Abstract

Under 980 nm excitation, multiple ultraviolet and visible upconversion luminescence from Ho3+ and Eu3+ ions were observed in Yb3+/Ho3+/Eu3+ tri-doped NaYF4 microcrystals (MCs). The high-energy states (5H3-7, 5L6, 5D3 and 5D2) of Eu3+ ions could be efficiently populated by two-step energy transfer (ET) processes of Yb Ho Eu. Four-, three-, two-photon UC processes of Eu3+ ions were confirmed by the dependence of 5H3-7, 5L6 and 5D0 levels emission intensities on the pumping power.

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  1. F. Auzel, “Upconversion and anti-Stokes processes with f and d ions in solids,” Chem. Rev. 104(1), 139–174 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. J.-C. Boyer, F. Vetrone, L. A. Cuccia, and J. A. Capobianco, “Synthesis of colloidal upconverting NaYF4 nanocrystals doped with Er3+, Yb3+ and Tm3+, Yb3+ via thermal decomposition of lanthanide trifluoroacetate precursors,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128(23), 7444–7445 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. K. Z. Zheng, D. Zhao, D. S. Zhang, N. Liu, and W. P. Qin, “Ultraviolet upconversion fluorescence of Er3+ induced by 1560 nm laser excitation,” Opt. Lett. 35(14), 2442–2444 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. W. P. Qin, D. S. Zhang, D. Zhao, L. L. Wang, and K. Z. Zheng, “Near-infrared photocatalysis based on YF3 : Yb3+,Tm3+/TiO2 core/shell nanoparticles,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 46(13), 2304–2306 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. K. Z. Zheng, L. L. Wang, D. S. Zhang, D. Zhao, and W. P. Qin, “Power switched multiphoton upconversion emissions of Er3+ in Yb3+/Er3+ codoped beta-NaYF4 microcrystals induced by 980 nm excitation,” Opt. Express 18(3), 2934–2939 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. L. L. Wang, X. J. Xue, F. Shi, D. Zhao, D. S. Zhang, K. Z. Zheng, G. F. Wang, C. F. He, R. Kim, and W. P. Qin, “Ultraviolet and violet upconversion fluorescence of europium (III) doped in YF(3) nanocrystals,” Opt. Lett. 34(18), 2781–2783 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. G. Y. Chen, C. H. Yang, B. Aghahadi, H. J. Liang, Y. Liu, L. Li, and Z. G. Zhang, “Ultraviolet-blue upconversion emissions of Ho3+ ions,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 27(6), 1158–1164 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  8. G. Wang, W. Qin, J. Zhang, L. Wang, G. Wei, P. Zhu, and R. Kim, “Controlled synthesis and luminescence properties from cubic to hexagonal NaYF4:Ln3+ (Ln=Eu and Yb/Tm) microcrystals,” J. Alloy. Comp. 475(1-2), 452–455 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  9. V. Mahalingam, R. Naccache, F. Vetrone, and J. A. Capobianco, “Sensitized Ce(3+) and Gd(3+) ultraviolet emissions by Tm(3+) in colloidal LiYF(4) nanocrystals,” Chemistry 15(38), 9660–9663 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. C. Liu, H. Wang, X. Li, and D. Chen, “Monodisperse, size-tunable and highly efficient beta-NaYF4:Yb,Er(Tm) up-conversion luminescent nanospheres: controllable synthesis and their surface modifications,” J. Mater. Chem. 19(21), 3546–3553 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  11. G. Y. Chen, H. C. Liu, G. Somesfalean, H. J. Liang, and Z. G. Zhang, “Upconversion emission tuning from green to red in Yb3+/Ho3+-codoped NaYF4 nanocrystals by tridoping with Ce3+ ions,” Nanotechnology 20(38), 385704 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. L. G. DeShazer and G. H. Dieke, “Spectra and Energy Levels of Eu3+ in LaCl3,” J. Chem. Phys. 38(9), 2190–2199 (1963).
    [CrossRef]
  13. M. Pollnau, D. R. Gamelin, S. R. Luthi, H. U. Gudel, and M. P. Hehlen, “Power dependence of upconversion luminescence in lanthanide and transition-metal-ion systems,” Phys. Rev. B 61(5), 3337–3346 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  14. F. Auzel, “Multiphonon-assisted anti-Stokes and Stokes fluorescence of triply ionized rare-earth ions,” Phys. Rev. B 13(7), 2809–2817 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  15. M. J. Weber, “Multiphonon Relaxation of Rare-Earth Ions in Yttrium Orthoaluminate,” Phys. Rev. B 8(1), 54–64 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  16. M. J. Weber, “Radiative and Multiphonon Relaxation of Rare-Earth Ions in Y2O3,” Phys. Rev. 171(2), 283–291 (1968).
    [CrossRef]
  17. H. W. Moos, “Spectroscopic relaxation processes of rare earth ions in crystals,” J. Lumin. 1–2, 106–121 (1970).
    [CrossRef]

2010

2009

G. Wang, W. Qin, J. Zhang, L. Wang, G. Wei, P. Zhu, and R. Kim, “Controlled synthesis and luminescence properties from cubic to hexagonal NaYF4:Ln3+ (Ln=Eu and Yb/Tm) microcrystals,” J. Alloy. Comp. 475(1-2), 452–455 (2009).
[CrossRef]

V. Mahalingam, R. Naccache, F. Vetrone, and J. A. Capobianco, “Sensitized Ce(3+) and Gd(3+) ultraviolet emissions by Tm(3+) in colloidal LiYF(4) nanocrystals,” Chemistry 15(38), 9660–9663 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Liu, H. Wang, X. Li, and D. Chen, “Monodisperse, size-tunable and highly efficient beta-NaYF4:Yb,Er(Tm) up-conversion luminescent nanospheres: controllable synthesis and their surface modifications,” J. Mater. Chem. 19(21), 3546–3553 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Y. Chen, H. C. Liu, G. Somesfalean, H. J. Liang, and Z. G. Zhang, “Upconversion emission tuning from green to red in Yb3+/Ho3+-codoped NaYF4 nanocrystals by tridoping with Ce3+ ions,” Nanotechnology 20(38), 385704 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. L. Wang, X. J. Xue, F. Shi, D. Zhao, D. S. Zhang, K. Z. Zheng, G. F. Wang, C. F. He, R. Kim, and W. P. Qin, “Ultraviolet and violet upconversion fluorescence of europium (III) doped in YF(3) nanocrystals,” Opt. Lett. 34(18), 2781–2783 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

J.-C. Boyer, F. Vetrone, L. A. Cuccia, and J. A. Capobianco, “Synthesis of colloidal upconverting NaYF4 nanocrystals doped with Er3+, Yb3+ and Tm3+, Yb3+ via thermal decomposition of lanthanide trifluoroacetate precursors,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128(23), 7444–7445 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

F. Auzel, “Upconversion and anti-Stokes processes with f and d ions in solids,” Chem. Rev. 104(1), 139–174 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000

M. Pollnau, D. R. Gamelin, S. R. Luthi, H. U. Gudel, and M. P. Hehlen, “Power dependence of upconversion luminescence in lanthanide and transition-metal-ion systems,” Phys. Rev. B 61(5), 3337–3346 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1976

F. Auzel, “Multiphonon-assisted anti-Stokes and Stokes fluorescence of triply ionized rare-earth ions,” Phys. Rev. B 13(7), 2809–2817 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1973

M. J. Weber, “Multiphonon Relaxation of Rare-Earth Ions in Yttrium Orthoaluminate,” Phys. Rev. B 8(1), 54–64 (1973).
[CrossRef]

1970

H. W. Moos, “Spectroscopic relaxation processes of rare earth ions in crystals,” J. Lumin. 1–2, 106–121 (1970).
[CrossRef]

1968

M. J. Weber, “Radiative and Multiphonon Relaxation of Rare-Earth Ions in Y2O3,” Phys. Rev. 171(2), 283–291 (1968).
[CrossRef]

1963

L. G. DeShazer and G. H. Dieke, “Spectra and Energy Levels of Eu3+ in LaCl3,” J. Chem. Phys. 38(9), 2190–2199 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Aghahadi, B.

Auzel, F.

F. Auzel, “Upconversion and anti-Stokes processes with f and d ions in solids,” Chem. Rev. 104(1), 139–174 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Auzel, “Multiphonon-assisted anti-Stokes and Stokes fluorescence of triply ionized rare-earth ions,” Phys. Rev. B 13(7), 2809–2817 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Boyer, J.-C.

J.-C. Boyer, F. Vetrone, L. A. Cuccia, and J. A. Capobianco, “Synthesis of colloidal upconverting NaYF4 nanocrystals doped with Er3+, Yb3+ and Tm3+, Yb3+ via thermal decomposition of lanthanide trifluoroacetate precursors,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128(23), 7444–7445 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Capobianco, J. A.

V. Mahalingam, R. Naccache, F. Vetrone, and J. A. Capobianco, “Sensitized Ce(3+) and Gd(3+) ultraviolet emissions by Tm(3+) in colloidal LiYF(4) nanocrystals,” Chemistry 15(38), 9660–9663 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.-C. Boyer, F. Vetrone, L. A. Cuccia, and J. A. Capobianco, “Synthesis of colloidal upconverting NaYF4 nanocrystals doped with Er3+, Yb3+ and Tm3+, Yb3+ via thermal decomposition of lanthanide trifluoroacetate precursors,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128(23), 7444–7445 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, D.

C. Liu, H. Wang, X. Li, and D. Chen, “Monodisperse, size-tunable and highly efficient beta-NaYF4:Yb,Er(Tm) up-conversion luminescent nanospheres: controllable synthesis and their surface modifications,” J. Mater. Chem. 19(21), 3546–3553 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chen, G. Y.

G. Y. Chen, C. H. Yang, B. Aghahadi, H. J. Liang, Y. Liu, L. Li, and Z. G. Zhang, “Ultraviolet-blue upconversion emissions of Ho3+ ions,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 27(6), 1158–1164 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. Y. Chen, H. C. Liu, G. Somesfalean, H. J. Liang, and Z. G. Zhang, “Upconversion emission tuning from green to red in Yb3+/Ho3+-codoped NaYF4 nanocrystals by tridoping with Ce3+ ions,” Nanotechnology 20(38), 385704 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cuccia, L. A.

J.-C. Boyer, F. Vetrone, L. A. Cuccia, and J. A. Capobianco, “Synthesis of colloidal upconverting NaYF4 nanocrystals doped with Er3+, Yb3+ and Tm3+, Yb3+ via thermal decomposition of lanthanide trifluoroacetate precursors,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128(23), 7444–7445 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

DeShazer, L. G.

L. G. DeShazer and G. H. Dieke, “Spectra and Energy Levels of Eu3+ in LaCl3,” J. Chem. Phys. 38(9), 2190–2199 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Dieke, G. H.

L. G. DeShazer and G. H. Dieke, “Spectra and Energy Levels of Eu3+ in LaCl3,” J. Chem. Phys. 38(9), 2190–2199 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Gamelin, D. R.

M. Pollnau, D. R. Gamelin, S. R. Luthi, H. U. Gudel, and M. P. Hehlen, “Power dependence of upconversion luminescence in lanthanide and transition-metal-ion systems,” Phys. Rev. B 61(5), 3337–3346 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Gudel, H. U.

M. Pollnau, D. R. Gamelin, S. R. Luthi, H. U. Gudel, and M. P. Hehlen, “Power dependence of upconversion luminescence in lanthanide and transition-metal-ion systems,” Phys. Rev. B 61(5), 3337–3346 (2000).
[CrossRef]

He, C. F.

Hehlen, M. P.

M. Pollnau, D. R. Gamelin, S. R. Luthi, H. U. Gudel, and M. P. Hehlen, “Power dependence of upconversion luminescence in lanthanide and transition-metal-ion systems,” Phys. Rev. B 61(5), 3337–3346 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kim, R.

G. Wang, W. Qin, J. Zhang, L. Wang, G. Wei, P. Zhu, and R. Kim, “Controlled synthesis and luminescence properties from cubic to hexagonal NaYF4:Ln3+ (Ln=Eu and Yb/Tm) microcrystals,” J. Alloy. Comp. 475(1-2), 452–455 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. L. Wang, X. J. Xue, F. Shi, D. Zhao, D. S. Zhang, K. Z. Zheng, G. F. Wang, C. F. He, R. Kim, and W. P. Qin, “Ultraviolet and violet upconversion fluorescence of europium (III) doped in YF(3) nanocrystals,” Opt. Lett. 34(18), 2781–2783 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, L.

Li, X.

C. Liu, H. Wang, X. Li, and D. Chen, “Monodisperse, size-tunable and highly efficient beta-NaYF4:Yb,Er(Tm) up-conversion luminescent nanospheres: controllable synthesis and their surface modifications,” J. Mater. Chem. 19(21), 3546–3553 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Liang, H. J.

G. Y. Chen, C. H. Yang, B. Aghahadi, H. J. Liang, Y. Liu, L. Li, and Z. G. Zhang, “Ultraviolet-blue upconversion emissions of Ho3+ ions,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 27(6), 1158–1164 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. Y. Chen, H. C. Liu, G. Somesfalean, H. J. Liang, and Z. G. Zhang, “Upconversion emission tuning from green to red in Yb3+/Ho3+-codoped NaYF4 nanocrystals by tridoping with Ce3+ ions,” Nanotechnology 20(38), 385704 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, C.

C. Liu, H. Wang, X. Li, and D. Chen, “Monodisperse, size-tunable and highly efficient beta-NaYF4:Yb,Er(Tm) up-conversion luminescent nanospheres: controllable synthesis and their surface modifications,” J. Mater. Chem. 19(21), 3546–3553 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Liu, H. C.

G. Y. Chen, H. C. Liu, G. Somesfalean, H. J. Liang, and Z. G. Zhang, “Upconversion emission tuning from green to red in Yb3+/Ho3+-codoped NaYF4 nanocrystals by tridoping with Ce3+ ions,” Nanotechnology 20(38), 385704 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, N.

Liu, Y.

Luthi, S. R.

M. Pollnau, D. R. Gamelin, S. R. Luthi, H. U. Gudel, and M. P. Hehlen, “Power dependence of upconversion luminescence in lanthanide and transition-metal-ion systems,” Phys. Rev. B 61(5), 3337–3346 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Mahalingam, V.

V. Mahalingam, R. Naccache, F. Vetrone, and J. A. Capobianco, “Sensitized Ce(3+) and Gd(3+) ultraviolet emissions by Tm(3+) in colloidal LiYF(4) nanocrystals,” Chemistry 15(38), 9660–9663 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moos, H. W.

H. W. Moos, “Spectroscopic relaxation processes of rare earth ions in crystals,” J. Lumin. 1–2, 106–121 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Naccache, R.

V. Mahalingam, R. Naccache, F. Vetrone, and J. A. Capobianco, “Sensitized Ce(3+) and Gd(3+) ultraviolet emissions by Tm(3+) in colloidal LiYF(4) nanocrystals,” Chemistry 15(38), 9660–9663 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pollnau, M.

M. Pollnau, D. R. Gamelin, S. R. Luthi, H. U. Gudel, and M. P. Hehlen, “Power dependence of upconversion luminescence in lanthanide and transition-metal-ion systems,” Phys. Rev. B 61(5), 3337–3346 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Qin, W.

G. Wang, W. Qin, J. Zhang, L. Wang, G. Wei, P. Zhu, and R. Kim, “Controlled synthesis and luminescence properties from cubic to hexagonal NaYF4:Ln3+ (Ln=Eu and Yb/Tm) microcrystals,” J. Alloy. Comp. 475(1-2), 452–455 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Qin, W. P.

Shi, F.

Somesfalean, G.

G. Y. Chen, H. C. Liu, G. Somesfalean, H. J. Liang, and Z. G. Zhang, “Upconversion emission tuning from green to red in Yb3+/Ho3+-codoped NaYF4 nanocrystals by tridoping with Ce3+ ions,” Nanotechnology 20(38), 385704 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vetrone, F.

V. Mahalingam, R. Naccache, F. Vetrone, and J. A. Capobianco, “Sensitized Ce(3+) and Gd(3+) ultraviolet emissions by Tm(3+) in colloidal LiYF(4) nanocrystals,” Chemistry 15(38), 9660–9663 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.-C. Boyer, F. Vetrone, L. A. Cuccia, and J. A. Capobianco, “Synthesis of colloidal upconverting NaYF4 nanocrystals doped with Er3+, Yb3+ and Tm3+, Yb3+ via thermal decomposition of lanthanide trifluoroacetate precursors,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128(23), 7444–7445 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, G.

G. Wang, W. Qin, J. Zhang, L. Wang, G. Wei, P. Zhu, and R. Kim, “Controlled synthesis and luminescence properties from cubic to hexagonal NaYF4:Ln3+ (Ln=Eu and Yb/Tm) microcrystals,” J. Alloy. Comp. 475(1-2), 452–455 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wang, G. F.

Wang, H.

C. Liu, H. Wang, X. Li, and D. Chen, “Monodisperse, size-tunable and highly efficient beta-NaYF4:Yb,Er(Tm) up-conversion luminescent nanospheres: controllable synthesis and their surface modifications,” J. Mater. Chem. 19(21), 3546–3553 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wang, L.

G. Wang, W. Qin, J. Zhang, L. Wang, G. Wei, P. Zhu, and R. Kim, “Controlled synthesis and luminescence properties from cubic to hexagonal NaYF4:Ln3+ (Ln=Eu and Yb/Tm) microcrystals,” J. Alloy. Comp. 475(1-2), 452–455 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wang, L. L.

Weber, M. J.

M. J. Weber, “Multiphonon Relaxation of Rare-Earth Ions in Yttrium Orthoaluminate,” Phys. Rev. B 8(1), 54–64 (1973).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Weber, “Radiative and Multiphonon Relaxation of Rare-Earth Ions in Y2O3,” Phys. Rev. 171(2), 283–291 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Wei, G.

G. Wang, W. Qin, J. Zhang, L. Wang, G. Wei, P. Zhu, and R. Kim, “Controlled synthesis and luminescence properties from cubic to hexagonal NaYF4:Ln3+ (Ln=Eu and Yb/Tm) microcrystals,” J. Alloy. Comp. 475(1-2), 452–455 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Xue, X. J.

Yang, C. H.

Zhang, D. S.

Zhang, J.

G. Wang, W. Qin, J. Zhang, L. Wang, G. Wei, P. Zhu, and R. Kim, “Controlled synthesis and luminescence properties from cubic to hexagonal NaYF4:Ln3+ (Ln=Eu and Yb/Tm) microcrystals,” J. Alloy. Comp. 475(1-2), 452–455 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Z. G.

G. Y. Chen, C. H. Yang, B. Aghahadi, H. J. Liang, Y. Liu, L. Li, and Z. G. Zhang, “Ultraviolet-blue upconversion emissions of Ho3+ ions,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 27(6), 1158–1164 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. Y. Chen, H. C. Liu, G. Somesfalean, H. J. Liang, and Z. G. Zhang, “Upconversion emission tuning from green to red in Yb3+/Ho3+-codoped NaYF4 nanocrystals by tridoping with Ce3+ ions,” Nanotechnology 20(38), 385704 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhao, D.

Zheng, K. Z.

Zhu, P.

G. Wang, W. Qin, J. Zhang, L. Wang, G. Wei, P. Zhu, and R. Kim, “Controlled synthesis and luminescence properties from cubic to hexagonal NaYF4:Ln3+ (Ln=Eu and Yb/Tm) microcrystals,” J. Alloy. Comp. 475(1-2), 452–455 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Commun. (Camb.)

W. P. Qin, D. S. Zhang, D. Zhao, L. L. Wang, and K. Z. Zheng, “Near-infrared photocatalysis based on YF3 : Yb3+,Tm3+/TiO2 core/shell nanoparticles,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 46(13), 2304–2306 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chem. Rev.

F. Auzel, “Upconversion and anti-Stokes processes with f and d ions in solids,” Chem. Rev. 104(1), 139–174 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chemistry

V. Mahalingam, R. Naccache, F. Vetrone, and J. A. Capobianco, “Sensitized Ce(3+) and Gd(3+) ultraviolet emissions by Tm(3+) in colloidal LiYF(4) nanocrystals,” Chemistry 15(38), 9660–9663 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Alloy. Comp.

G. Wang, W. Qin, J. Zhang, L. Wang, G. Wei, P. Zhu, and R. Kim, “Controlled synthesis and luminescence properties from cubic to hexagonal NaYF4:Ln3+ (Ln=Eu and Yb/Tm) microcrystals,” J. Alloy. Comp. 475(1-2), 452–455 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Chem. Soc.

J.-C. Boyer, F. Vetrone, L. A. Cuccia, and J. A. Capobianco, “Synthesis of colloidal upconverting NaYF4 nanocrystals doped with Er3+, Yb3+ and Tm3+, Yb3+ via thermal decomposition of lanthanide trifluoroacetate precursors,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128(23), 7444–7445 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Chem. Phys.

L. G. DeShazer and G. H. Dieke, “Spectra and Energy Levels of Eu3+ in LaCl3,” J. Chem. Phys. 38(9), 2190–2199 (1963).
[CrossRef]

J. Lumin.

H. W. Moos, “Spectroscopic relaxation processes of rare earth ions in crystals,” J. Lumin. 1–2, 106–121 (1970).
[CrossRef]

J. Mater. Chem.

C. Liu, H. Wang, X. Li, and D. Chen, “Monodisperse, size-tunable and highly efficient beta-NaYF4:Yb,Er(Tm) up-conversion luminescent nanospheres: controllable synthesis and their surface modifications,” J. Mater. Chem. 19(21), 3546–3553 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Nanotechnology

G. Y. Chen, H. C. Liu, G. Somesfalean, H. J. Liang, and Z. G. Zhang, “Upconversion emission tuning from green to red in Yb3+/Ho3+-codoped NaYF4 nanocrystals by tridoping with Ce3+ ions,” Nanotechnology 20(38), 385704 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev.

M. J. Weber, “Radiative and Multiphonon Relaxation of Rare-Earth Ions in Y2O3,” Phys. Rev. 171(2), 283–291 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B

M. Pollnau, D. R. Gamelin, S. R. Luthi, H. U. Gudel, and M. P. Hehlen, “Power dependence of upconversion luminescence in lanthanide and transition-metal-ion systems,” Phys. Rev. B 61(5), 3337–3346 (2000).
[CrossRef]

F. Auzel, “Multiphonon-assisted anti-Stokes and Stokes fluorescence of triply ionized rare-earth ions,” Phys. Rev. B 13(7), 2809–2817 (1976).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Weber, “Multiphonon Relaxation of Rare-Earth Ions in Yttrium Orthoaluminate,” Phys. Rev. B 8(1), 54–64 (1973).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

SEM and XRD patterns of sample NaYF4: 20%Yb3+, 1.5%Ho3+, 3%Eu3+ MCs.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

UV UC spectra of NaYF4: 20%Yb3+, 1.5%Ho3+, 3%Eu3+ (a, b) and NaYF4: 20%Yb3+, 1.5%Ho3+ (c, d) MCs under 980 nm excitation. Excitation power density is 320 W/cm2.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

UC spectra of NaYF4: 20%Yb3+, 1.5%Ho3+, 3%Eu3+ (a, b) and NaYF4: 20%Yb3+, 1.5%Ho3+ (c, d) MCs under 980 nm excitation. Excitation power density is 320 W/cm2.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Energy level diagrams of Eu3+, Yb3+ and Ho3+ ions and possible UC emission processes.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Excitation power dependence of UC luminescence in NaYF4: 20%Yb3+, 1.5%Ho3+, 3%Eu3+ MCs under 980 nm excitation.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Time-dependent emission profile of 5F2/3F2/5G2, 5G4, 5S2/5F4 levels of Ho3+ in NaYF4: Yb/Ho/Eu (|) and NaYF4: Yb/Ho (■) samples under 953.6 nm pulsed Raman excitation. The decay parts can be fitted into a single-exponential function as I = I0exp(-t/τ) (I0 is the initial emission intensity, τ is the lifetime of the emission center).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Absorption spectra of NaYF4: Yb/Ho/Eu samples around 980 nm and 394 nm.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Luminescence intensity ratio of (5D17F3)/(5D07F2) and (5D27F3)/(5D07F2) of Eu3+ as a function of the doping concentration of Eu3+ ions under 394 nm excitation (T = 300K) (a) and 980 nm excitation (T = 300K and 10K) (b), respectively. Excitation power densities are 20 W/cm2 under 394 nm excitation and 320 W/cm2 under 980 nm excitation.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Average Lifetimes τ of Emission Levels of Ho3+ in NaYF4: Yb/Ho/Eu and NaYF4: Yb/Ho Samples Calculated from Time-dependent Emission Profiles.

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