Abstract

A family of modulation formats is derived by combining pulse-position modulation (PPM) with multilevel dual-polarization signal constellations. With 16-PPM, gains of up to 5.4 dB are obtained over dual-polarization QPSK, at the cost of reduced spectral efficiency.

© 2011 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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  12. X. Liu, T. H. Wood, R. W. Tkach, and S. Chandrasekhar, “Demonstration of record sensitivity in an optically pre-amplified receiver by combining PDM-QPSK and 16-PPM with pilot-assisted digital coherent detection,” Opt. Fib. Commun. Conf., OFC’11, paper PDPB1 (2011).
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    [CrossRef]

2011 (3)

2010 (2)

2009 (2)

2008 (2)

1978 (1)

J. Pierce, “Optical channels: Practical limits with photon counting,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 26, 1819–1821 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Agrell, E.

Andrekson, P. A.

Barros, D. J. F.

Bayvel, P.

Behrens, C.

Bernstein, S. L.

N. W. Spellmeyer, S. L. Bernstein, D. M. Boroson, D. O. Caplan, A. S. Fletcher, S. A. Hamilton, R. J. Murphy, M. Norvig, H. G. Rao, B. S. Robinson, S. J. Savage, R. T. Schulein, M. L. Stevens, and J. P. Wang, “Demonstration of multi-rate thresholded preamplified 16-ary pulse-position-modulation,” Opt. Fib. Commun. Conf., OFC’10, paper OThT5 (2010).

Boroson, D. M.

N. W. Spellmeyer, S. L. Bernstein, D. M. Boroson, D. O. Caplan, A. S. Fletcher, S. A. Hamilton, R. J. Murphy, M. Norvig, H. G. Rao, B. S. Robinson, S. J. Savage, R. T. Schulein, M. L. Stevens, and J. P. Wang, “Demonstration of multi-rate thresholded preamplified 16-ary pulse-position-modulation,” Opt. Fib. Commun. Conf., OFC’10, paper OThT5 (2010).

Bosco, G.

Buhl, L. L.

Burrows, E. C.

X. Liu, S. Chandrasekhar, T. H. Wood, R. W. Tkach, E. C. Burrows, and P. J. Winzer “Demonstration of 2.7-PPB receiver sensitivity using PDM-QPSK with 4-PPM and unrepeatered transmission over a single 370-km unamplified ultra-large-area fiber span,” Europ. Conf. on Opt. Comm., ECOC’11, paper Tu.3.B.4 (2011).

Caplan, D. O.

N. W. Spellmeyer, S. L. Bernstein, D. M. Boroson, D. O. Caplan, A. S. Fletcher, S. A. Hamilton, R. J. Murphy, M. Norvig, H. G. Rao, B. S. Robinson, S. J. Savage, R. T. Schulein, M. L. Stevens, and J. P. Wang, “Demonstration of multi-rate thresholded preamplified 16-ary pulse-position-modulation,” Opt. Fib. Commun. Conf., OFC’10, paper OThT5 (2010).

Carena, A.

Chandrasekhar, S.

X. Liu, T. H. Wood, R. W. Tkach, and S. Chandrasekhar, “Demonstration of record sensitivity in an optically pre-amplified receiver by combining PDM-QPSK and 16-PPM with pilot-assisted digital coherent detection,” Opt. Fib. Commun. Conf., OFC’11, paper PDPB1 (2011).

X. Liu, S. Chandrasekhar, T. H. Wood, R. W. Tkach, E. C. Burrows, and P. J. Winzer “Demonstration of 2.7-PPB receiver sensitivity using PDM-QPSK with 4-PPM and unrepeatered transmission over a single 370-km unamplified ultra-large-area fiber span,” Europ. Conf. on Opt. Comm., ECOC’11, paper Tu.3.B.4 (2011).

Curri, V.

Doerr, C. R.

Ellis, A.

Fletcher, A. S.

N. W. Spellmeyer, S. L. Bernstein, D. M. Boroson, D. O. Caplan, A. S. Fletcher, S. A. Hamilton, R. J. Murphy, M. Norvig, H. G. Rao, B. S. Robinson, S. J. Savage, R. T. Schulein, M. L. Stevens, and J. P. Wang, “Demonstration of multi-rate thresholded preamplified 16-ary pulse-position-modulation,” Opt. Fib. Commun. Conf., OFC’10, paper OThT5 (2010).

Forghieri, F.

Gnauck, A. H.

Hamilton, S. A.

N. W. Spellmeyer, S. L. Bernstein, D. M. Boroson, D. O. Caplan, A. S. Fletcher, S. A. Hamilton, R. J. Murphy, M. Norvig, H. G. Rao, B. S. Robinson, S. J. Savage, R. T. Schulein, M. L. Stevens, and J. P. Wang, “Demonstration of multi-rate thresholded preamplified 16-ary pulse-position-modulation,” Opt. Fib. Commun. Conf., OFC’10, paper OThT5 (2010).

Ip, E.

Johannisson, P.

Kahn, J. M.

Karlsson, M.

Lau, A. P. T.

Lavery, D.

Liu, X.

X. Liu, T. H. Wood, R. W. Tkach, and S. Chandrasekhar, “Demonstration of record sensitivity in an optically pre-amplified receiver by combining PDM-QPSK and 16-PPM with pilot-assisted digital coherent detection,” Opt. Fib. Commun. Conf., OFC’11, paper PDPB1 (2011).

X. Liu, S. Chandrasekhar, T. H. Wood, R. W. Tkach, E. C. Burrows, and P. J. Winzer “Demonstration of 2.7-PPB receiver sensitivity using PDM-QPSK with 4-PPM and unrepeatered transmission over a single 370-km unamplified ultra-large-area fiber span,” Europ. Conf. on Opt. Comm., ECOC’11, paper Tu.3.B.4 (2011).

Mac Suibhne, N.

Magarini, M.

Magill, P.

Makovejs, S.

Millar, D.

Murphy, R. J.

N. W. Spellmeyer, S. L. Bernstein, D. M. Boroson, D. O. Caplan, A. S. Fletcher, S. A. Hamilton, R. J. Murphy, M. Norvig, H. G. Rao, B. S. Robinson, S. J. Savage, R. T. Schulein, M. L. Stevens, and J. P. Wang, “Demonstration of multi-rate thresholded preamplified 16-ary pulse-position-modulation,” Opt. Fib. Commun. Conf., OFC’10, paper OThT5 (2010).

Nelson, L.

Norvig, M.

N. W. Spellmeyer, S. L. Bernstein, D. M. Boroson, D. O. Caplan, A. S. Fletcher, S. A. Hamilton, R. J. Murphy, M. Norvig, H. G. Rao, B. S. Robinson, S. J. Savage, R. T. Schulein, M. L. Stevens, and J. P. Wang, “Demonstration of multi-rate thresholded preamplified 16-ary pulse-position-modulation,” Opt. Fib. Commun. Conf., OFC’10, paper OThT5 (2010).

Pierce, J.

J. Pierce, “Optical channels: Practical limits with photon counting,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 26, 1819–1821 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Poggiolini, P.

Rao, H. G.

N. W. Spellmeyer, S. L. Bernstein, D. M. Boroson, D. O. Caplan, A. S. Fletcher, S. A. Hamilton, R. J. Murphy, M. Norvig, H. G. Rao, B. S. Robinson, S. J. Savage, R. T. Schulein, M. L. Stevens, and J. P. Wang, “Demonstration of multi-rate thresholded preamplified 16-ary pulse-position-modulation,” Opt. Fib. Commun. Conf., OFC’10, paper OThT5 (2010).

Roberts, K.

Robinson, B. S.

N. W. Spellmeyer, S. L. Bernstein, D. M. Boroson, D. O. Caplan, A. S. Fletcher, S. A. Hamilton, R. J. Murphy, M. Norvig, H. G. Rao, B. S. Robinson, S. J. Savage, R. T. Schulein, M. L. Stevens, and J. P. Wang, “Demonstration of multi-rate thresholded preamplified 16-ary pulse-position-modulation,” Opt. Fib. Commun. Conf., OFC’10, paper OThT5 (2010).

Savage, S. J.

N. W. Spellmeyer, S. L. Bernstein, D. M. Boroson, D. O. Caplan, A. S. Fletcher, S. A. Hamilton, R. J. Murphy, M. Norvig, H. G. Rao, B. S. Robinson, S. J. Savage, R. T. Schulein, M. L. Stevens, and J. P. Wang, “Demonstration of multi-rate thresholded preamplified 16-ary pulse-position-modulation,” Opt. Fib. Commun. Conf., OFC’10, paper OThT5 (2010).

Savory, S.

Schulein, R. T.

N. W. Spellmeyer, S. L. Bernstein, D. M. Boroson, D. O. Caplan, A. S. Fletcher, S. A. Hamilton, R. J. Murphy, M. Norvig, H. G. Rao, B. S. Robinson, S. J. Savage, R. T. Schulein, M. L. Stevens, and J. P. Wang, “Demonstration of multi-rate thresholded preamplified 16-ary pulse-position-modulation,” Opt. Fib. Commun. Conf., OFC’10, paper OThT5 (2010).

Sjödin, M.

Spellmeyer, N. W.

N. W. Spellmeyer, S. L. Bernstein, D. M. Boroson, D. O. Caplan, A. S. Fletcher, S. A. Hamilton, R. J. Murphy, M. Norvig, H. G. Rao, B. S. Robinson, S. J. Savage, R. T. Schulein, M. L. Stevens, and J. P. Wang, “Demonstration of multi-rate thresholded preamplified 16-ary pulse-position-modulation,” Opt. Fib. Commun. Conf., OFC’10, paper OThT5 (2010).

Stevens, M. L.

N. W. Spellmeyer, S. L. Bernstein, D. M. Boroson, D. O. Caplan, A. S. Fletcher, S. A. Hamilton, R. J. Murphy, M. Norvig, H. G. Rao, B. S. Robinson, S. J. Savage, R. T. Schulein, M. L. Stevens, and J. P. Wang, “Demonstration of multi-rate thresholded preamplified 16-ary pulse-position-modulation,” Opt. Fib. Commun. Conf., OFC’10, paper OThT5 (2010).

Sun, H.

Thomsen, B.

Tkach, R. W.

X. Liu, T. H. Wood, R. W. Tkach, and S. Chandrasekhar, “Demonstration of record sensitivity in an optically pre-amplified receiver by combining PDM-QPSK and 16-PPM with pilot-assisted digital coherent detection,” Opt. Fib. Commun. Conf., OFC’11, paper PDPB1 (2011).

X. Liu, S. Chandrasekhar, T. H. Wood, R. W. Tkach, E. C. Burrows, and P. J. Winzer “Demonstration of 2.7-PPB receiver sensitivity using PDM-QPSK with 4-PPM and unrepeatered transmission over a single 370-km unamplified ultra-large-area fiber span,” Europ. Conf. on Opt. Comm., ECOC’11, paper Tu.3.B.4 (2011).

Wang, J. P.

N. W. Spellmeyer, S. L. Bernstein, D. M. Boroson, D. O. Caplan, A. S. Fletcher, S. A. Hamilton, R. J. Murphy, M. Norvig, H. G. Rao, B. S. Robinson, S. J. Savage, R. T. Schulein, M. L. Stevens, and J. P. Wang, “Demonstration of multi-rate thresholded preamplified 16-ary pulse-position-modulation,” Opt. Fib. Commun. Conf., OFC’10, paper OThT5 (2010).

Winzer, P. J.

P. J. Winzer, A. H. Gnauck, C. R. Doerr, M. Magarini, and L. L. Buhl, “Spectrally efficient long-haul optical networking using 112-Gb/s polarization-multiplexed 16-QAM,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28, 547–556 (2010).
[CrossRef]

X. Liu, S. Chandrasekhar, T. H. Wood, R. W. Tkach, E. C. Burrows, and P. J. Winzer “Demonstration of 2.7-PPB receiver sensitivity using PDM-QPSK with 4-PPM and unrepeatered transmission over a single 370-km unamplified ultra-large-area fiber span,” Europ. Conf. on Opt. Comm., ECOC’11, paper Tu.3.B.4 (2011).

Wood, T. H.

X. Liu, S. Chandrasekhar, T. H. Wood, R. W. Tkach, E. C. Burrows, and P. J. Winzer “Demonstration of 2.7-PPB receiver sensitivity using PDM-QPSK with 4-PPM and unrepeatered transmission over a single 370-km unamplified ultra-large-area fiber span,” Europ. Conf. on Opt. Comm., ECOC’11, paper Tu.3.B.4 (2011).

X. Liu, T. H. Wood, R. W. Tkach, and S. Chandrasekhar, “Demonstration of record sensitivity in an optically pre-amplified receiver by combining PDM-QPSK and 16-PPM with pilot-assisted digital coherent detection,” Opt. Fib. Commun. Conf., OFC’11, paper PDPB1 (2011).

Wu, K.-T.

Wymeersch, H.

Zhou, X.

IEEE Trans. Commun. (1)

J. Pierce, “Optical channels: Practical limits with photon counting,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 26, 1819–1821 (1978).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

Opt. Express (7)

Other (4)

N. W. Spellmeyer, S. L. Bernstein, D. M. Boroson, D. O. Caplan, A. S. Fletcher, S. A. Hamilton, R. J. Murphy, M. Norvig, H. G. Rao, B. S. Robinson, S. J. Savage, R. T. Schulein, M. L. Stevens, and J. P. Wang, “Demonstration of multi-rate thresholded preamplified 16-ary pulse-position-modulation,” Opt. Fib. Commun. Conf., OFC’10, paper OThT5 (2010).

X. Liu, T. H. Wood, R. W. Tkach, and S. Chandrasekhar, “Demonstration of record sensitivity in an optically pre-amplified receiver by combining PDM-QPSK and 16-PPM with pilot-assisted digital coherent detection,” Opt. Fib. Commun. Conf., OFC’11, paper PDPB1 (2011).

X. Liu, S. Chandrasekhar, T. H. Wood, R. W. Tkach, E. C. Burrows, and P. J. Winzer “Demonstration of 2.7-PPB receiver sensitivity using PDM-QPSK with 4-PPM and unrepeatered transmission over a single 370-km unamplified ultra-large-area fiber span,” Europ. Conf. on Opt. Comm., ECOC’11, paper Tu.3.B.4 (2011).

M. Karlsson and E. Agrell, “Power efficient modulation schemes,” in Impact of Nonlinearities on Fiber Optic Communication, S. Kumar, ed., ISBN 978-1-4419-8138-7 (Springer, 2011).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Chart over the asymptotic sensitivity penalty 1/PE vs. spectral efficiency SE for K-PPM, K-PPM-QPSK, K-PPM-PMQPSK and K-PPM-PSQPSK, where K = 1, 2, 4, 8, and 16. (b) Performance of K-PPM-��4,m for m = 2, 3,..., 21, where ��4,m is the most power-efficient 4d constellations known from [5]. Included for reference are the best known m-ary constellations in 2d (m = 2,...,16) and 4d (m = 2,...,32) without PPM, i.e., for K = 1.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

A 4-PPM example of the use of different 4-d multilevel PPM formats: (a) PMQPSK or PSQPSK, (b) QPSK and PPM independently in two polarizations, (c) BPSK and PPM independently in 4 quadratures. Only intensities are indicated, and the polarization directions are indicated by “x” and “y”, and the in-phase (quadrature) phases are denoted xi(xq) and yi(yq) respectively.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Parameters of PPM and Multilevel PPM

Tables Icon

Table 2 Format Comparison at 312.5 Mbaud, and 4×16 Dimensional Signal Space

Tables Icon

Table 3 Format Comparison at 2.5 Gbit/s, 4×16 Dimensional Signal Space

Equations (2)

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S E = log 2 ( M ) N / 2 , P E = d min 2 4 E s log 2 ( M )
d min = min { d min 𝒞 , 2 E s , min 𝒞 } ,

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