Abstract

We report experimental demonstrations of a quantitative technique for elemental mapping. The technique operates in full-field imaging mode and uses three intensity measurements at energies across an absorption edge of an element of interest to obtain its elemental distribution. The experimental results show that the technique can overcome some limitations in the conventional Absorption Edge Contrast Imaging. The technique allows for an accurate determination of the elemental distribution in a compound sample even at a low level of percentage composition. It is also robust to the choice of energy intervals.

© 2011 OSA

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  1. I. Gurrappa, D. Manova, J. Gerlach, S. Mandl, and B. Rauschenbach, “Influence of nitrogen implantation on the high temperature oxidation of titanium-base alloys,” Surf. Coat. Technol. 201, 3536–3546 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. S. Hou, J. T. Guo, G. X. Yang, L. Z. Zhou, X. Z. Qin, and H. Q. Ye, “The microstructural instability of a hot corrosion resistant superalloy during long-term exposure,” Mater. Sci. Eng., A 498, 349–358 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  3. A. S. Yen, R. Gellert, C. Schroder, R. V. Morris, J. F. Bell, A. T. Knudson, B. C. Clark, D. W. Ming, J. A. Crisp, R. E. Arvidson, D. Blaney, J. Bruckner, P. R. Christensen, D. J. DesMarais, P. A. de Souza, T. E. Economou, A. Ghosh, B. C. Hahn, K. E. Herkenhoff, L. A. Haskin, J. A. Hurowitz, B. L. Joliff, J. R. Johnson, G. Klingelhofer, M. B. Madsen, S. M. McLennan, H. Y. McSween, L. Richter, R. Rieder, D. Rodionov, L. Soderblom, S. W. Squyres, N. J. Tosca, A. Wang, M. Wyatt, and J. Zipfel, “An integrated view of the chemistry and mineralogy of martian soils,” Nature 436, 49–54 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. R. S. Friedman, M. C. McAlpine, D. S. Ricketts, D. Ham, and C. M. Lieber, “Nanotechnology high-speed integrated nanowire circuits,” Nature 434, 1085–1085 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  7. C. Q. Tran, “Multiwavelength elemental contrast phase imaging by the use of dispersion effects,” Phys. Rev. A 78, 013839 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. Miao, P. Charalambous, J. Kirz, and D. Sayre, “Extending the methodology of x-ray crystallography to allow imaging of micrometre-sized non-crystalline specimens,” Nature 400, 342–344 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  9. B. Abbey, K. A. Nugent, G. J. Williams, J. N. Clark, A. G. Peele, M. A. Pfeifer, M. de Jonge, and I. McNulty, “Keyhole coherent diffractive imaging,” Nat Phys 4, 394–398 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. N. Clark, G. J. Williams, H. M. Quiney, L. Whitehead, M. D. de Jonge, E. Hanssen, M. Altissimo, K. A. Nugent, and A. G. Peele, “Quantitative phase measurement in coherent diffraction imaging,” Opt. Express 16, 3342–3348 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. D. Paganin, S. C. Mayo, T. E. Gureyev, P. R. Miller, and S. W. Wilkins, “Simultaneous phase and amplitude extraction from a single defocused image of a homogeneous object,” J. Microsc. 206, 33–40 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. L. Turner, B. Dhal, J. Hayes, A. Mancuso, K. Nugent, D. Paterson, R. Scholten, C. Tran, and A. Peele, “X-ray phase imaging: Demonstration of extended conditions for homogeneous objects,” Opt. Express 12, 2960–2965 (2004).
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  18. M. B. Luu, B. D. Arhatari, C. Q. Tran, E. Balaur, B. T. Pham, N. T. Vo, B. Chen, C. T. Putkunz, N. Kirby, S. Mudie, and A. G. Peele, “Quantitative phase imaging with polychromatic x-ray sources,” Opt. Express 19, 8127–8134 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. C. T. Chantler, “Theoretical form factor, attenuation, and scattering tabulation for z=1–92 from e=1–10 ev to e=0.4–1.0 mev,” J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 24, 71–642 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  20. D. Cookson, N. Kirby, R. Knott, M. Lee, and D. Schultz, “Strategies for data collection and calibration with a pinhole-geometry saxs instrument on a synchrotron beamline,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 13, 440–444 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. C. T. Chantler, C. Q. Tran, Z. Barnea, D. Paterson, D. J. Cookson, and D. X. Balaic, “Measurement of the x-ray mass attenuation coefficient of copper using 8.85̆20 kev synchrotron radiation,” Phys. Rev. A 64, 062506 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  22. J. L. Glover, C. T. Chantler, Z. Barnea, N. A. Rae, C. Q. Tran, D. C. Creagh, D. Paterson, and B. B. Dhal, “Measurements of the x-ray mass-attenuation coefficient and imaginary component of the form factor of copper,” Phys. Rev. A 78, 052902 (2008).
    [CrossRef]

2011 (2)

C. T. Putkunz, J. N. Clark, D. J. Vine, G. J. Williams, M. A. Pfeifer, E. Balaur, I. McNulty, K. A. Nugent, and A. G. Peele, “Phase-diverse coherent diffractive imaging: High sensitivity with low dose,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 013903 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. B. Luu, B. D. Arhatari, C. Q. Tran, E. Balaur, B. T. Pham, N. T. Vo, B. Chen, C. T. Putkunz, N. Kirby, S. Mudie, and A. G. Peele, “Quantitative phase imaging with polychromatic x-ray sources,” Opt. Express 19, 8127–8134 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (1)

2008 (6)

B. Abbey, K. A. Nugent, G. J. Williams, J. N. Clark, A. G. Peele, M. A. Pfeifer, M. de Jonge, and I. McNulty, “Keyhole coherent diffractive imaging,” Nat Phys 4, 394–398 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. N. Clark, G. J. Williams, H. M. Quiney, L. Whitehead, M. D. de Jonge, E. Hanssen, M. Altissimo, K. A. Nugent, and A. G. Peele, “Quantitative phase measurement in coherent diffraction imaging,” Opt. Express 16, 3342–3348 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Arhatari, K. Hannah, E. Balaur, and A. Peele, “Phase imaging using a polychromatic x-ray laboratory source,” Opt. Express 16, 19950–19956 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. S. Hou, J. T. Guo, G. X. Yang, L. Z. Zhou, X. Z. Qin, and H. Q. Ye, “The microstructural instability of a hot corrosion resistant superalloy during long-term exposure,” Mater. Sci. Eng., A 498, 349–358 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Q. Tran, “Multiwavelength elemental contrast phase imaging by the use of dispersion effects,” Phys. Rev. A 78, 013839 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Glover, C. T. Chantler, Z. Barnea, N. A. Rae, C. Q. Tran, D. C. Creagh, D. Paterson, and B. B. Dhal, “Measurements of the x-ray mass-attenuation coefficient and imaginary component of the form factor of copper,” Phys. Rev. A 78, 052902 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2006 (3)

D. Cookson, N. Kirby, R. Knott, M. Lee, and D. Schultz, “Strategies for data collection and calibration with a pinhole-geometry saxs instrument on a synchrotron beamline,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 13, 440–444 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Gurrappa, D. Manova, J. Gerlach, S. Mandl, and B. Rauschenbach, “Influence of nitrogen implantation on the high temperature oxidation of titanium-base alloys,” Surf. Coat. Technol. 201, 3536–3546 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Williams, H. M. Quiney, B. B. Dhal, C. Q. Tran, K. A. Nugent, A. G. Peele, D. Paterson, and M. D. d. Jonge, “Fresnel coherent diffractive imaging,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 025506 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (4)

H. M. Quiney, K. A. Nugent, and A. G. Peele, “Iterative image reconstruction algorithms using wave-front intensity and phase variation,” Opt. Lett. 30, 1638–1640 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Laville, L. A. Gizzi, P. Koster, and L. Labate, “Differential absorption imaging for elemental analysis of thin samples using a soft laser-plasma x-ray source,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 538, 738–746 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. S. Yen, R. Gellert, C. Schroder, R. V. Morris, J. F. Bell, A. T. Knudson, B. C. Clark, D. W. Ming, J. A. Crisp, R. E. Arvidson, D. Blaney, J. Bruckner, P. R. Christensen, D. J. DesMarais, P. A. de Souza, T. E. Economou, A. Ghosh, B. C. Hahn, K. E. Herkenhoff, L. A. Haskin, J. A. Hurowitz, B. L. Joliff, J. R. Johnson, G. Klingelhofer, M. B. Madsen, S. M. McLennan, H. Y. McSween, L. Richter, R. Rieder, D. Rodionov, L. Soderblom, S. W. Squyres, N. J. Tosca, A. Wang, M. Wyatt, and J. Zipfel, “An integrated view of the chemistry and mineralogy of martian soils,” Nature 436, 49–54 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. S. Friedman, M. C. McAlpine, D. S. Ricketts, D. Ham, and C. M. Lieber, “Nanotechnology high-speed integrated nanowire circuits,” Nature 434, 1085–1085 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

2002 (1)

D. Paganin, S. C. Mayo, T. E. Gureyev, P. R. Miller, and S. W. Wilkins, “Simultaneous phase and amplitude extraction from a single defocused image of a homogeneous object,” J. Microsc. 206, 33–40 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

C. T. Chantler, C. Q. Tran, Z. Barnea, D. Paterson, D. J. Cookson, and D. X. Balaic, “Measurement of the x-ray mass attenuation coefficient of copper using 8.85̆20 kev synchrotron radiation,” Phys. Rev. A 64, 062506 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

J. Miao, P. Charalambous, J. Kirz, and D. Sayre, “Extending the methodology of x-ray crystallography to allow imaging of micrometre-sized non-crystalline specimens,” Nature 400, 342–344 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

C. T. Chantler, “Theoretical form factor, attenuation, and scattering tabulation for z=1–92 from e=1–10 ev to e=0.4–1.0 mev,” J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 24, 71–642 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

H. Rarback, F. Cinotti, C. Jacobsen, J. Kenney, J. Kirz, and R. Rosser, “Elemental analysis using differential absorption techniques,” Biol. Trace Elem. Res. 13, 103–113 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Abbey, B.

C. T. Putkunz, M. A. Pfeifer, A. G. Peele, G. J. Williams, H. M. Quiney, B. Abbey, K. A. Nugent, and I. McNulty, “Fresnel coherent diffraction tomography,” Opt. Express 18, 11746–11753 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Abbey, K. A. Nugent, G. J. Williams, J. N. Clark, A. G. Peele, M. A. Pfeifer, M. de Jonge, and I. McNulty, “Keyhole coherent diffractive imaging,” Nat Phys 4, 394–398 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Altissimo, M.

Arhatari, B.

Arhatari, B. D.

Arvidson, R. E.

A. S. Yen, R. Gellert, C. Schroder, R. V. Morris, J. F. Bell, A. T. Knudson, B. C. Clark, D. W. Ming, J. A. Crisp, R. E. Arvidson, D. Blaney, J. Bruckner, P. R. Christensen, D. J. DesMarais, P. A. de Souza, T. E. Economou, A. Ghosh, B. C. Hahn, K. E. Herkenhoff, L. A. Haskin, J. A. Hurowitz, B. L. Joliff, J. R. Johnson, G. Klingelhofer, M. B. Madsen, S. M. McLennan, H. Y. McSween, L. Richter, R. Rieder, D. Rodionov, L. Soderblom, S. W. Squyres, N. J. Tosca, A. Wang, M. Wyatt, and J. Zipfel, “An integrated view of the chemistry and mineralogy of martian soils,” Nature 436, 49–54 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Balaic, D. X.

C. T. Chantler, C. Q. Tran, Z. Barnea, D. Paterson, D. J. Cookson, and D. X. Balaic, “Measurement of the x-ray mass attenuation coefficient of copper using 8.85̆20 kev synchrotron radiation,” Phys. Rev. A 64, 062506 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Balaur, E.

Barnea, Z.

J. L. Glover, C. T. Chantler, Z. Barnea, N. A. Rae, C. Q. Tran, D. C. Creagh, D. Paterson, and B. B. Dhal, “Measurements of the x-ray mass-attenuation coefficient and imaginary component of the form factor of copper,” Phys. Rev. A 78, 052902 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. T. Chantler, C. Q. Tran, Z. Barnea, D. Paterson, D. J. Cookson, and D. X. Balaic, “Measurement of the x-ray mass attenuation coefficient of copper using 8.85̆20 kev synchrotron radiation,” Phys. Rev. A 64, 062506 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bell, J. F.

A. S. Yen, R. Gellert, C. Schroder, R. V. Morris, J. F. Bell, A. T. Knudson, B. C. Clark, D. W. Ming, J. A. Crisp, R. E. Arvidson, D. Blaney, J. Bruckner, P. R. Christensen, D. J. DesMarais, P. A. de Souza, T. E. Economou, A. Ghosh, B. C. Hahn, K. E. Herkenhoff, L. A. Haskin, J. A. Hurowitz, B. L. Joliff, J. R. Johnson, G. Klingelhofer, M. B. Madsen, S. M. McLennan, H. Y. McSween, L. Richter, R. Rieder, D. Rodionov, L. Soderblom, S. W. Squyres, N. J. Tosca, A. Wang, M. Wyatt, and J. Zipfel, “An integrated view of the chemistry and mineralogy of martian soils,” Nature 436, 49–54 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Blaney, D.

A. S. Yen, R. Gellert, C. Schroder, R. V. Morris, J. F. Bell, A. T. Knudson, B. C. Clark, D. W. Ming, J. A. Crisp, R. E. Arvidson, D. Blaney, J. Bruckner, P. R. Christensen, D. J. DesMarais, P. A. de Souza, T. E. Economou, A. Ghosh, B. C. Hahn, K. E. Herkenhoff, L. A. Haskin, J. A. Hurowitz, B. L. Joliff, J. R. Johnson, G. Klingelhofer, M. B. Madsen, S. M. McLennan, H. Y. McSween, L. Richter, R. Rieder, D. Rodionov, L. Soderblom, S. W. Squyres, N. J. Tosca, A. Wang, M. Wyatt, and J. Zipfel, “An integrated view of the chemistry and mineralogy of martian soils,” Nature 436, 49–54 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bruckner, J.

A. S. Yen, R. Gellert, C. Schroder, R. V. Morris, J. F. Bell, A. T. Knudson, B. C. Clark, D. W. Ming, J. A. Crisp, R. E. Arvidson, D. Blaney, J. Bruckner, P. R. Christensen, D. J. DesMarais, P. A. de Souza, T. E. Economou, A. Ghosh, B. C. Hahn, K. E. Herkenhoff, L. A. Haskin, J. A. Hurowitz, B. L. Joliff, J. R. Johnson, G. Klingelhofer, M. B. Madsen, S. M. McLennan, H. Y. McSween, L. Richter, R. Rieder, D. Rodionov, L. Soderblom, S. W. Squyres, N. J. Tosca, A. Wang, M. Wyatt, and J. Zipfel, “An integrated view of the chemistry and mineralogy of martian soils,” Nature 436, 49–54 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chantler, C. T.

J. L. Glover, C. T. Chantler, Z. Barnea, N. A. Rae, C. Q. Tran, D. C. Creagh, D. Paterson, and B. B. Dhal, “Measurements of the x-ray mass-attenuation coefficient and imaginary component of the form factor of copper,” Phys. Rev. A 78, 052902 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. T. Chantler, C. Q. Tran, Z. Barnea, D. Paterson, D. J. Cookson, and D. X. Balaic, “Measurement of the x-ray mass attenuation coefficient of copper using 8.85̆20 kev synchrotron radiation,” Phys. Rev. A 64, 062506 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. T. Chantler, “Theoretical form factor, attenuation, and scattering tabulation for z=1–92 from e=1–10 ev to e=0.4–1.0 mev,” J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 24, 71–642 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Charalambous, P.

J. Miao, P. Charalambous, J. Kirz, and D. Sayre, “Extending the methodology of x-ray crystallography to allow imaging of micrometre-sized non-crystalline specimens,” Nature 400, 342–344 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chen, B.

Christensen, P. R.

A. S. Yen, R. Gellert, C. Schroder, R. V. Morris, J. F. Bell, A. T. Knudson, B. C. Clark, D. W. Ming, J. A. Crisp, R. E. Arvidson, D. Blaney, J. Bruckner, P. R. Christensen, D. J. DesMarais, P. A. de Souza, T. E. Economou, A. Ghosh, B. C. Hahn, K. E. Herkenhoff, L. A. Haskin, J. A. Hurowitz, B. L. Joliff, J. R. Johnson, G. Klingelhofer, M. B. Madsen, S. M. McLennan, H. Y. McSween, L. Richter, R. Rieder, D. Rodionov, L. Soderblom, S. W. Squyres, N. J. Tosca, A. Wang, M. Wyatt, and J. Zipfel, “An integrated view of the chemistry and mineralogy of martian soils,” Nature 436, 49–54 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cinotti, F.

H. Rarback, F. Cinotti, C. Jacobsen, J. Kenney, J. Kirz, and R. Rosser, “Elemental analysis using differential absorption techniques,” Biol. Trace Elem. Res. 13, 103–113 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Clark, B. C.

A. S. Yen, R. Gellert, C. Schroder, R. V. Morris, J. F. Bell, A. T. Knudson, B. C. Clark, D. W. Ming, J. A. Crisp, R. E. Arvidson, D. Blaney, J. Bruckner, P. R. Christensen, D. J. DesMarais, P. A. de Souza, T. E. Economou, A. Ghosh, B. C. Hahn, K. E. Herkenhoff, L. A. Haskin, J. A. Hurowitz, B. L. Joliff, J. R. Johnson, G. Klingelhofer, M. B. Madsen, S. M. McLennan, H. Y. McSween, L. Richter, R. Rieder, D. Rodionov, L. Soderblom, S. W. Squyres, N. J. Tosca, A. Wang, M. Wyatt, and J. Zipfel, “An integrated view of the chemistry and mineralogy of martian soils,” Nature 436, 49–54 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Clark, J. N.

C. T. Putkunz, J. N. Clark, D. J. Vine, G. J. Williams, M. A. Pfeifer, E. Balaur, I. McNulty, K. A. Nugent, and A. G. Peele, “Phase-diverse coherent diffractive imaging: High sensitivity with low dose,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 013903 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Abbey, K. A. Nugent, G. J. Williams, J. N. Clark, A. G. Peele, M. A. Pfeifer, M. de Jonge, and I. McNulty, “Keyhole coherent diffractive imaging,” Nat Phys 4, 394–398 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. N. Clark, G. J. Williams, H. M. Quiney, L. Whitehead, M. D. de Jonge, E. Hanssen, M. Altissimo, K. A. Nugent, and A. G. Peele, “Quantitative phase measurement in coherent diffraction imaging,” Opt. Express 16, 3342–3348 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cookson, D.

D. Cookson, N. Kirby, R. Knott, M. Lee, and D. Schultz, “Strategies for data collection and calibration with a pinhole-geometry saxs instrument on a synchrotron beamline,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 13, 440–444 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cookson, D. J.

C. T. Chantler, C. Q. Tran, Z. Barnea, D. Paterson, D. J. Cookson, and D. X. Balaic, “Measurement of the x-ray mass attenuation coefficient of copper using 8.85̆20 kev synchrotron radiation,” Phys. Rev. A 64, 062506 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Creagh, D. C.

J. L. Glover, C. T. Chantler, Z. Barnea, N. A. Rae, C. Q. Tran, D. C. Creagh, D. Paterson, and B. B. Dhal, “Measurements of the x-ray mass-attenuation coefficient and imaginary component of the form factor of copper,” Phys. Rev. A 78, 052902 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Crisp, J. A.

A. S. Yen, R. Gellert, C. Schroder, R. V. Morris, J. F. Bell, A. T. Knudson, B. C. Clark, D. W. Ming, J. A. Crisp, R. E. Arvidson, D. Blaney, J. Bruckner, P. R. Christensen, D. J. DesMarais, P. A. de Souza, T. E. Economou, A. Ghosh, B. C. Hahn, K. E. Herkenhoff, L. A. Haskin, J. A. Hurowitz, B. L. Joliff, J. R. Johnson, G. Klingelhofer, M. B. Madsen, S. M. McLennan, H. Y. McSween, L. Richter, R. Rieder, D. Rodionov, L. Soderblom, S. W. Squyres, N. J. Tosca, A. Wang, M. Wyatt, and J. Zipfel, “An integrated view of the chemistry and mineralogy of martian soils,” Nature 436, 49–54 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de Jonge, M.

B. Abbey, K. A. Nugent, G. J. Williams, J. N. Clark, A. G. Peele, M. A. Pfeifer, M. de Jonge, and I. McNulty, “Keyhole coherent diffractive imaging,” Nat Phys 4, 394–398 (2008).
[CrossRef]

de Jonge, M. D.

de Souza, P. A.

A. S. Yen, R. Gellert, C. Schroder, R. V. Morris, J. F. Bell, A. T. Knudson, B. C. Clark, D. W. Ming, J. A. Crisp, R. E. Arvidson, D. Blaney, J. Bruckner, P. R. Christensen, D. J. DesMarais, P. A. de Souza, T. E. Economou, A. Ghosh, B. C. Hahn, K. E. Herkenhoff, L. A. Haskin, J. A. Hurowitz, B. L. Joliff, J. R. Johnson, G. Klingelhofer, M. B. Madsen, S. M. McLennan, H. Y. McSween, L. Richter, R. Rieder, D. Rodionov, L. Soderblom, S. W. Squyres, N. J. Tosca, A. Wang, M. Wyatt, and J. Zipfel, “An integrated view of the chemistry and mineralogy of martian soils,” Nature 436, 49–54 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

DesMarais, D. J.

A. S. Yen, R. Gellert, C. Schroder, R. V. Morris, J. F. Bell, A. T. Knudson, B. C. Clark, D. W. Ming, J. A. Crisp, R. E. Arvidson, D. Blaney, J. Bruckner, P. R. Christensen, D. J. DesMarais, P. A. de Souza, T. E. Economou, A. Ghosh, B. C. Hahn, K. E. Herkenhoff, L. A. Haskin, J. A. Hurowitz, B. L. Joliff, J. R. Johnson, G. Klingelhofer, M. B. Madsen, S. M. McLennan, H. Y. McSween, L. Richter, R. Rieder, D. Rodionov, L. Soderblom, S. W. Squyres, N. J. Tosca, A. Wang, M. Wyatt, and J. Zipfel, “An integrated view of the chemistry and mineralogy of martian soils,” Nature 436, 49–54 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dhal, B.

Dhal, B. B.

J. L. Glover, C. T. Chantler, Z. Barnea, N. A. Rae, C. Q. Tran, D. C. Creagh, D. Paterson, and B. B. Dhal, “Measurements of the x-ray mass-attenuation coefficient and imaginary component of the form factor of copper,” Phys. Rev. A 78, 052902 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Williams, H. M. Quiney, B. B. Dhal, C. Q. Tran, K. A. Nugent, A. G. Peele, D. Paterson, and M. D. d. Jonge, “Fresnel coherent diffractive imaging,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 025506 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Economou, T. E.

A. S. Yen, R. Gellert, C. Schroder, R. V. Morris, J. F. Bell, A. T. Knudson, B. C. Clark, D. W. Ming, J. A. Crisp, R. E. Arvidson, D. Blaney, J. Bruckner, P. R. Christensen, D. J. DesMarais, P. A. de Souza, T. E. Economou, A. Ghosh, B. C. Hahn, K. E. Herkenhoff, L. A. Haskin, J. A. Hurowitz, B. L. Joliff, J. R. Johnson, G. Klingelhofer, M. B. Madsen, S. M. McLennan, H. Y. McSween, L. Richter, R. Rieder, D. Rodionov, L. Soderblom, S. W. Squyres, N. J. Tosca, A. Wang, M. Wyatt, and J. Zipfel, “An integrated view of the chemistry and mineralogy of martian soils,” Nature 436, 49–54 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Friedman, R. S.

R. S. Friedman, M. C. McAlpine, D. S. Ricketts, D. Ham, and C. M. Lieber, “Nanotechnology high-speed integrated nanowire circuits,” Nature 434, 1085–1085 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gellert, R.

A. S. Yen, R. Gellert, C. Schroder, R. V. Morris, J. F. Bell, A. T. Knudson, B. C. Clark, D. W. Ming, J. A. Crisp, R. E. Arvidson, D. Blaney, J. Bruckner, P. R. Christensen, D. J. DesMarais, P. A. de Souza, T. E. Economou, A. Ghosh, B. C. Hahn, K. E. Herkenhoff, L. A. Haskin, J. A. Hurowitz, B. L. Joliff, J. R. Johnson, G. Klingelhofer, M. B. Madsen, S. M. McLennan, H. Y. McSween, L. Richter, R. Rieder, D. Rodionov, L. Soderblom, S. W. Squyres, N. J. Tosca, A. Wang, M. Wyatt, and J. Zipfel, “An integrated view of the chemistry and mineralogy of martian soils,” Nature 436, 49–54 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gerlach, J.

I. Gurrappa, D. Manova, J. Gerlach, S. Mandl, and B. Rauschenbach, “Influence of nitrogen implantation on the high temperature oxidation of titanium-base alloys,” Surf. Coat. Technol. 201, 3536–3546 (2006).
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Ghosh, A.

A. S. Yen, R. Gellert, C. Schroder, R. V. Morris, J. F. Bell, A. T. Knudson, B. C. Clark, D. W. Ming, J. A. Crisp, R. E. Arvidson, D. Blaney, J. Bruckner, P. R. Christensen, D. J. DesMarais, P. A. de Souza, T. E. Economou, A. Ghosh, B. C. Hahn, K. E. Herkenhoff, L. A. Haskin, J. A. Hurowitz, B. L. Joliff, J. R. Johnson, G. Klingelhofer, M. B. Madsen, S. M. McLennan, H. Y. McSween, L. Richter, R. Rieder, D. Rodionov, L. Soderblom, S. W. Squyres, N. J. Tosca, A. Wang, M. Wyatt, and J. Zipfel, “An integrated view of the chemistry and mineralogy of martian soils,” Nature 436, 49–54 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gizzi, L. A.

S. Laville, L. A. Gizzi, P. Koster, and L. Labate, “Differential absorption imaging for elemental analysis of thin samples using a soft laser-plasma x-ray source,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 538, 738–746 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Glover, J. L.

J. L. Glover, C. T. Chantler, Z. Barnea, N. A. Rae, C. Q. Tran, D. C. Creagh, D. Paterson, and B. B. Dhal, “Measurements of the x-ray mass-attenuation coefficient and imaginary component of the form factor of copper,” Phys. Rev. A 78, 052902 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Guo, J. T.

J. S. Hou, J. T. Guo, G. X. Yang, L. Z. Zhou, X. Z. Qin, and H. Q. Ye, “The microstructural instability of a hot corrosion resistant superalloy during long-term exposure,” Mater. Sci. Eng., A 498, 349–358 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gureyev, T. E.

D. Paganin, S. C. Mayo, T. E. Gureyev, P. R. Miller, and S. W. Wilkins, “Simultaneous phase and amplitude extraction from a single defocused image of a homogeneous object,” J. Microsc. 206, 33–40 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gurrappa, I.

I. Gurrappa, D. Manova, J. Gerlach, S. Mandl, and B. Rauschenbach, “Influence of nitrogen implantation on the high temperature oxidation of titanium-base alloys,” Surf. Coat. Technol. 201, 3536–3546 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hahn, B. C.

A. S. Yen, R. Gellert, C. Schroder, R. V. Morris, J. F. Bell, A. T. Knudson, B. C. Clark, D. W. Ming, J. A. Crisp, R. E. Arvidson, D. Blaney, J. Bruckner, P. R. Christensen, D. J. DesMarais, P. A. de Souza, T. E. Economou, A. Ghosh, B. C. Hahn, K. E. Herkenhoff, L. A. Haskin, J. A. Hurowitz, B. L. Joliff, J. R. Johnson, G. Klingelhofer, M. B. Madsen, S. M. McLennan, H. Y. McSween, L. Richter, R. Rieder, D. Rodionov, L. Soderblom, S. W. Squyres, N. J. Tosca, A. Wang, M. Wyatt, and J. Zipfel, “An integrated view of the chemistry and mineralogy of martian soils,” Nature 436, 49–54 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ham, D.

R. S. Friedman, M. C. McAlpine, D. S. Ricketts, D. Ham, and C. M. Lieber, “Nanotechnology high-speed integrated nanowire circuits,” Nature 434, 1085–1085 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hannah, K.

Hanssen, E.

Haskin, L. A.

A. S. Yen, R. Gellert, C. Schroder, R. V. Morris, J. F. Bell, A. T. Knudson, B. C. Clark, D. W. Ming, J. A. Crisp, R. E. Arvidson, D. Blaney, J. Bruckner, P. R. Christensen, D. J. DesMarais, P. A. de Souza, T. E. Economou, A. Ghosh, B. C. Hahn, K. E. Herkenhoff, L. A. Haskin, J. A. Hurowitz, B. L. Joliff, J. R. Johnson, G. Klingelhofer, M. B. Madsen, S. M. McLennan, H. Y. McSween, L. Richter, R. Rieder, D. Rodionov, L. Soderblom, S. W. Squyres, N. J. Tosca, A. Wang, M. Wyatt, and J. Zipfel, “An integrated view of the chemistry and mineralogy of martian soils,” Nature 436, 49–54 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hayes, J.

Herkenhoff, K. E.

A. S. Yen, R. Gellert, C. Schroder, R. V. Morris, J. F. Bell, A. T. Knudson, B. C. Clark, D. W. Ming, J. A. Crisp, R. E. Arvidson, D. Blaney, J. Bruckner, P. R. Christensen, D. J. DesMarais, P. A. de Souza, T. E. Economou, A. Ghosh, B. C. Hahn, K. E. Herkenhoff, L. A. Haskin, J. A. Hurowitz, B. L. Joliff, J. R. Johnson, G. Klingelhofer, M. B. Madsen, S. M. McLennan, H. Y. McSween, L. Richter, R. Rieder, D. Rodionov, L. Soderblom, S. W. Squyres, N. J. Tosca, A. Wang, M. Wyatt, and J. Zipfel, “An integrated view of the chemistry and mineralogy of martian soils,” Nature 436, 49–54 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hou, J. S.

J. S. Hou, J. T. Guo, G. X. Yang, L. Z. Zhou, X. Z. Qin, and H. Q. Ye, “The microstructural instability of a hot corrosion resistant superalloy during long-term exposure,” Mater. Sci. Eng., A 498, 349–358 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hurowitz, J. A.

A. S. Yen, R. Gellert, C. Schroder, R. V. Morris, J. F. Bell, A. T. Knudson, B. C. Clark, D. W. Ming, J. A. Crisp, R. E. Arvidson, D. Blaney, J. Bruckner, P. R. Christensen, D. J. DesMarais, P. A. de Souza, T. E. Economou, A. Ghosh, B. C. Hahn, K. E. Herkenhoff, L. A. Haskin, J. A. Hurowitz, B. L. Joliff, J. R. Johnson, G. Klingelhofer, M. B. Madsen, S. M. McLennan, H. Y. McSween, L. Richter, R. Rieder, D. Rodionov, L. Soderblom, S. W. Squyres, N. J. Tosca, A. Wang, M. Wyatt, and J. Zipfel, “An integrated view of the chemistry and mineralogy of martian soils,” Nature 436, 49–54 (2005).
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Jacobsen, C.

H. Rarback, F. Cinotti, C. Jacobsen, J. Kenney, J. Kirz, and R. Rosser, “Elemental analysis using differential absorption techniques,” Biol. Trace Elem. Res. 13, 103–113 (1987).
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Johnson, J. R.

A. S. Yen, R. Gellert, C. Schroder, R. V. Morris, J. F. Bell, A. T. Knudson, B. C. Clark, D. W. Ming, J. A. Crisp, R. E. Arvidson, D. Blaney, J. Bruckner, P. R. Christensen, D. J. DesMarais, P. A. de Souza, T. E. Economou, A. Ghosh, B. C. Hahn, K. E. Herkenhoff, L. A. Haskin, J. A. Hurowitz, B. L. Joliff, J. R. Johnson, G. Klingelhofer, M. B. Madsen, S. M. McLennan, H. Y. McSween, L. Richter, R. Rieder, D. Rodionov, L. Soderblom, S. W. Squyres, N. J. Tosca, A. Wang, M. Wyatt, and J. Zipfel, “An integrated view of the chemistry and mineralogy of martian soils,” Nature 436, 49–54 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Joliff, B. L.

A. S. Yen, R. Gellert, C. Schroder, R. V. Morris, J. F. Bell, A. T. Knudson, B. C. Clark, D. W. Ming, J. A. Crisp, R. E. Arvidson, D. Blaney, J. Bruckner, P. R. Christensen, D. J. DesMarais, P. A. de Souza, T. E. Economou, A. Ghosh, B. C. Hahn, K. E. Herkenhoff, L. A. Haskin, J. A. Hurowitz, B. L. Joliff, J. R. Johnson, G. Klingelhofer, M. B. Madsen, S. M. McLennan, H. Y. McSween, L. Richter, R. Rieder, D. Rodionov, L. Soderblom, S. W. Squyres, N. J. Tosca, A. Wang, M. Wyatt, and J. Zipfel, “An integrated view of the chemistry and mineralogy of martian soils,” Nature 436, 49–54 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jonge, M. D. d.

G. J. Williams, H. M. Quiney, B. B. Dhal, C. Q. Tran, K. A. Nugent, A. G. Peele, D. Paterson, and M. D. d. Jonge, “Fresnel coherent diffractive imaging,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 025506 (2006).
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Kenney, J.

H. Rarback, F. Cinotti, C. Jacobsen, J. Kenney, J. Kirz, and R. Rosser, “Elemental analysis using differential absorption techniques,” Biol. Trace Elem. Res. 13, 103–113 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Kirby, N.

M. B. Luu, B. D. Arhatari, C. Q. Tran, E. Balaur, B. T. Pham, N. T. Vo, B. Chen, C. T. Putkunz, N. Kirby, S. Mudie, and A. G. Peele, “Quantitative phase imaging with polychromatic x-ray sources,” Opt. Express 19, 8127–8134 (2011).
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D. Cookson, N. Kirby, R. Knott, M. Lee, and D. Schultz, “Strategies for data collection and calibration with a pinhole-geometry saxs instrument on a synchrotron beamline,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 13, 440–444 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kirz, J.

J. Miao, P. Charalambous, J. Kirz, and D. Sayre, “Extending the methodology of x-ray crystallography to allow imaging of micrometre-sized non-crystalline specimens,” Nature 400, 342–344 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. Rarback, F. Cinotti, C. Jacobsen, J. Kenney, J. Kirz, and R. Rosser, “Elemental analysis using differential absorption techniques,” Biol. Trace Elem. Res. 13, 103–113 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Klingelhofer, G.

A. S. Yen, R. Gellert, C. Schroder, R. V. Morris, J. F. Bell, A. T. Knudson, B. C. Clark, D. W. Ming, J. A. Crisp, R. E. Arvidson, D. Blaney, J. Bruckner, P. R. Christensen, D. J. DesMarais, P. A. de Souza, T. E. Economou, A. Ghosh, B. C. Hahn, K. E. Herkenhoff, L. A. Haskin, J. A. Hurowitz, B. L. Joliff, J. R. Johnson, G. Klingelhofer, M. B. Madsen, S. M. McLennan, H. Y. McSween, L. Richter, R. Rieder, D. Rodionov, L. Soderblom, S. W. Squyres, N. J. Tosca, A. Wang, M. Wyatt, and J. Zipfel, “An integrated view of the chemistry and mineralogy of martian soils,” Nature 436, 49–54 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Knott, R.

D. Cookson, N. Kirby, R. Knott, M. Lee, and D. Schultz, “Strategies for data collection and calibration with a pinhole-geometry saxs instrument on a synchrotron beamline,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 13, 440–444 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Knudson, A. T.

A. S. Yen, R. Gellert, C. Schroder, R. V. Morris, J. F. Bell, A. T. Knudson, B. C. Clark, D. W. Ming, J. A. Crisp, R. E. Arvidson, D. Blaney, J. Bruckner, P. R. Christensen, D. J. DesMarais, P. A. de Souza, T. E. Economou, A. Ghosh, B. C. Hahn, K. E. Herkenhoff, L. A. Haskin, J. A. Hurowitz, B. L. Joliff, J. R. Johnson, G. Klingelhofer, M. B. Madsen, S. M. McLennan, H. Y. McSween, L. Richter, R. Rieder, D. Rodionov, L. Soderblom, S. W. Squyres, N. J. Tosca, A. Wang, M. Wyatt, and J. Zipfel, “An integrated view of the chemistry and mineralogy of martian soils,” Nature 436, 49–54 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koster, P.

S. Laville, L. A. Gizzi, P. Koster, and L. Labate, “Differential absorption imaging for elemental analysis of thin samples using a soft laser-plasma x-ray source,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 538, 738–746 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Labate, L.

S. Laville, L. A. Gizzi, P. Koster, and L. Labate, “Differential absorption imaging for elemental analysis of thin samples using a soft laser-plasma x-ray source,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 538, 738–746 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Laville, S.

S. Laville, L. A. Gizzi, P. Koster, and L. Labate, “Differential absorption imaging for elemental analysis of thin samples using a soft laser-plasma x-ray source,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 538, 738–746 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lee, M.

D. Cookson, N. Kirby, R. Knott, M. Lee, and D. Schultz, “Strategies for data collection and calibration with a pinhole-geometry saxs instrument on a synchrotron beamline,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 13, 440–444 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lieber, C. M.

R. S. Friedman, M. C. McAlpine, D. S. Ricketts, D. Ham, and C. M. Lieber, “Nanotechnology high-speed integrated nanowire circuits,” Nature 434, 1085–1085 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Luu, M. B.

Madsen, M. B.

A. S. Yen, R. Gellert, C. Schroder, R. V. Morris, J. F. Bell, A. T. Knudson, B. C. Clark, D. W. Ming, J. A. Crisp, R. E. Arvidson, D. Blaney, J. Bruckner, P. R. Christensen, D. J. DesMarais, P. A. de Souza, T. E. Economou, A. Ghosh, B. C. Hahn, K. E. Herkenhoff, L. A. Haskin, J. A. Hurowitz, B. L. Joliff, J. R. Johnson, G. Klingelhofer, M. B. Madsen, S. M. McLennan, H. Y. McSween, L. Richter, R. Rieder, D. Rodionov, L. Soderblom, S. W. Squyres, N. J. Tosca, A. Wang, M. Wyatt, and J. Zipfel, “An integrated view of the chemistry and mineralogy of martian soils,” Nature 436, 49–54 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mancuso, A.

Mandl, S.

I. Gurrappa, D. Manova, J. Gerlach, S. Mandl, and B. Rauschenbach, “Influence of nitrogen implantation on the high temperature oxidation of titanium-base alloys,” Surf. Coat. Technol. 201, 3536–3546 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Manova, D.

I. Gurrappa, D. Manova, J. Gerlach, S. Mandl, and B. Rauschenbach, “Influence of nitrogen implantation on the high temperature oxidation of titanium-base alloys,” Surf. Coat. Technol. 201, 3536–3546 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mayo, S. C.

D. Paganin, S. C. Mayo, T. E. Gureyev, P. R. Miller, and S. W. Wilkins, “Simultaneous phase and amplitude extraction from a single defocused image of a homogeneous object,” J. Microsc. 206, 33–40 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McAlpine, M. C.

R. S. Friedman, M. C. McAlpine, D. S. Ricketts, D. Ham, and C. M. Lieber, “Nanotechnology high-speed integrated nanowire circuits,” Nature 434, 1085–1085 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McLennan, S. M.

A. S. Yen, R. Gellert, C. Schroder, R. V. Morris, J. F. Bell, A. T. Knudson, B. C. Clark, D. W. Ming, J. A. Crisp, R. E. Arvidson, D. Blaney, J. Bruckner, P. R. Christensen, D. J. DesMarais, P. A. de Souza, T. E. Economou, A. Ghosh, B. C. Hahn, K. E. Herkenhoff, L. A. Haskin, J. A. Hurowitz, B. L. Joliff, J. R. Johnson, G. Klingelhofer, M. B. Madsen, S. M. McLennan, H. Y. McSween, L. Richter, R. Rieder, D. Rodionov, L. Soderblom, S. W. Squyres, N. J. Tosca, A. Wang, M. Wyatt, and J. Zipfel, “An integrated view of the chemistry and mineralogy of martian soils,” Nature 436, 49–54 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McNulty, I.

C. T. Putkunz, J. N. Clark, D. J. Vine, G. J. Williams, M. A. Pfeifer, E. Balaur, I. McNulty, K. A. Nugent, and A. G. Peele, “Phase-diverse coherent diffractive imaging: High sensitivity with low dose,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 013903 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. T. Putkunz, M. A. Pfeifer, A. G. Peele, G. J. Williams, H. M. Quiney, B. Abbey, K. A. Nugent, and I. McNulty, “Fresnel coherent diffraction tomography,” Opt. Express 18, 11746–11753 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Abbey, K. A. Nugent, G. J. Williams, J. N. Clark, A. G. Peele, M. A. Pfeifer, M. de Jonge, and I. McNulty, “Keyhole coherent diffractive imaging,” Nat Phys 4, 394–398 (2008).
[CrossRef]

McSween, H. Y.

A. S. Yen, R. Gellert, C. Schroder, R. V. Morris, J. F. Bell, A. T. Knudson, B. C. Clark, D. W. Ming, J. A. Crisp, R. E. Arvidson, D. Blaney, J. Bruckner, P. R. Christensen, D. J. DesMarais, P. A. de Souza, T. E. Economou, A. Ghosh, B. C. Hahn, K. E. Herkenhoff, L. A. Haskin, J. A. Hurowitz, B. L. Joliff, J. R. Johnson, G. Klingelhofer, M. B. Madsen, S. M. McLennan, H. Y. McSween, L. Richter, R. Rieder, D. Rodionov, L. Soderblom, S. W. Squyres, N. J. Tosca, A. Wang, M. Wyatt, and J. Zipfel, “An integrated view of the chemistry and mineralogy of martian soils,” Nature 436, 49–54 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miao, J.

J. Miao, P. Charalambous, J. Kirz, and D. Sayre, “Extending the methodology of x-ray crystallography to allow imaging of micrometre-sized non-crystalline specimens,” Nature 400, 342–344 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Miller, P. R.

D. Paganin, S. C. Mayo, T. E. Gureyev, P. R. Miller, and S. W. Wilkins, “Simultaneous phase and amplitude extraction from a single defocused image of a homogeneous object,” J. Microsc. 206, 33–40 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ming, D. W.

A. S. Yen, R. Gellert, C. Schroder, R. V. Morris, J. F. Bell, A. T. Knudson, B. C. Clark, D. W. Ming, J. A. Crisp, R. E. Arvidson, D. Blaney, J. Bruckner, P. R. Christensen, D. J. DesMarais, P. A. de Souza, T. E. Economou, A. Ghosh, B. C. Hahn, K. E. Herkenhoff, L. A. Haskin, J. A. Hurowitz, B. L. Joliff, J. R. Johnson, G. Klingelhofer, M. B. Madsen, S. M. McLennan, H. Y. McSween, L. Richter, R. Rieder, D. Rodionov, L. Soderblom, S. W. Squyres, N. J. Tosca, A. Wang, M. Wyatt, and J. Zipfel, “An integrated view of the chemistry and mineralogy of martian soils,” Nature 436, 49–54 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Morris, R. V.

A. S. Yen, R. Gellert, C. Schroder, R. V. Morris, J. F. Bell, A. T. Knudson, B. C. Clark, D. W. Ming, J. A. Crisp, R. E. Arvidson, D. Blaney, J. Bruckner, P. R. Christensen, D. J. DesMarais, P. A. de Souza, T. E. Economou, A. Ghosh, B. C. Hahn, K. E. Herkenhoff, L. A. Haskin, J. A. Hurowitz, B. L. Joliff, J. R. Johnson, G. Klingelhofer, M. B. Madsen, S. M. McLennan, H. Y. McSween, L. Richter, R. Rieder, D. Rodionov, L. Soderblom, S. W. Squyres, N. J. Tosca, A. Wang, M. Wyatt, and J. Zipfel, “An integrated view of the chemistry and mineralogy of martian soils,” Nature 436, 49–54 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mudie, S.

Nugent, K.

Nugent, K. A.

C. T. Putkunz, J. N. Clark, D. J. Vine, G. J. Williams, M. A. Pfeifer, E. Balaur, I. McNulty, K. A. Nugent, and A. G. Peele, “Phase-diverse coherent diffractive imaging: High sensitivity with low dose,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 013903 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. T. Putkunz, M. A. Pfeifer, A. G. Peele, G. J. Williams, H. M. Quiney, B. Abbey, K. A. Nugent, and I. McNulty, “Fresnel coherent diffraction tomography,” Opt. Express 18, 11746–11753 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Abbey, K. A. Nugent, G. J. Williams, J. N. Clark, A. G. Peele, M. A. Pfeifer, M. de Jonge, and I. McNulty, “Keyhole coherent diffractive imaging,” Nat Phys 4, 394–398 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. N. Clark, G. J. Williams, H. M. Quiney, L. Whitehead, M. D. de Jonge, E. Hanssen, M. Altissimo, K. A. Nugent, and A. G. Peele, “Quantitative phase measurement in coherent diffraction imaging,” Opt. Express 16, 3342–3348 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. J. Williams, H. M. Quiney, B. B. Dhal, C. Q. Tran, K. A. Nugent, A. G. Peele, D. Paterson, and M. D. d. Jonge, “Fresnel coherent diffractive imaging,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 025506 (2006).
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H. M. Quiney, K. A. Nugent, and A. G. Peele, “Iterative image reconstruction algorithms using wave-front intensity and phase variation,” Opt. Lett. 30, 1638–1640 (2005).
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Paganin, D.

D. Paganin, S. C. Mayo, T. E. Gureyev, P. R. Miller, and S. W. Wilkins, “Simultaneous phase and amplitude extraction from a single defocused image of a homogeneous object,” J. Microsc. 206, 33–40 (2002).
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Paterson, D.

J. L. Glover, C. T. Chantler, Z. Barnea, N. A. Rae, C. Q. Tran, D. C. Creagh, D. Paterson, and B. B. Dhal, “Measurements of the x-ray mass-attenuation coefficient and imaginary component of the form factor of copper,” Phys. Rev. A 78, 052902 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Williams, H. M. Quiney, B. B. Dhal, C. Q. Tran, K. A. Nugent, A. G. Peele, D. Paterson, and M. D. d. Jonge, “Fresnel coherent diffractive imaging,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 025506 (2006).
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L. Turner, B. Dhal, J. Hayes, A. Mancuso, K. Nugent, D. Paterson, R. Scholten, C. Tran, and A. Peele, “X-ray phase imaging: Demonstration of extended conditions for homogeneous objects,” Opt. Express 12, 2960–2965 (2004).
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C. T. Chantler, C. Q. Tran, Z. Barnea, D. Paterson, D. J. Cookson, and D. X. Balaic, “Measurement of the x-ray mass attenuation coefficient of copper using 8.85̆20 kev synchrotron radiation,” Phys. Rev. A 64, 062506 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Peele, A.

Peele, A. G.

M. B. Luu, B. D. Arhatari, C. Q. Tran, E. Balaur, B. T. Pham, N. T. Vo, B. Chen, C. T. Putkunz, N. Kirby, S. Mudie, and A. G. Peele, “Quantitative phase imaging with polychromatic x-ray sources,” Opt. Express 19, 8127–8134 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. T. Putkunz, J. N. Clark, D. J. Vine, G. J. Williams, M. A. Pfeifer, E. Balaur, I. McNulty, K. A. Nugent, and A. G. Peele, “Phase-diverse coherent diffractive imaging: High sensitivity with low dose,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 013903 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. T. Putkunz, M. A. Pfeifer, A. G. Peele, G. J. Williams, H. M. Quiney, B. Abbey, K. A. Nugent, and I. McNulty, “Fresnel coherent diffraction tomography,” Opt. Express 18, 11746–11753 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. N. Clark, G. J. Williams, H. M. Quiney, L. Whitehead, M. D. de Jonge, E. Hanssen, M. Altissimo, K. A. Nugent, and A. G. Peele, “Quantitative phase measurement in coherent diffraction imaging,” Opt. Express 16, 3342–3348 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Abbey, K. A. Nugent, G. J. Williams, J. N. Clark, A. G. Peele, M. A. Pfeifer, M. de Jonge, and I. McNulty, “Keyhole coherent diffractive imaging,” Nat Phys 4, 394–398 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Williams, H. M. Quiney, B. B. Dhal, C. Q. Tran, K. A. Nugent, A. G. Peele, D. Paterson, and M. D. d. Jonge, “Fresnel coherent diffractive imaging,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 025506 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. M. Quiney, K. A. Nugent, and A. G. Peele, “Iterative image reconstruction algorithms using wave-front intensity and phase variation,” Opt. Lett. 30, 1638–1640 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pfeifer, M. A.

C. T. Putkunz, J. N. Clark, D. J. Vine, G. J. Williams, M. A. Pfeifer, E. Balaur, I. McNulty, K. A. Nugent, and A. G. Peele, “Phase-diverse coherent diffractive imaging: High sensitivity with low dose,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 013903 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. T. Putkunz, M. A. Pfeifer, A. G. Peele, G. J. Williams, H. M. Quiney, B. Abbey, K. A. Nugent, and I. McNulty, “Fresnel coherent diffraction tomography,” Opt. Express 18, 11746–11753 (2010).
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B. Abbey, K. A. Nugent, G. J. Williams, J. N. Clark, A. G. Peele, M. A. Pfeifer, M. de Jonge, and I. McNulty, “Keyhole coherent diffractive imaging,” Nat Phys 4, 394–398 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pham, B. T.

Putkunz, C. T.

Qin, X. Z.

J. S. Hou, J. T. Guo, G. X. Yang, L. Z. Zhou, X. Z. Qin, and H. Q. Ye, “The microstructural instability of a hot corrosion resistant superalloy during long-term exposure,” Mater. Sci. Eng., A 498, 349–358 (2008).
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Quiney, H. M.

Rae, N. A.

J. L. Glover, C. T. Chantler, Z. Barnea, N. A. Rae, C. Q. Tran, D. C. Creagh, D. Paterson, and B. B. Dhal, “Measurements of the x-ray mass-attenuation coefficient and imaginary component of the form factor of copper,” Phys. Rev. A 78, 052902 (2008).
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H. Rarback, F. Cinotti, C. Jacobsen, J. Kenney, J. Kirz, and R. Rosser, “Elemental analysis using differential absorption techniques,” Biol. Trace Elem. Res. 13, 103–113 (1987).
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I. Gurrappa, D. Manova, J. Gerlach, S. Mandl, and B. Rauschenbach, “Influence of nitrogen implantation on the high temperature oxidation of titanium-base alloys,” Surf. Coat. Technol. 201, 3536–3546 (2006).
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A. S. Yen, R. Gellert, C. Schroder, R. V. Morris, J. F. Bell, A. T. Knudson, B. C. Clark, D. W. Ming, J. A. Crisp, R. E. Arvidson, D. Blaney, J. Bruckner, P. R. Christensen, D. J. DesMarais, P. A. de Souza, T. E. Economou, A. Ghosh, B. C. Hahn, K. E. Herkenhoff, L. A. Haskin, J. A. Hurowitz, B. L. Joliff, J. R. Johnson, G. Klingelhofer, M. B. Madsen, S. M. McLennan, H. Y. McSween, L. Richter, R. Rieder, D. Rodionov, L. Soderblom, S. W. Squyres, N. J. Tosca, A. Wang, M. Wyatt, and J. Zipfel, “An integrated view of the chemistry and mineralogy of martian soils,” Nature 436, 49–54 (2005).
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R. S. Friedman, M. C. McAlpine, D. S. Ricketts, D. Ham, and C. M. Lieber, “Nanotechnology high-speed integrated nanowire circuits,” Nature 434, 1085–1085 (2005).
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Rieder, R.

A. S. Yen, R. Gellert, C. Schroder, R. V. Morris, J. F. Bell, A. T. Knudson, B. C. Clark, D. W. Ming, J. A. Crisp, R. E. Arvidson, D. Blaney, J. Bruckner, P. R. Christensen, D. J. DesMarais, P. A. de Souza, T. E. Economou, A. Ghosh, B. C. Hahn, K. E. Herkenhoff, L. A. Haskin, J. A. Hurowitz, B. L. Joliff, J. R. Johnson, G. Klingelhofer, M. B. Madsen, S. M. McLennan, H. Y. McSween, L. Richter, R. Rieder, D. Rodionov, L. Soderblom, S. W. Squyres, N. J. Tosca, A. Wang, M. Wyatt, and J. Zipfel, “An integrated view of the chemistry and mineralogy of martian soils,” Nature 436, 49–54 (2005).
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Rodionov, D.

A. S. Yen, R. Gellert, C. Schroder, R. V. Morris, J. F. Bell, A. T. Knudson, B. C. Clark, D. W. Ming, J. A. Crisp, R. E. Arvidson, D. Blaney, J. Bruckner, P. R. Christensen, D. J. DesMarais, P. A. de Souza, T. E. Economou, A. Ghosh, B. C. Hahn, K. E. Herkenhoff, L. A. Haskin, J. A. Hurowitz, B. L. Joliff, J. R. Johnson, G. Klingelhofer, M. B. Madsen, S. M. McLennan, H. Y. McSween, L. Richter, R. Rieder, D. Rodionov, L. Soderblom, S. W. Squyres, N. J. Tosca, A. Wang, M. Wyatt, and J. Zipfel, “An integrated view of the chemistry and mineralogy of martian soils,” Nature 436, 49–54 (2005).
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Rosser, R.

H. Rarback, F. Cinotti, C. Jacobsen, J. Kenney, J. Kirz, and R. Rosser, “Elemental analysis using differential absorption techniques,” Biol. Trace Elem. Res. 13, 103–113 (1987).
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J. Miao, P. Charalambous, J. Kirz, and D. Sayre, “Extending the methodology of x-ray crystallography to allow imaging of micrometre-sized non-crystalline specimens,” Nature 400, 342–344 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Scholten, R.

Schroder, C.

A. S. Yen, R. Gellert, C. Schroder, R. V. Morris, J. F. Bell, A. T. Knudson, B. C. Clark, D. W. Ming, J. A. Crisp, R. E. Arvidson, D. Blaney, J. Bruckner, P. R. Christensen, D. J. DesMarais, P. A. de Souza, T. E. Economou, A. Ghosh, B. C. Hahn, K. E. Herkenhoff, L. A. Haskin, J. A. Hurowitz, B. L. Joliff, J. R. Johnson, G. Klingelhofer, M. B. Madsen, S. M. McLennan, H. Y. McSween, L. Richter, R. Rieder, D. Rodionov, L. Soderblom, S. W. Squyres, N. J. Tosca, A. Wang, M. Wyatt, and J. Zipfel, “An integrated view of the chemistry and mineralogy of martian soils,” Nature 436, 49–54 (2005).
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D. Cookson, N. Kirby, R. Knott, M. Lee, and D. Schultz, “Strategies for data collection and calibration with a pinhole-geometry saxs instrument on a synchrotron beamline,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 13, 440–444 (2006).
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A. S. Yen, R. Gellert, C. Schroder, R. V. Morris, J. F. Bell, A. T. Knudson, B. C. Clark, D. W. Ming, J. A. Crisp, R. E. Arvidson, D. Blaney, J. Bruckner, P. R. Christensen, D. J. DesMarais, P. A. de Souza, T. E. Economou, A. Ghosh, B. C. Hahn, K. E. Herkenhoff, L. A. Haskin, J. A. Hurowitz, B. L. Joliff, J. R. Johnson, G. Klingelhofer, M. B. Madsen, S. M. McLennan, H. Y. McSween, L. Richter, R. Rieder, D. Rodionov, L. Soderblom, S. W. Squyres, N. J. Tosca, A. Wang, M. Wyatt, and J. Zipfel, “An integrated view of the chemistry and mineralogy of martian soils,” Nature 436, 49–54 (2005).
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Squyres, S. W.

A. S. Yen, R. Gellert, C. Schroder, R. V. Morris, J. F. Bell, A. T. Knudson, B. C. Clark, D. W. Ming, J. A. Crisp, R. E. Arvidson, D. Blaney, J. Bruckner, P. R. Christensen, D. J. DesMarais, P. A. de Souza, T. E. Economou, A. Ghosh, B. C. Hahn, K. E. Herkenhoff, L. A. Haskin, J. A. Hurowitz, B. L. Joliff, J. R. Johnson, G. Klingelhofer, M. B. Madsen, S. M. McLennan, H. Y. McSween, L. Richter, R. Rieder, D. Rodionov, L. Soderblom, S. W. Squyres, N. J. Tosca, A. Wang, M. Wyatt, and J. Zipfel, “An integrated view of the chemistry and mineralogy of martian soils,” Nature 436, 49–54 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tosca, N. J.

A. S. Yen, R. Gellert, C. Schroder, R. V. Morris, J. F. Bell, A. T. Knudson, B. C. Clark, D. W. Ming, J. A. Crisp, R. E. Arvidson, D. Blaney, J. Bruckner, P. R. Christensen, D. J. DesMarais, P. A. de Souza, T. E. Economou, A. Ghosh, B. C. Hahn, K. E. Herkenhoff, L. A. Haskin, J. A. Hurowitz, B. L. Joliff, J. R. Johnson, G. Klingelhofer, M. B. Madsen, S. M. McLennan, H. Y. McSween, L. Richter, R. Rieder, D. Rodionov, L. Soderblom, S. W. Squyres, N. J. Tosca, A. Wang, M. Wyatt, and J. Zipfel, “An integrated view of the chemistry and mineralogy of martian soils,” Nature 436, 49–54 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tran, C.

Tran, C. Q.

M. B. Luu, B. D. Arhatari, C. Q. Tran, E. Balaur, B. T. Pham, N. T. Vo, B. Chen, C. T. Putkunz, N. Kirby, S. Mudie, and A. G. Peele, “Quantitative phase imaging with polychromatic x-ray sources,” Opt. Express 19, 8127–8134 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. L. Glover, C. T. Chantler, Z. Barnea, N. A. Rae, C. Q. Tran, D. C. Creagh, D. Paterson, and B. B. Dhal, “Measurements of the x-ray mass-attenuation coefficient and imaginary component of the form factor of copper,” Phys. Rev. A 78, 052902 (2008).
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C. Q. Tran, “Multiwavelength elemental contrast phase imaging by the use of dispersion effects,” Phys. Rev. A 78, 013839 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Williams, H. M. Quiney, B. B. Dhal, C. Q. Tran, K. A. Nugent, A. G. Peele, D. Paterson, and M. D. d. Jonge, “Fresnel coherent diffractive imaging,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 025506 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. T. Chantler, C. Q. Tran, Z. Barnea, D. Paterson, D. J. Cookson, and D. X. Balaic, “Measurement of the x-ray mass attenuation coefficient of copper using 8.85̆20 kev synchrotron radiation,” Phys. Rev. A 64, 062506 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Turner, L.

Vine, D. J.

C. T. Putkunz, J. N. Clark, D. J. Vine, G. J. Williams, M. A. Pfeifer, E. Balaur, I. McNulty, K. A. Nugent, and A. G. Peele, “Phase-diverse coherent diffractive imaging: High sensitivity with low dose,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 013903 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vo, N. T.

Wang, A.

A. S. Yen, R. Gellert, C. Schroder, R. V. Morris, J. F. Bell, A. T. Knudson, B. C. Clark, D. W. Ming, J. A. Crisp, R. E. Arvidson, D. Blaney, J. Bruckner, P. R. Christensen, D. J. DesMarais, P. A. de Souza, T. E. Economou, A. Ghosh, B. C. Hahn, K. E. Herkenhoff, L. A. Haskin, J. A. Hurowitz, B. L. Joliff, J. R. Johnson, G. Klingelhofer, M. B. Madsen, S. M. McLennan, H. Y. McSween, L. Richter, R. Rieder, D. Rodionov, L. Soderblom, S. W. Squyres, N. J. Tosca, A. Wang, M. Wyatt, and J. Zipfel, “An integrated view of the chemistry and mineralogy of martian soils,” Nature 436, 49–54 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Whitehead, L.

Wilkins, S. W.

D. Paganin, S. C. Mayo, T. E. Gureyev, P. R. Miller, and S. W. Wilkins, “Simultaneous phase and amplitude extraction from a single defocused image of a homogeneous object,” J. Microsc. 206, 33–40 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Williams, G. J.

C. T. Putkunz, J. N. Clark, D. J. Vine, G. J. Williams, M. A. Pfeifer, E. Balaur, I. McNulty, K. A. Nugent, and A. G. Peele, “Phase-diverse coherent diffractive imaging: High sensitivity with low dose,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 013903 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. T. Putkunz, M. A. Pfeifer, A. G. Peele, G. J. Williams, H. M. Quiney, B. Abbey, K. A. Nugent, and I. McNulty, “Fresnel coherent diffraction tomography,” Opt. Express 18, 11746–11753 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. N. Clark, G. J. Williams, H. M. Quiney, L. Whitehead, M. D. de Jonge, E. Hanssen, M. Altissimo, K. A. Nugent, and A. G. Peele, “Quantitative phase measurement in coherent diffraction imaging,” Opt. Express 16, 3342–3348 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Abbey, K. A. Nugent, G. J. Williams, J. N. Clark, A. G. Peele, M. A. Pfeifer, M. de Jonge, and I. McNulty, “Keyhole coherent diffractive imaging,” Nat Phys 4, 394–398 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Williams, H. M. Quiney, B. B. Dhal, C. Q. Tran, K. A. Nugent, A. G. Peele, D. Paterson, and M. D. d. Jonge, “Fresnel coherent diffractive imaging,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 025506 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wyatt, M.

A. S. Yen, R. Gellert, C. Schroder, R. V. Morris, J. F. Bell, A. T. Knudson, B. C. Clark, D. W. Ming, J. A. Crisp, R. E. Arvidson, D. Blaney, J. Bruckner, P. R. Christensen, D. J. DesMarais, P. A. de Souza, T. E. Economou, A. Ghosh, B. C. Hahn, K. E. Herkenhoff, L. A. Haskin, J. A. Hurowitz, B. L. Joliff, J. R. Johnson, G. Klingelhofer, M. B. Madsen, S. M. McLennan, H. Y. McSween, L. Richter, R. Rieder, D. Rodionov, L. Soderblom, S. W. Squyres, N. J. Tosca, A. Wang, M. Wyatt, and J. Zipfel, “An integrated view of the chemistry and mineralogy of martian soils,” Nature 436, 49–54 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, G. X.

J. S. Hou, J. T. Guo, G. X. Yang, L. Z. Zhou, X. Z. Qin, and H. Q. Ye, “The microstructural instability of a hot corrosion resistant superalloy during long-term exposure,” Mater. Sci. Eng., A 498, 349–358 (2008).
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Ye, H. Q.

J. S. Hou, J. T. Guo, G. X. Yang, L. Z. Zhou, X. Z. Qin, and H. Q. Ye, “The microstructural instability of a hot corrosion resistant superalloy during long-term exposure,” Mater. Sci. Eng., A 498, 349–358 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yen, A. S.

A. S. Yen, R. Gellert, C. Schroder, R. V. Morris, J. F. Bell, A. T. Knudson, B. C. Clark, D. W. Ming, J. A. Crisp, R. E. Arvidson, D. Blaney, J. Bruckner, P. R. Christensen, D. J. DesMarais, P. A. de Souza, T. E. Economou, A. Ghosh, B. C. Hahn, K. E. Herkenhoff, L. A. Haskin, J. A. Hurowitz, B. L. Joliff, J. R. Johnson, G. Klingelhofer, M. B. Madsen, S. M. McLennan, H. Y. McSween, L. Richter, R. Rieder, D. Rodionov, L. Soderblom, S. W. Squyres, N. J. Tosca, A. Wang, M. Wyatt, and J. Zipfel, “An integrated view of the chemistry and mineralogy of martian soils,” Nature 436, 49–54 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhou, L. Z.

J. S. Hou, J. T. Guo, G. X. Yang, L. Z. Zhou, X. Z. Qin, and H. Q. Ye, “The microstructural instability of a hot corrosion resistant superalloy during long-term exposure,” Mater. Sci. Eng., A 498, 349–358 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zipfel, J.

A. S. Yen, R. Gellert, C. Schroder, R. V. Morris, J. F. Bell, A. T. Knudson, B. C. Clark, D. W. Ming, J. A. Crisp, R. E. Arvidson, D. Blaney, J. Bruckner, P. R. Christensen, D. J. DesMarais, P. A. de Souza, T. E. Economou, A. Ghosh, B. C. Hahn, K. E. Herkenhoff, L. A. Haskin, J. A. Hurowitz, B. L. Joliff, J. R. Johnson, G. Klingelhofer, M. B. Madsen, S. M. McLennan, H. Y. McSween, L. Richter, R. Rieder, D. Rodionov, L. Soderblom, S. W. Squyres, N. J. Tosca, A. Wang, M. Wyatt, and J. Zipfel, “An integrated view of the chemistry and mineralogy of martian soils,” Nature 436, 49–54 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Biol. Trace Elem. Res. (1)

H. Rarback, F. Cinotti, C. Jacobsen, J. Kenney, J. Kirz, and R. Rosser, “Elemental analysis using differential absorption techniques,” Biol. Trace Elem. Res. 13, 103–113 (1987).
[CrossRef]

J. Microsc. (1)

D. Paganin, S. C. Mayo, T. E. Gureyev, P. R. Miller, and S. W. Wilkins, “Simultaneous phase and amplitude extraction from a single defocused image of a homogeneous object,” J. Microsc. 206, 33–40 (2002).
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C. T. Chantler, “Theoretical form factor, attenuation, and scattering tabulation for z=1–92 from e=1–10 ev to e=0.4–1.0 mev,” J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 24, 71–642 (1995).
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D. Cookson, N. Kirby, R. Knott, M. Lee, and D. Schultz, “Strategies for data collection and calibration with a pinhole-geometry saxs instrument on a synchrotron beamline,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 13, 440–444 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mater. Sci. Eng., A (1)

J. S. Hou, J. T. Guo, G. X. Yang, L. Z. Zhou, X. Z. Qin, and H. Q. Ye, “The microstructural instability of a hot corrosion resistant superalloy during long-term exposure,” Mater. Sci. Eng., A 498, 349–358 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nat Phys (1)

B. Abbey, K. A. Nugent, G. J. Williams, J. N. Clark, A. G. Peele, M. A. Pfeifer, M. de Jonge, and I. McNulty, “Keyhole coherent diffractive imaging,” Nat Phys 4, 394–398 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nature (3)

J. Miao, P. Charalambous, J. Kirz, and D. Sayre, “Extending the methodology of x-ray crystallography to allow imaging of micrometre-sized non-crystalline specimens,” Nature 400, 342–344 (1999).
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A. S. Yen, R. Gellert, C. Schroder, R. V. Morris, J. F. Bell, A. T. Knudson, B. C. Clark, D. W. Ming, J. A. Crisp, R. E. Arvidson, D. Blaney, J. Bruckner, P. R. Christensen, D. J. DesMarais, P. A. de Souza, T. E. Economou, A. Ghosh, B. C. Hahn, K. E. Herkenhoff, L. A. Haskin, J. A. Hurowitz, B. L. Joliff, J. R. Johnson, G. Klingelhofer, M. B. Madsen, S. M. McLennan, H. Y. McSween, L. Richter, R. Rieder, D. Rodionov, L. Soderblom, S. W. Squyres, N. J. Tosca, A. Wang, M. Wyatt, and J. Zipfel, “An integrated view of the chemistry and mineralogy of martian soils,” Nature 436, 49–54 (2005).
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R. S. Friedman, M. C. McAlpine, D. S. Ricketts, D. Ham, and C. M. Lieber, “Nanotechnology high-speed integrated nanowire circuits,” Nature 434, 1085–1085 (2005).
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Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. A (3)

C. T. Chantler, C. Q. Tran, Z. Barnea, D. Paterson, D. J. Cookson, and D. X. Balaic, “Measurement of the x-ray mass attenuation coefficient of copper using 8.85̆20 kev synchrotron radiation,” Phys. Rev. A 64, 062506 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Glover, C. T. Chantler, Z. Barnea, N. A. Rae, C. Q. Tran, D. C. Creagh, D. Paterson, and B. B. Dhal, “Measurements of the x-ray mass-attenuation coefficient and imaginary component of the form factor of copper,” Phys. Rev. A 78, 052902 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Q. Tran, “Multiwavelength elemental contrast phase imaging by the use of dispersion effects,” Phys. Rev. A 78, 013839 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

C. T. Putkunz, J. N. Clark, D. J. Vine, G. J. Williams, M. A. Pfeifer, E. Balaur, I. McNulty, K. A. Nugent, and A. G. Peele, “Phase-diverse coherent diffractive imaging: High sensitivity with low dose,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 013903 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. J. Williams, H. M. Quiney, B. B. Dhal, C. Q. Tran, K. A. Nugent, A. G. Peele, D. Paterson, and M. D. d. Jonge, “Fresnel coherent diffractive imaging,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 025506 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Surf. Coat. Technol. (1)

I. Gurrappa, D. Manova, J. Gerlach, S. Mandl, and B. Rauschenbach, “Influence of nitrogen implantation on the high temperature oxidation of titanium-base alloys,” Surf. Coat. Technol. 201, 3536–3546 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Percentage approximation error, ErrMWECA; and (b) percentage approximation error, Errconv as functions of the percentage composition of the element of interest, and energy interval.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Line profiles of the percentage approximation errors shown in Fig. 1(a) and Fig. 1(b), which are 1D distributions of ErrMWECA (r), and Errconv (r) as functions of percentage composition, C(r) of the element of interest.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) The first sample consists of 100 nm thick Au and Cu in each of the regions labeled; (b) Intensity measured at an energy of 9030 eV. The distribution of Cu produced: (c) by the conventional technique; and (d) by the MWECAI technique; (e) the plots along the dashed lines in (c) and (d) show the comparison between the conventional technique and our technique.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) The second sample consists of a layer of Au with a thickness of 1.8 μm, and a layer of Cu with a thickness of 100 nm; (b) Intensity measured at an energy of 9030 eV. The distribution of Cu produced: (c) by the conventional technique; and (d) by our technique; (e) the plots along the dashed lines in (c) and (d) show the comparison between the conventional technique and our technique.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Left image shows an measured absorption edge of Cu. The red-star-symbols indicate energies at which the intensity measurements were measured. The dashed lines shows a particular set of 3 intensity measurements for the MWECAI technique; here 8780 eV, 8960 eV and 9140 eV. The two intensity measurements at energies of 8960 eV and 9140 eV are used for the conventional technique.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Net absorption functions of the compound sample calculated from corresponding intensities measured at energies of 8960 eV; and (b) 9140 eV.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) Projected thickness of Cu as obtained by the MWECAI technique; and (c) the conventional technique. (b) The line plots along the dashed-lines shown in (a) and (c) are the thicknesses obtained by the MWECAI; and (d) the conventional techniques, respectively.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Percentage approximation error, ErrMWECA (r) and Errconv (r) as functions of energy interval, ΔE. The horizontal axis represents the energy intervals. The vertical axis represents residue due to the presence of Ni remaining in the normalisation. The prediction curves were calculated using tabulated data from the NIST data [19].

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Thickness of Cu obtained by the two techniques for the two samples for the regions labeled in Fig. 3 and Fig. 4

Equations (16)

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A E ( r ) = ln [ I E ( r ) I 0 , E ( r ) ] = [ ( μ ρ ) e , E ρ e T e ( r ) + j ( μ ρ ) j , E ρ j T j ( r ) ] ,
Δ M W E C A A ( r ) A E + Δ E ( r ) + A E Δ E ( r ) 2 A E ( r ) ,
Δ ( μ ρ ) e ( μ ρ ) e , E + Δ E + ( μ ρ ) e , E Δ E 2 ( μ ρ ) e , E ,
Δ ( μ ρ ) j ( μ ρ ) j , E + Δ E + ( μ ρ ) j , E Δ E 2 ( μ ρ ) j , E .
Δ M W E C A A ( r ) = [ ρ e T e ( r ) ] Δ ( μ ρ ) e + j [ ρ j T j ( r ) ] Δ ( μ ρ ) j = Δ A e ( r ) + Δ A residue ( r ) ,
Δ M W E C A A ( r ) Δ A e ( r ) .
T e , M W E C A ( r ) Δ M W E C A A ( r ) ρ e Δ ( μ ρ ) e .
E r r M W E C A ( r ) Δ A residue ( r ) Δ A e ( r ) × 100 % ,
Δ conv A ( r ) A E + Δ E ( r ) A E ( r ) ,
Δ conv ( μ ρ ) e ( μ ρ ) e , E + Δ E ( μ ρ ) e , E ,
Δ conv ( μ ρ ) j ( μ ρ ) j , E + Δ E ( μ ρ ) j , E .
Δ conv A ( r ) = [ ρ e T e ( r ) ] Δ conv ( μ ρ ) e + j [ ρ j T j ( r ) ] Δ conv ( μ ρ ) j = Δ conv A e ( r ) + Δ conv A residue ( r ) .
Δ conv A ( r ) Δ conv A e ( r ) ,
T e , conv ( r ) = Δ conv A ( r ) ρ e Δ ( μ ρ ) e ,
E r r conv ( r ) = Δ conv A residue ( r ) Δ conv A e ( r ) × 100 % .
C ( r ) = ρ e T e ( r ) ρ e T e ( r ) + j ρ j T j ( r ) × 100 % .

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