Abstract

Energy-efficient video distribution systems have become an important tool to deal with the rapid growth in Internet video traffic and to maintain the environmental sustainability of the Internet. Due to the limitations in terms of energy-efficiency of the conventional server centric method for delivering video services to the end users, storing video contents closer to the end users could potentially achieve significant improvements in energy-efficiency. Because of dissimilarities in user behavior and limited cache sizes, caching systems should be designed according to the behavior of user communities. In this paper, several energy consumption models are presented to evaluate the energy savings of single-level caching and multi-level caching systems that support varying levels of similarity in user behavior. The results show that single level caching systems can achieve high energy savings for communities with high similarity in user behavior. In contrast, when user behavior is dissimilar, multi-level caching systems should be used to increase the energy efficiency.

© 2011 OSA

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References

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  1. D. C. Kilper, G. Atkinson, S. K. Korotky, S. Goyal, P. Vetter, D. Suvakovic, and O. Blume, “Power Trends in Communication Networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(2), 275–284 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  2. D. C. Kilper, D. Neilson, D. Stiliadis, D. Suvakovic, and S. Goyal, “Fundamental Limits on Energy Use in Optical Networks,” in European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication, paper Tu.3.D.1, (2010).
  3. Cisco report, “Cisco Visual Networking Index: Forecast and Methodology 2010-2015.” http://www.cisco.com .
  4. ComScore whitepaper, “The 2010Europe Digital Year in Review,” 1–30 (2011).
  5. ComScore whitepaper, “The 2010Europe Digital Year in Review,” 1–35 (2011).
  6. J. Baliga, R. Ayre, K. Hinton, and R. S. Tucker, “Architectures for Energy-Efficient IPTV Networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition and the National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, paper OThQ5, (2009).
  7. C. Jayasundara, A. Nirmalathas, E. Wong, and C. A. Chan, “Energy Efficient Content Distribution for VoD Services,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition and the National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, paper OWR3, (2011).
  8. L. B. Sofman and B. Krogfoss, “Analytical Model for Hierarchical Cache Optimization in IPTV Network,” IEEE Trans. Broadcast 55(1), 62–70 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  9. A.-J. Su, D. R. Choffnes, A. Kuzmanovic, and F. E. Bustamante, “Drafting Behind Akamai: Inferring Network Conditions Based on CDN Redirections,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. 17(6), 1752–1765 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  10. Velocix white paper, “Video Distribution in the Digital Lifestyle Era,” (2011). http://www.velocix.com/next_gen_video_distr_velocix.pdf
  11. Velocix white paper, “Enabling Digital Media Content Delivery,” (2010). http://www.velocix.com/videoweb.pdf
  12. H. Chen, H. Jin, J. Sun, X. Liao, D. Deng, “A new proxy caching scheme for parallel video servers,” in Proceedings of Computer Networks and Mobile Computing, (2003), pp. 438–441.
  13. J. P. Lee and S. H. Park, “A cache management policy in proxy server for an efficient multimedia streaming service,” in Proceedings of the 9th International Symposium on Consumer Electronics, 64–68 (2005).
  14. C. Cobarzan and L. Böszörményi, “Further developments of a dynamic distributed video proxy-cache system,” in Proceedings of the 15th International Conference on Parallel, Distributed and Network-Based Processing, 349–357 (2007).
  15. Cisco Unified Computing System (UCS) 5108 Blade server datasheet, http://www.cisco.com
  16. H. Yu, D. Zheng, B. Y. Zhao, and W. Zheng, “Understanding user behavior in large-scale video-on-demand systems,” in Proceedings of the 1st ACM SIGOPS/EuroSys European Conference on Computer Systems, 333–344 (2006).
  17. M. Vilas, X. G. Paneda, R. Garcia, D. Melendi, and V. G. Garcia, “User behavior analysis of a video-on-demand service with a wide variety of subjects and lengths,” in Proceedings of 31st EUROMICRO Conference on Software Engineering and Advanced Applications, 330–337 (2005).
  18. R. García, X. G. Paneda, V. García, D. Melendi, and M. Vilas, “Statistical characterization of a real video on demand service: User behaviour and streaming-media workload analysis,” Simul. Model. Pract. Theory 15(6), 672–689 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  19. R. García, X. G. Paneda, D. Melendi, and V. García, “Probabilistic analysis and interdependence discovery in the user interactions of a video news on demand service,” Comp. Netw. 53(12), 2038–2049 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  20. D. Loguinov and H. Radha, “Measurement Study of Low-bitrate Internet Video Streaming,” in ACM SIGCOMM Internet Measurement Workshop (2001).
  21. C. P. Costa, I. S. Cunha, A. Borges, C. V. Ramos, M. M. Rocha, J. M. Almeida, and B. Ribeiro-Neto, “Analyzing client interactivity in streaming media,” in Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on World Wide Web, 534–543 (2004).

2011

D. C. Kilper, G. Atkinson, S. K. Korotky, S. Goyal, P. Vetter, D. Suvakovic, and O. Blume, “Power Trends in Communication Networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(2), 275–284 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2009

L. B. Sofman and B. Krogfoss, “Analytical Model for Hierarchical Cache Optimization in IPTV Network,” IEEE Trans. Broadcast 55(1), 62–70 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A.-J. Su, D. R. Choffnes, A. Kuzmanovic, and F. E. Bustamante, “Drafting Behind Akamai: Inferring Network Conditions Based on CDN Redirections,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. 17(6), 1752–1765 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. García, X. G. Paneda, D. Melendi, and V. García, “Probabilistic analysis and interdependence discovery in the user interactions of a video news on demand service,” Comp. Netw. 53(12), 2038–2049 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2007

R. García, X. G. Paneda, V. García, D. Melendi, and M. Vilas, “Statistical characterization of a real video on demand service: User behaviour and streaming-media workload analysis,” Simul. Model. Pract. Theory 15(6), 672–689 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Atkinson, G.

D. C. Kilper, G. Atkinson, S. K. Korotky, S. Goyal, P. Vetter, D. Suvakovic, and O. Blume, “Power Trends in Communication Networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(2), 275–284 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Blume, O.

D. C. Kilper, G. Atkinson, S. K. Korotky, S. Goyal, P. Vetter, D. Suvakovic, and O. Blume, “Power Trends in Communication Networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(2), 275–284 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bustamante, F. E.

A.-J. Su, D. R. Choffnes, A. Kuzmanovic, and F. E. Bustamante, “Drafting Behind Akamai: Inferring Network Conditions Based on CDN Redirections,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. 17(6), 1752–1765 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Choffnes, D. R.

A.-J. Su, D. R. Choffnes, A. Kuzmanovic, and F. E. Bustamante, “Drafting Behind Akamai: Inferring Network Conditions Based on CDN Redirections,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. 17(6), 1752–1765 (2009).
[CrossRef]

García, R.

R. García, X. G. Paneda, D. Melendi, and V. García, “Probabilistic analysis and interdependence discovery in the user interactions of a video news on demand service,” Comp. Netw. 53(12), 2038–2049 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. García, X. G. Paneda, V. García, D. Melendi, and M. Vilas, “Statistical characterization of a real video on demand service: User behaviour and streaming-media workload analysis,” Simul. Model. Pract. Theory 15(6), 672–689 (2007).
[CrossRef]

García, V.

R. García, X. G. Paneda, D. Melendi, and V. García, “Probabilistic analysis and interdependence discovery in the user interactions of a video news on demand service,” Comp. Netw. 53(12), 2038–2049 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. García, X. G. Paneda, V. García, D. Melendi, and M. Vilas, “Statistical characterization of a real video on demand service: User behaviour and streaming-media workload analysis,” Simul. Model. Pract. Theory 15(6), 672–689 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Goyal, S.

D. C. Kilper, G. Atkinson, S. K. Korotky, S. Goyal, P. Vetter, D. Suvakovic, and O. Blume, “Power Trends in Communication Networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(2), 275–284 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kilper, D. C.

D. C. Kilper, G. Atkinson, S. K. Korotky, S. Goyal, P. Vetter, D. Suvakovic, and O. Blume, “Power Trends in Communication Networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(2), 275–284 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Korotky, S. K.

D. C. Kilper, G. Atkinson, S. K. Korotky, S. Goyal, P. Vetter, D. Suvakovic, and O. Blume, “Power Trends in Communication Networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(2), 275–284 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Krogfoss, B.

L. B. Sofman and B. Krogfoss, “Analytical Model for Hierarchical Cache Optimization in IPTV Network,” IEEE Trans. Broadcast 55(1), 62–70 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kuzmanovic, A.

A.-J. Su, D. R. Choffnes, A. Kuzmanovic, and F. E. Bustamante, “Drafting Behind Akamai: Inferring Network Conditions Based on CDN Redirections,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. 17(6), 1752–1765 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Melendi, D.

R. García, X. G. Paneda, D. Melendi, and V. García, “Probabilistic analysis and interdependence discovery in the user interactions of a video news on demand service,” Comp. Netw. 53(12), 2038–2049 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. García, X. G. Paneda, V. García, D. Melendi, and M. Vilas, “Statistical characterization of a real video on demand service: User behaviour and streaming-media workload analysis,” Simul. Model. Pract. Theory 15(6), 672–689 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Paneda, X. G.

R. García, X. G. Paneda, D. Melendi, and V. García, “Probabilistic analysis and interdependence discovery in the user interactions of a video news on demand service,” Comp. Netw. 53(12), 2038–2049 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. García, X. G. Paneda, V. García, D. Melendi, and M. Vilas, “Statistical characterization of a real video on demand service: User behaviour and streaming-media workload analysis,” Simul. Model. Pract. Theory 15(6), 672–689 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sofman, L. B.

L. B. Sofman and B. Krogfoss, “Analytical Model for Hierarchical Cache Optimization in IPTV Network,” IEEE Trans. Broadcast 55(1), 62–70 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Su, A.-J.

A.-J. Su, D. R. Choffnes, A. Kuzmanovic, and F. E. Bustamante, “Drafting Behind Akamai: Inferring Network Conditions Based on CDN Redirections,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. 17(6), 1752–1765 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Suvakovic, D.

D. C. Kilper, G. Atkinson, S. K. Korotky, S. Goyal, P. Vetter, D. Suvakovic, and O. Blume, “Power Trends in Communication Networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(2), 275–284 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Vetter, P.

D. C. Kilper, G. Atkinson, S. K. Korotky, S. Goyal, P. Vetter, D. Suvakovic, and O. Blume, “Power Trends in Communication Networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(2), 275–284 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Vilas, M.

R. García, X. G. Paneda, V. García, D. Melendi, and M. Vilas, “Statistical characterization of a real video on demand service: User behaviour and streaming-media workload analysis,” Simul. Model. Pract. Theory 15(6), 672–689 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Comp. Netw.

R. García, X. G. Paneda, D. Melendi, and V. García, “Probabilistic analysis and interdependence discovery in the user interactions of a video news on demand service,” Comp. Netw. 53(12), 2038–2049 (2009).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

D. C. Kilper, G. Atkinson, S. K. Korotky, S. Goyal, P. Vetter, D. Suvakovic, and O. Blume, “Power Trends in Communication Networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(2), 275–284 (2011).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Broadcast

L. B. Sofman and B. Krogfoss, “Analytical Model for Hierarchical Cache Optimization in IPTV Network,” IEEE Trans. Broadcast 55(1), 62–70 (2009).
[CrossRef]

IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw.

A.-J. Su, D. R. Choffnes, A. Kuzmanovic, and F. E. Bustamante, “Drafting Behind Akamai: Inferring Network Conditions Based on CDN Redirections,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. 17(6), 1752–1765 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Simul. Model. Pract. Theory

R. García, X. G. Paneda, V. García, D. Melendi, and M. Vilas, “Statistical characterization of a real video on demand service: User behaviour and streaming-media workload analysis,” Simul. Model. Pract. Theory 15(6), 672–689 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Other

D. Loguinov and H. Radha, “Measurement Study of Low-bitrate Internet Video Streaming,” in ACM SIGCOMM Internet Measurement Workshop (2001).

C. P. Costa, I. S. Cunha, A. Borges, C. V. Ramos, M. M. Rocha, J. M. Almeida, and B. Ribeiro-Neto, “Analyzing client interactivity in streaming media,” in Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on World Wide Web, 534–543 (2004).

D. C. Kilper, D. Neilson, D. Stiliadis, D. Suvakovic, and S. Goyal, “Fundamental Limits on Energy Use in Optical Networks,” in European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication, paper Tu.3.D.1, (2010).

Cisco report, “Cisco Visual Networking Index: Forecast and Methodology 2010-2015.” http://www.cisco.com .

ComScore whitepaper, “The 2010Europe Digital Year in Review,” 1–30 (2011).

ComScore whitepaper, “The 2010Europe Digital Year in Review,” 1–35 (2011).

J. Baliga, R. Ayre, K. Hinton, and R. S. Tucker, “Architectures for Energy-Efficient IPTV Networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition and the National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, paper OThQ5, (2009).

C. Jayasundara, A. Nirmalathas, E. Wong, and C. A. Chan, “Energy Efficient Content Distribution for VoD Services,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition and the National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, paper OWR3, (2011).

Velocix white paper, “Video Distribution in the Digital Lifestyle Era,” (2011). http://www.velocix.com/next_gen_video_distr_velocix.pdf

Velocix white paper, “Enabling Digital Media Content Delivery,” (2010). http://www.velocix.com/videoweb.pdf

H. Chen, H. Jin, J. Sun, X. Liao, D. Deng, “A new proxy caching scheme for parallel video servers,” in Proceedings of Computer Networks and Mobile Computing, (2003), pp. 438–441.

J. P. Lee and S. H. Park, “A cache management policy in proxy server for an efficient multimedia streaming service,” in Proceedings of the 9th International Symposium on Consumer Electronics, 64–68 (2005).

C. Cobarzan and L. Böszörményi, “Further developments of a dynamic distributed video proxy-cache system,” in Proceedings of the 15th International Conference on Parallel, Distributed and Network-Based Processing, 349–357 (2007).

Cisco Unified Computing System (UCS) 5108 Blade server datasheet, http://www.cisco.com

H. Yu, D. Zheng, B. Y. Zhao, and W. Zheng, “Understanding user behavior in large-scale video-on-demand systems,” in Proceedings of the 1st ACM SIGOPS/EuroSys European Conference on Computer Systems, 333–344 (2006).

M. Vilas, X. G. Paneda, R. Garcia, D. Melendi, and V. G. Garcia, “User behavior analysis of a video-on-demand service with a wide variety of subjects and lengths,” in Proceedings of 31st EUROMICRO Conference on Software Engineering and Advanced Applications, 330–337 (2005).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of an on-demand IPTV network model showing the location of caches for single-level and multi-level caching systems.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Daily user requests.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Daily energy consumption of 49 communities using single-level caching with cache size of 512 GB.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Energy savings of single-level caching system with variable cache sizes of 256 GB, 512 GB, 1TB, and 2TB.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Energy savings of two-level caching system with variable cache sizes of 256 GB, 512 GB, 1TB, and 2TB.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Energy savings of three-level caching system with variable cache sizes of 256 GB, 512 GB, 1TB, and 2TB.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Energy savings of single-level and multi-level caching compared to CDN system with cache size of 2 TB.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Equipment Parameters

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

E 1 =[ P ONT A + P OLT A N TU +6( P Eth C Eth + P ssd C ssd ) ] B 1 ,
E 2 =[ P ONT A + P OLT A N TU +6( P Eth C Eth + P Er C Er + P ssd C ssd ) ] B 2 ,
E 3 =[ P ONT A + P OLT A N TU +6( P Eth C Eth + P Er C Er + P Cr C Cr + P ssd C ssd ) ] B 3 ,
E 4 =[ P ONT A + P OLT A N TU +6( P Eth C Eth + P Er C Er + ( H+1 ) P Cr C Cr + H P WDM C WDM + P DCE C DCE + P S C S ) ] B 4 ,
C= 1 l=1 N 1 l α ,
f X ( x|μ,σ )= 1 xσ 2π e ( lnxμ ) 2 2 σ 2 .

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