gupta, “Fiber-optic sensors based on surface plasmon resonance: A comprehensive review,” IEEE Sens. J. 7(8), 1118–1129 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tsilipakos, O.

Volkov, V. S.

Vyrsokinos, K.

Weeber, J.-C.

Wu, Y.

Zayats, A. V.

S. Randhawa, A. V. Krasavin, T. Holmgaard, J. Renger, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, A. V. Zayats, and R. Quidant, “Experimental demonstration of dielectric-loaded plasmonic waveguide disk resonators at telecom wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(16), 161102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

S. Randhawa, A. V. Krasavin, T. Holmgaard, J. Renger, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, A. V. Zayats, and R. Quidant, “Experimental demonstration of dielectric-loaded plasmonic waveguide disk resonators at telecom wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(16), 161102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J.-C. Weeber, K. Hassan, A. Bouhelier, G. Colas-des-Francs, J. Arocas, L. Markey, and A. Dereux, “Thermo-electric detection of waveguided surface plasmon propagation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(3), 031113 (2011).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Sens. J. (1)

A. K. Sharma, R. Jha, and B. D. Gupta, “Fiber-optic sensors based on surface plasmon resonance: A comprehensive review,” IEEE Sens. J. 7(8), 1118–1129 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

O. Tsilipakos, E. E. Kriezis, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Thermo-optic microring resonator switching elements made of dielectric-loaded plasmonic waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(7), 073111 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

Nat. Photonics (1)

D. K. Gramotnev and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Plasmonics beyond the diffraction limit,” Nat. Photonics 4(2), 83–91 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (5)

Opt. Fiber Technol. (1)

B. Lee, “Review of the present status of optical fiber sensors,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 9(2), 57–79 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

T. Holmgaard and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Theoretical analysis of dielectric-loaded surface plasmon-polariton waveguides,” Phys. Rev. B 75(24), 245405 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

P. R. N. Childs, J. R. Greenwood, and C. A. Long, “Review of temperature measurement,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71(8), 2959–2978 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sensors (Basel Switzerland) (1)

T. B. Andersen, Z. H. Han, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Compact on-chip temperature sensors based on dielectric-loaded plasmonic waveguide-ring resonators,” Sensors (Basel Switzerland) 11(2), 1992–2000 (2011).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the sample and experimental setup: (a) in-coupling fiber glued to the sample edge, (b) heating setup (viewed from the side along the light propagation direction) with the sample resting on a Si-wafer heated by a Peltier element glued to the wafer, (c) out-coupling fiber glued to the sample edge, (d) schematic of the characterization setup and optical microscope image of a plasmonic section containing DLSPP-WRR structure (its excitation is seen with bright spots at structural junctions), (e) schematic of the sample with glued fibers (viewed from the side perpendicular to the propagation direction) indicating thicknesses of different structural layers.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Temperature characterization of DLSPP-WRR transmission: (a) transmission spectra recorded repeatedly at nominal room temperature of 21°C (blue curve) and 46 °C (red curve), (b) blow-up of the spectra in the area marked with a circle in (a) showing the average transmission along with its standard deviation resulting from repeating the same measurements over several hours, (c) typical changes in transmission with increasing temperature as compared to the reference transmission at 21 °C, showing that maximum changes occur at the wavelengths corresponding to the steepest slopes of the transmission spectra shown in (a) as expected [8], (d) temperature dependence of variation in the DLSPP-WRR transmission at the wavelength of 1511 nm resulting in the temperature sensitivity of 0.023 dB/°C ≈2.8 ·10−7 /°C.

Equations (1)

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d T min =NEP× B /( P in dTr dT ),

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