Abstract

Different sized/shaped micro protrusive lens arrays atop poly(methyl methacrylate) can be fabricated by a simple two-step method, i.e., indentation followed by immersion in ethanol. Profile and projection of obtained microlenses were characterized. Thermal stability of microlenses was examined at 25°C and 60°C. This work demonstrates a cost effective approach for massive fabrication of microlens array with high reliability.

© 2011 OSA

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References

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  24. W. M. Huang, J. F. Su, M. H. Hong, and B. Yang, “Pile-up and sink-in in micro-indentation of a NiTi shape-memory alloy,” Scr. Mater. 53(9), 1055–1057 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  25. J. T. Wu and S. Y. Yang, “A gasbag-roller-assisted UV imprinting technique for fabrication of a microlens array on a PMMA substrate,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 20(8), 085038 (2010).
    [CrossRef]

2011 (6)

C. N. Hu, H. T. Hsieh, and G. D. J. Su, “Fabrication of microlens arrays by a rolling process with soft polymethylsiloxane molds,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 21(6), 065013 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhao, W. M. Huang, and Y. Q. Fu, “Formation of micro/nano-scale wrinkling patterns atop shape memory polymers,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 21(6), 067007 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhao, C. C. Wang, W. M. Huang, and H. Purnawali, “Buckling of poly(methyl methacrylate) in stimulus-responsive shape recovery,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(13), 131911 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Lee, Y. W. Kim, Y. K. Kim, C. J. Yu, J. S. Gwag, and J. H. Kim, “Microlens array fabricated using electrohydrodynamic instability and surface properties,” Opt. Express 19(11), 10673–10678 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Park, Z. Gan, W. Y. Leung, R. Liu, Z. Ye, K. Constant, J. Shinar, R. Shinar, and K. M. Ho, “Soft holographic interference lithography microlens for enhanced organic light emitting diode light extraction,” Opt. Express 19(S4Suppl 4), A786–A792 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. J. Cadarso, J. Perera-Núñez, L. Jacot-Descombes, K. Pfeiffer, U. Ostrzinski, A. Voigt, A. Llobera, G. Grützer, and J. Brugger, “Microlenses with defined contour shapes,” Opt. Express 19(19), 18665–18670 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (2)

L. Li and A. Y. Yi, “Development of a 3D artificial compound eye,” Opt. Express 18(17), 18125–18137 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. T. Wu and S. Y. Yang, “A gasbag-roller-assisted UV imprinting technique for fabrication of a microlens array on a PMMA substrate,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 20(8), 085038 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (5)

2008 (1)

N. Liu, Q. Xie, W. M. Huang, S. J. Phee, and N. Q. Guo, “Formation of micro protrusion arrays atop shape memory polymer,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 18(2), 027001 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2005 (4)

A. Y. Yi and L. Li, “Design and fabrication of a microlens array by use of a slow tool servo,” Opt. Lett. 30(13), 1707–1709 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. M. Huang, J. F. Su, M. H. Hong, and B. Yang, “Pile-up and sink-in in micro-indentation of a NiTi shape-memory alloy,” Scr. Mater. 53(9), 1055–1057 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Yabu and M. Shimomura, “Simple fabrication of micro lens arrays,” Langmuir 21(5), 1709–1711 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. P. D. Shieh, Y. P. Huang, and K. W. Chien, “Micro-optics for liquid crystal displays application,” J. Disp. Technol. 1(1), 62–76 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (3)

D. A. Baillie and J. E. Gendler, “Zero-space microlenses for CMOS image sensors: Optical modeling and lithographic process development,” Proc. SPIE 5377, 953–959 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B. K. Lee, D. S. Kim, and T. H. Kwon, “Replication of microlens arrays by injection molding,” Microsyst. Technol. 10(6-7), 531–535 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. Y. Zhang, N. Justis, and Y. H. Lo, “Integrated fluidic adaptive zoom lens,” Opt. Lett. 29(24), 2855–2857 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

1999 (1)

F. Beinhorn, J. Ihlemann, K. Luther, and J. Troe, “Micro-lens arrays generated by UV laser irradiation of doped PMMA,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 68(6), 709–713 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

1988 (1)

J. P. Harmon, S. Lee, and J. C. M. Li, “Anisotropic methanol transport in PMMA after mechanical deformation,” Polymer (Guildf.) 29(7), 1221–1226 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Baillie, D. A.

D. A. Baillie and J. E. Gendler, “Zero-space microlenses for CMOS image sensors: Optical modeling and lithographic process development,” Proc. SPIE 5377, 953–959 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Beinhorn, F.

F. Beinhorn, J. Ihlemann, K. Luther, and J. Troe, “Micro-lens arrays generated by UV laser irradiation of doped PMMA,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 68(6), 709–713 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Brugger, J.

Cadarso, V. J.

Chen, F. C.

J. P. Lu, W. K. Huang, and F. C. Chen, “Self-positioning microlens arrays prepared using ink-jet printing,” Opt. Eng. 48(7), 073606 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chien, K. W.

H. P. D. Shieh, Y. P. Huang, and K. W. Chien, “Micro-optics for liquid crystal displays application,” J. Disp. Technol. 1(1), 62–76 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cho, S. H.

Chokshi, T. V.

Chronis, N.

Constant, K.

Fu, Y. Q.

Y. Zhao, W. M. Huang, and Y. Q. Fu, “Formation of micro/nano-scale wrinkling patterns atop shape memory polymers,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 21(6), 067007 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Gan, Z.

Gendler, J. E.

D. A. Baillie and J. E. Gendler, “Zero-space microlenses for CMOS image sensors: Optical modeling and lithographic process development,” Proc. SPIE 5377, 953–959 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Grützer, G.

Guo, N. Q.

N. Liu, Q. Xie, W. M. Huang, S. J. Phee, and N. Q. Guo, “Formation of micro protrusion arrays atop shape memory polymer,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 18(2), 027001 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gwag, J. S.

Harmon, J. P.

J. P. Harmon, S. Lee, and J. C. M. Li, “Anisotropic methanol transport in PMMA after mechanical deformation,” Polymer (Guildf.) 29(7), 1221–1226 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Ho, K. M.

Hong, M. H.

W. M. Huang, J. F. Su, M. H. Hong, and B. Yang, “Pile-up and sink-in in micro-indentation of a NiTi shape-memory alloy,” Scr. Mater. 53(9), 1055–1057 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hsieh, H. T.

C. N. Hu, H. T. Hsieh, and G. D. J. Su, “Fabrication of microlens arrays by a rolling process with soft polymethylsiloxane molds,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 21(6), 065013 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hu, C. N.

C. N. Hu, H. T. Hsieh, and G. D. J. Su, “Fabrication of microlens arrays by a rolling process with soft polymethylsiloxane molds,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 21(6), 065013 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Huang, W. K.

J. P. Lu, W. K. Huang, and F. C. Chen, “Self-positioning microlens arrays prepared using ink-jet printing,” Opt. Eng. 48(7), 073606 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Huang, W. M.

Y. Zhao, C. C. Wang, W. M. Huang, and H. Purnawali, “Buckling of poly(methyl methacrylate) in stimulus-responsive shape recovery,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(13), 131911 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhao, W. M. Huang, and Y. Q. Fu, “Formation of micro/nano-scale wrinkling patterns atop shape memory polymers,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 21(6), 067007 (2011).
[CrossRef]

N. Liu, Q. Xie, W. M. Huang, S. J. Phee, and N. Q. Guo, “Formation of micro protrusion arrays atop shape memory polymer,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 18(2), 027001 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W. M. Huang, J. F. Su, M. H. Hong, and B. Yang, “Pile-up and sink-in in micro-indentation of a NiTi shape-memory alloy,” Scr. Mater. 53(9), 1055–1057 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Huang, Y. P.

H. P. D. Shieh, Y. P. Huang, and K. W. Chien, “Micro-optics for liquid crystal displays application,” J. Disp. Technol. 1(1), 62–76 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ihlemann, J.

F. Beinhorn, J. Ihlemann, K. Luther, and J. Troe, “Micro-lens arrays generated by UV laser irradiation of doped PMMA,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 68(6), 709–713 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Jacot-Descombes, L.

Jitsuno, T.

Justis, N.

Kim, D. S.

B. K. Lee, D. S. Kim, and T. H. Kwon, “Replication of microlens arrays by injection molding,” Microsyst. Technol. 10(6-7), 531–535 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. H.

Kim, N. H.

Kim, Y. K.

Kim, Y. W.

Kwon, T. H.

B. K. Lee, D. S. Kim, and T. H. Kwon, “Replication of microlens arrays by injection molding,” Microsyst. Technol. 10(6-7), 531–535 (2004).
[CrossRef]

LaCosse, J.

Lee, B. K.

B. K. Lee, D. S. Kim, and T. H. Kwon, “Replication of microlens arrays by injection molding,” Microsyst. Technol. 10(6-7), 531–535 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S.

J. P. Harmon, S. Lee, and J. C. M. Li, “Anisotropic methanol transport in PMMA after mechanical deformation,” Polymer (Guildf.) 29(7), 1221–1226 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y. J.

Leung, W. Y.

Li, J. C. M.

J. P. Harmon, S. Lee, and J. C. M. Li, “Anisotropic methanol transport in PMMA after mechanical deformation,” Polymer (Guildf.) 29(7), 1221–1226 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Li, L.

Liu, N.

N. Liu, Q. Xie, W. M. Huang, S. J. Phee, and N. Q. Guo, “Formation of micro protrusion arrays atop shape memory polymer,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 18(2), 027001 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Liu, R.

Llobera, A.

Lo, Y. H.

Lu, J. P.

J. P. Lu, W. K. Huang, and F. C. Chen, “Self-positioning microlens arrays prepared using ink-jet printing,” Opt. Eng. 48(7), 073606 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Luther, K.

F. Beinhorn, J. Ihlemann, K. Luther, and J. Troe, “Micro-lens arrays generated by UV laser irradiation of doped PMMA,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 68(6), 709–713 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Marks, R.

Mathine, D. L.

Nakai, S.

Nakatsuka, M.

Ostrzinski, U.

Park, J. M.

Perera-Núñez, J.

Peyghambarian, N.

Peyman, G.

Pfeiffer, K.

Phee, S. J.

N. Liu, Q. Xie, W. M. Huang, S. J. Phee, and N. Q. Guo, “Formation of micro protrusion arrays atop shape memory polymer,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 18(2), 027001 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Purnawali, H.

Y. Zhao, C. C. Wang, W. M. Huang, and H. Purnawali, “Buckling of poly(methyl methacrylate) in stimulus-responsive shape recovery,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(13), 131911 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Qiao, W.

Ren, D.

Ren, H.

Schwiegerling, J.

Shieh, H. P. D.

H. P. D. Shieh, Y. P. Huang, and K. W. Chien, “Micro-optics for liquid crystal displays application,” J. Disp. Technol. 1(1), 62–76 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Shimomura, M.

H. Yabu and M. Shimomura, “Simple fabrication of micro lens arrays,” Langmuir 21(5), 1709–1711 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shinar, J.

Shinar, R.

Su, G. D. J.

C. N. Hu, H. T. Hsieh, and G. D. J. Su, “Fabrication of microlens arrays by a rolling process with soft polymethylsiloxane molds,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 21(6), 065013 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Toshiyoshi, G. D. J. Su, J. LaCosse, and M. C. Wu, “A surface micromachined optical scanner array using photoresist lenses fabricated by a thermal reflow process,” J. Lightwave Technol. 21(7), 1700–1708 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Su, J. F.

W. M. Huang, J. F. Su, M. H. Hong, and B. Yang, “Pile-up and sink-in in micro-indentation of a NiTi shape-memory alloy,” Scr. Mater. 53(9), 1055–1057 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Toshiyoshi, H.

Tripathi, A.

Troe, J.

F. Beinhorn, J. Ihlemann, K. Luther, and J. Troe, “Micro-lens arrays generated by UV laser irradiation of doped PMMA,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 68(6), 709–713 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tsai, F. S.

Voigt, A.

Wang, C. C.

Y. Zhao, C. C. Wang, W. M. Huang, and H. Purnawali, “Buckling of poly(methyl methacrylate) in stimulus-responsive shape recovery,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(13), 131911 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wu, J. T.

J. T. Wu and S. Y. Yang, “A gasbag-roller-assisted UV imprinting technique for fabrication of a microlens array on a PMMA substrate,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 20(8), 085038 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wu, M. C.

Wu, S. T.

Xie, Q.

N. Liu, Q. Xie, W. M. Huang, S. J. Phee, and N. Q. Guo, “Formation of micro protrusion arrays atop shape memory polymer,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 18(2), 027001 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yabu, H.

H. Yabu and M. Shimomura, “Simple fabrication of micro lens arrays,” Langmuir 21(5), 1709–1711 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, B.

W. M. Huang, J. F. Su, M. H. Hong, and B. Yang, “Pile-up and sink-in in micro-indentation of a NiTi shape-memory alloy,” Scr. Mater. 53(9), 1055–1057 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yang, S. Y.

J. T. Wu and S. Y. Yang, “A gasbag-roller-assisted UV imprinting technique for fabrication of a microlens array on a PMMA substrate,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 20(8), 085038 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ye, Z.

Yi, A. Y.

Yoon, G. Y.

Yu, C. J.

Zhang, D. Y.

Zhao, Y.

Y. Zhao, W. M. Huang, and Y. Q. Fu, “Formation of micro/nano-scale wrinkling patterns atop shape memory polymers,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 21(6), 067007 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhao, C. C. Wang, W. M. Huang, and H. Purnawali, “Buckling of poly(methyl methacrylate) in stimulus-responsive shape recovery,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(13), 131911 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

Y. Zhao, C. C. Wang, W. M. Huang, and H. Purnawali, “Buckling of poly(methyl methacrylate) in stimulus-responsive shape recovery,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(13), 131911 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. (1)

F. Beinhorn, J. Ihlemann, K. Luther, and J. Troe, “Micro-lens arrays generated by UV laser irradiation of doped PMMA,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 68(6), 709–713 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Disp. Technol. (1)

H. P. D. Shieh, Y. P. Huang, and K. W. Chien, “Micro-optics for liquid crystal displays application,” J. Disp. Technol. 1(1), 62–76 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

J. Micromech. Microeng. (4)

J. T. Wu and S. Y. Yang, “A gasbag-roller-assisted UV imprinting technique for fabrication of a microlens array on a PMMA substrate,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 20(8), 085038 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. N. Hu, H. T. Hsieh, and G. D. J. Su, “Fabrication of microlens arrays by a rolling process with soft polymethylsiloxane molds,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 21(6), 065013 (2011).
[CrossRef]

N. Liu, Q. Xie, W. M. Huang, S. J. Phee, and N. Q. Guo, “Formation of micro protrusion arrays atop shape memory polymer,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 18(2), 027001 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhao, W. M. Huang, and Y. Q. Fu, “Formation of micro/nano-scale wrinkling patterns atop shape memory polymers,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 21(6), 067007 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Langmuir (1)

H. Yabu and M. Shimomura, “Simple fabrication of micro lens arrays,” Langmuir 21(5), 1709–1711 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Microsyst. Technol. (1)

B. K. Lee, D. S. Kim, and T. H. Kwon, “Replication of microlens arrays by injection molding,” Microsyst. Technol. 10(6-7), 531–535 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

J. P. Lu, W. K. Huang, and F. C. Chen, “Self-positioning microlens arrays prepared using ink-jet printing,” Opt. Eng. 48(7), 073606 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (6)

Opt. Lett. (4)

Polymer (Guildf.) (1)

J. P. Harmon, S. Lee, and J. C. M. Li, “Anisotropic methanol transport in PMMA after mechanical deformation,” Polymer (Guildf.) 29(7), 1221–1226 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

D. A. Baillie and J. E. Gendler, “Zero-space microlenses for CMOS image sensors: Optical modeling and lithographic process development,” Proc. SPIE 5377, 953–959 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Scr. Mater. (1)

W. M. Huang, J. F. Su, M. H. Hong, and B. Yang, “Pile-up and sink-in in micro-indentation of a NiTi shape-memory alloy,” Scr. Mater. 53(9), 1055–1057 (2005).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Formation of micro protrusions.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

MLAs and surface profile.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Thermal stability of MLAs.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Projection experiment and results.

Equations (1)

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R= w f 2 +4 h f 2 8 h f , f= R n1 , NA= w f 2f

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