Abstract

We demonstrate a mitigation of fiber nonlinearity based on μ-law companding transform in coherent optical OFDM transmissions. High peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR) increases fiber nonlinear impairments caused by the Kerr effect in optical fiber. The μ-law companding modifies amplitude profile of OFDM signal with time domain signal processing, which reduces high PAPR of OFDM signal. The effects of companding parameter on noise enhancement and PAPR variation are presented. The impacts of companding transform on system performances are evaluated in a single polarization system as well as polarization multiplexed system. The resolution of analog-to-digital converter (ADC), dispersion map of transmission link, and launch power tolerance are also considered. The results of bit-error-rate (BER) measurements show that the μ-law companding improves OSNR margin over 5.5 dB after transmission of 1,040 km over SMF.

© 2011 OSA

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References

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. H. S. Chung, S. H. Chang, and K. J. Kim, “Effect of IQ mismatch compensation in an optical coherent OFDM receiver,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(5), 308–310 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  3. S. I. Cho and K. M. Kang, “A low-complexity 128-point mixed-radix FFT processor for MB-OFDM UWB system,” ETRI J. 32(1), 1–10 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  4. Z. Fang and J. Shi, “Least square channel estimation for two-way relay MIMO OFDM systems,” ETRI J. 33(5), 806–809 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  5. H. S. Chung, S. H. Chang, and K. J. Kim, “Compensation of IQ mismatch in optical PDM-OFDM coherent receivers,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 16(5), 304–308 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  6. C. H. Lu and K. M. Feng, “Reduction of high PAPR effect with FEC enhanced deep data clipping ratio in an optical OFDM system,” in IEEE LEOS meeting ThEE1 (2007).
  7. O. Bulakc, M. Schuster, C. A. Bunge, and B. Spinnler, “Precoding based PAPR reduction for optical OFDM demonstrated on compatible SSB modulation with direct detection,” in OFC/NFOEC2008 JThA56 (2008).
  8. A. Alavi, C. Tellambura, and I. Fair, “PAPR reduction of OFDM signals using partial transmit sequences: an optimal approach using sphere decoding,” Commun. Lett. 9(11), 982–984 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  9. R. W. Bäuml, R. F. H. Fischer, and J. B. Huber, “Reducing the peak-to-average power ratio of multicarrier modulation by selected mapping,” Electron. Lett. 32(22), 2056–2057 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  10. Z. Dong, Z. Cao, J. Lu, Y. Li, L. Chen, and S. Wen, “Transmission performance of optical OFDM signals with low peak-to-average power ratio by a phase modulator,” Opt. Commun. 282(21), 4194–4197 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  11. A. Vallavaraj, B. G. Stewart, D. K. Harrison, and F. G. Mcintosh, “Reduction of peak to average power ratio of OFDM signals using companding,” In IEEE ICCS, 160–164 (2004).
  12. A. Mattsson, G. Mendenhall, and T. Dittmer, “Comments on reduction of peak-to-average power ratio of OFDM system using a companding technique,” IEEE Trans. Broadcast 45(4), 418–419 (1999).
    [CrossRef]

2011

Z. Fang and J. Shi, “Least square channel estimation for two-way relay MIMO OFDM systems,” ETRI J. 33(5), 806–809 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

H. S. Chung, S. H. Chang, and K. J. Kim, “Compensation of IQ mismatch in optical PDM-OFDM coherent receivers,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 16(5), 304–308 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. S. Chung, S. H. Chang, and K. J. Kim, “Effect of IQ mismatch compensation in an optical coherent OFDM receiver,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(5), 308–310 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. I. Cho and K. M. Kang, “A low-complexity 128-point mixed-radix FFT processor for MB-OFDM UWB system,” ETRI J. 32(1), 1–10 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

Z. Dong, Z. Cao, J. Lu, Y. Li, L. Chen, and S. Wen, “Transmission performance of optical OFDM signals with low peak-to-average power ratio by a phase modulator,” Opt. Commun. 282(21), 4194–4197 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

2005

A. Alavi, C. Tellambura, and I. Fair, “PAPR reduction of OFDM signals using partial transmit sequences: an optimal approach using sphere decoding,” Commun. Lett. 9(11), 982–984 (2005).
[CrossRef]

1999

A. Mattsson, G. Mendenhall, and T. Dittmer, “Comments on reduction of peak-to-average power ratio of OFDM system using a companding technique,” IEEE Trans. Broadcast 45(4), 418–419 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1996

R. W. Bäuml, R. F. H. Fischer, and J. B. Huber, “Reducing the peak-to-average power ratio of multicarrier modulation by selected mapping,” Electron. Lett. 32(22), 2056–2057 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Alavi, A.

A. Alavi, C. Tellambura, and I. Fair, “PAPR reduction of OFDM signals using partial transmit sequences: an optimal approach using sphere decoding,” Commun. Lett. 9(11), 982–984 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bao, H.

Bäuml, R. W.

R. W. Bäuml, R. F. H. Fischer, and J. B. Huber, “Reducing the peak-to-average power ratio of multicarrier modulation by selected mapping,” Electron. Lett. 32(22), 2056–2057 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Cao, Z.

Z. Dong, Z. Cao, J. Lu, Y. Li, L. Chen, and S. Wen, “Transmission performance of optical OFDM signals with low peak-to-average power ratio by a phase modulator,” Opt. Commun. 282(21), 4194–4197 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chang, S. H.

H. S. Chung, S. H. Chang, and K. J. Kim, “Effect of IQ mismatch compensation in an optical coherent OFDM receiver,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(5), 308–310 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. S. Chung, S. H. Chang, and K. J. Kim, “Compensation of IQ mismatch in optical PDM-OFDM coherent receivers,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 16(5), 304–308 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chen, L.

Z. Dong, Z. Cao, J. Lu, Y. Li, L. Chen, and S. Wen, “Transmission performance of optical OFDM signals with low peak-to-average power ratio by a phase modulator,” Opt. Commun. 282(21), 4194–4197 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cho, S. I.

S. I. Cho and K. M. Kang, “A low-complexity 128-point mixed-radix FFT processor for MB-OFDM UWB system,” ETRI J. 32(1), 1–10 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chung, H. S.

H. S. Chung, S. H. Chang, and K. J. Kim, “Effect of IQ mismatch compensation in an optical coherent OFDM receiver,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(5), 308–310 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. S. Chung, S. H. Chang, and K. J. Kim, “Compensation of IQ mismatch in optical PDM-OFDM coherent receivers,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 16(5), 304–308 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Dittmer, T.

A. Mattsson, G. Mendenhall, and T. Dittmer, “Comments on reduction of peak-to-average power ratio of OFDM system using a companding technique,” IEEE Trans. Broadcast 45(4), 418–419 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Dong, Z.

Z. Dong, Z. Cao, J. Lu, Y. Li, L. Chen, and S. Wen, “Transmission performance of optical OFDM signals with low peak-to-average power ratio by a phase modulator,” Opt. Commun. 282(21), 4194–4197 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fair, I.

A. Alavi, C. Tellambura, and I. Fair, “PAPR reduction of OFDM signals using partial transmit sequences: an optimal approach using sphere decoding,” Commun. Lett. 9(11), 982–984 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Fang, Z.

Z. Fang and J. Shi, “Least square channel estimation for two-way relay MIMO OFDM systems,” ETRI J. 33(5), 806–809 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Fischer, R. F. H.

R. W. Bäuml, R. F. H. Fischer, and J. B. Huber, “Reducing the peak-to-average power ratio of multicarrier modulation by selected mapping,” Electron. Lett. 32(22), 2056–2057 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Harrison, D. K.

A. Vallavaraj, B. G. Stewart, D. K. Harrison, and F. G. Mcintosh, “Reduction of peak to average power ratio of OFDM signals using companding,” In IEEE ICCS, 160–164 (2004).

Huber, J. B.

R. W. Bäuml, R. F. H. Fischer, and J. B. Huber, “Reducing the peak-to-average power ratio of multicarrier modulation by selected mapping,” Electron. Lett. 32(22), 2056–2057 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kang, K. M.

S. I. Cho and K. M. Kang, “A low-complexity 128-point mixed-radix FFT processor for MB-OFDM UWB system,” ETRI J. 32(1), 1–10 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kim, K. J.

H. S. Chung, S. H. Chang, and K. J. Kim, “Effect of IQ mismatch compensation in an optical coherent OFDM receiver,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(5), 308–310 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. S. Chung, S. H. Chang, and K. J. Kim, “Compensation of IQ mismatch in optical PDM-OFDM coherent receivers,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 16(5), 304–308 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y.

Z. Dong, Z. Cao, J. Lu, Y. Li, L. Chen, and S. Wen, “Transmission performance of optical OFDM signals with low peak-to-average power ratio by a phase modulator,” Opt. Commun. 282(21), 4194–4197 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lu, J.

Z. Dong, Z. Cao, J. Lu, Y. Li, L. Chen, and S. Wen, “Transmission performance of optical OFDM signals with low peak-to-average power ratio by a phase modulator,” Opt. Commun. 282(21), 4194–4197 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mattsson, A.

A. Mattsson, G. Mendenhall, and T. Dittmer, “Comments on reduction of peak-to-average power ratio of OFDM system using a companding technique,” IEEE Trans. Broadcast 45(4), 418–419 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mcintosh, F. G.

A. Vallavaraj, B. G. Stewart, D. K. Harrison, and F. G. Mcintosh, “Reduction of peak to average power ratio of OFDM signals using companding,” In IEEE ICCS, 160–164 (2004).

Mendenhall, G.

A. Mattsson, G. Mendenhall, and T. Dittmer, “Comments on reduction of peak-to-average power ratio of OFDM system using a companding technique,” IEEE Trans. Broadcast 45(4), 418–419 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Shi, J.

Z. Fang and J. Shi, “Least square channel estimation for two-way relay MIMO OFDM systems,” ETRI J. 33(5), 806–809 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Shieh, W.

Stewart, B. G.

A. Vallavaraj, B. G. Stewart, D. K. Harrison, and F. G. Mcintosh, “Reduction of peak to average power ratio of OFDM signals using companding,” In IEEE ICCS, 160–164 (2004).

Tang, Y.

Tellambura, C.

A. Alavi, C. Tellambura, and I. Fair, “PAPR reduction of OFDM signals using partial transmit sequences: an optimal approach using sphere decoding,” Commun. Lett. 9(11), 982–984 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Vallavaraj, A.

A. Vallavaraj, B. G. Stewart, D. K. Harrison, and F. G. Mcintosh, “Reduction of peak to average power ratio of OFDM signals using companding,” In IEEE ICCS, 160–164 (2004).

Wen, S.

Z. Dong, Z. Cao, J. Lu, Y. Li, L. Chen, and S. Wen, “Transmission performance of optical OFDM signals with low peak-to-average power ratio by a phase modulator,” Opt. Commun. 282(21), 4194–4197 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Commun. Lett.

A. Alavi, C. Tellambura, and I. Fair, “PAPR reduction of OFDM signals using partial transmit sequences: an optimal approach using sphere decoding,” Commun. Lett. 9(11), 982–984 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett.

R. W. Bäuml, R. F. H. Fischer, and J. B. Huber, “Reducing the peak-to-average power ratio of multicarrier modulation by selected mapping,” Electron. Lett. 32(22), 2056–2057 (1996).
[CrossRef]

ETRI J.

S. I. Cho and K. M. Kang, “A low-complexity 128-point mixed-radix FFT processor for MB-OFDM UWB system,” ETRI J. 32(1), 1–10 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. Fang and J. Shi, “Least square channel estimation for two-way relay MIMO OFDM systems,” ETRI J. 33(5), 806–809 (2011).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

H. S. Chung, S. H. Chang, and K. J. Kim, “Effect of IQ mismatch compensation in an optical coherent OFDM receiver,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(5), 308–310 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Broadcast

A. Mattsson, G. Mendenhall, and T. Dittmer, “Comments on reduction of peak-to-average power ratio of OFDM system using a companding technique,” IEEE Trans. Broadcast 45(4), 418–419 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

Z. Dong, Z. Cao, J. Lu, Y. Li, L. Chen, and S. Wen, “Transmission performance of optical OFDM signals with low peak-to-average power ratio by a phase modulator,” Opt. Commun. 282(21), 4194–4197 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Fiber Technol.

H. S. Chung, S. H. Chang, and K. J. Kim, “Compensation of IQ mismatch in optical PDM-OFDM coherent receivers,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 16(5), 304–308 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Other

C. H. Lu and K. M. Feng, “Reduction of high PAPR effect with FEC enhanced deep data clipping ratio in an optical OFDM system,” in IEEE LEOS meeting ThEE1 (2007).

O. Bulakc, M. Schuster, C. A. Bunge, and B. Spinnler, “Precoding based PAPR reduction for optical OFDM demonstrated on compatible SSB modulation with direct detection,” in OFC/NFOEC2008 JThA56 (2008).

A. Vallavaraj, B. G. Stewart, D. K. Harrison, and F. G. Mcintosh, “Reduction of peak to average power ratio of OFDM signals using companding,” In IEEE ICCS, 160–164 (2004).

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Characteristics of wireless link and optical link.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Transfer function of μ-law companding.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Effect of μ and PR on noise increment and PAPR reduction.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Companding transform of OFDM signal with 128 point IFFT and QPSK mapping (a) probability density function (b) Complementary cumulative distribution function (CCDF) of PAPR.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Optical coherent OFDM system with μ-law companding (a) analysis setup (b) dispersion map.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) optical OFDM Waveform (b) back-to-back sensitivity at the BER of 10−3 as a function of ADC resolution.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Transmission performance after 1,040 km over SMF (a) dispersion compensated link (b) performances comparison between dispersion compensated link and DCF-free link

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Launch power tolerance after 1,040 km over SMF (a) dispersion compensated link (b) DCF-free link.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Performance of μ-law companding in PDM-OFDM (a) dispersion compensated link (b) BER curves.

Equations (2)

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y=PR× x peak × log(1+μ | x | PR× x peak ) log(1+μ) sgn(x)
1+ μ 2 (PR× x peak ) 2 Es

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