Abstract

This work demonstrates a polarization-independent electrically tunable Fabry-Pérot (FP) filter that is based on polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystals (PSBPLCs). An external vertical electric field can be applied to modulate the effective refractive index of the PSBPLCs along the optical axis. Therefore, the wavelength-tuning property of the FP filter is completely independent of the polarization state of the incident light. The change in the birefringence in PSBPLCs is governed by Kerr effect-induced isotropic-to-anisotropic transition, and so the PSBPLCs based FP filter has a short response time. The measured tunability and free spectral range of the FP filter are 0.092 nm/ V and 16nm in the visible region, and 0.12nm/ V and 97nm in the NIR region, respectively, and the response time is in sub-millisecond range. The fast-responding polarization-independent electrically tunable FP filter has substantial potential for practical applications.

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  1. M. W. Maeda, J. S. Patel, C. Lin, J. Horrobin, and R. Spicer, “An electronically tunable liquid-crystal etalon filter for high-density WDM system,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2(11), 820–822 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  2. S. Saeed, P. J. Bos, and Z. Li, “A method of generating full color in a liquid crystal display using birefringent filters,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40(Part 1, No. 5A), 3266–3271 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  3. I. Abdulhalim, R. Moses, and R. Sharon, “Biomedical optical applications of liquid crystal devices,” Polonica Ser. A 112, 715 (2007).
  4. S. J. Woltman, G. D. Jay, and G. P. Crawford, “Liquid-crystal materials find a new order in biomedical applications,” Nat. Mater. 6(12), 929–938 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. J. S. Patel, “Polarization insensitive tunable liquid-crystal etalon filter,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59(11), 1314 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. S. Patel and M. W. Maeda, “Tunable polarization diversity liquid-crystal wavelength filter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3(8), 739–740 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J.-H. Lee, H.-R. Kim, and S.-D. Lee, “Polarization-insensitive wavelength selection in an axially symmetric liquid-crystal Fabry-Perot filter,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(6), 859 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  8. H. Kikuchi, “Liquid crystalline blue phases,” Struct. Bonding 128, 99–117 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  9. H. Kikuchi, M. Yokota, Y. Hisakado, H. Yang, and T. Kajiyama, “Polymer-stabilized liquid crystal blue phases,” Nat. Mater. 1(1), 64–68 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. Y. Hisakado, H. Kikuchi, T. Nagamura, and T. Kajiyama, “Large electro-optic Kerr effect in polymer-stabilized liquid-crystalline blue phases,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 17(1), 96–98 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  11. S. W. Choi, S. I. Yamamoto, Y. Haseba, H. Higuchi, and H. Kikuchi, “Optically isotropic-nanostructured liquid crystal composite with high Kerr constant,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(4), 043119 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  12. K. M. Chen, S. Gauza, H. Xianyu, and S. T. Wu, “Submillisecond gray-level response time of a polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid crystal,” J. Disp. Technol. 6(2), 49–51 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  13. J. Kerr, “A new relation between electricity and light: dielectrified media birefringent,” Philos. Mag. 50, 337 (1875).
  14. C.-H. Lin, Y.-Y. Wang, and C.-W. Hsieh, “Polarization-independent and high-diffraction-efficiency Fresnel lenses based on blue phase liquid crystals,” Opt. Lett. 36(4), 502–504 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. J. Yan, H. C. Cheng, S. Gauza, Y. Li, M. Jiao, L. Rao, and S. T. Wu, “Extended Kerr effect of polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(7), 071105 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  16. A. Yariv, Optical Electronics in Modern Communications, 5th ed. (Oxford University Press, 1997), Chap. 4.

2011 (1)

2010 (2)

J. Yan, H. C. Cheng, S. Gauza, Y. Li, M. Jiao, L. Rao, and S. T. Wu, “Extended Kerr effect of polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(7), 071105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. M. Chen, S. Gauza, H. Xianyu, and S. T. Wu, “Submillisecond gray-level response time of a polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid crystal,” J. Disp. Technol. 6(2), 49–51 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

S. W. Choi, S. I. Yamamoto, Y. Haseba, H. Higuchi, and H. Kikuchi, “Optically isotropic-nanostructured liquid crystal composite with high Kerr constant,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(4), 043119 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Kikuchi, “Liquid crystalline blue phases,” Struct. Bonding 128, 99–117 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

I. Abdulhalim, R. Moses, and R. Sharon, “Biomedical optical applications of liquid crystal devices,” Polonica Ser. A 112, 715 (2007).

S. J. Woltman, G. D. Jay, and G. P. Crawford, “Liquid-crystal materials find a new order in biomedical applications,” Nat. Mater. 6(12), 929–938 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

Y. Hisakado, H. Kikuchi, T. Nagamura, and T. Kajiyama, “Large electro-optic Kerr effect in polymer-stabilized liquid-crystalline blue phases,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 17(1), 96–98 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

H. Kikuchi, M. Yokota, Y. Hisakado, H. Yang, and T. Kajiyama, “Polymer-stabilized liquid crystal blue phases,” Nat. Mater. 1(1), 64–68 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

S. Saeed, P. J. Bos, and Z. Li, “A method of generating full color in a liquid crystal display using birefringent filters,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40(Part 1, No. 5A), 3266–3271 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

J.-H. Lee, H.-R. Kim, and S.-D. Lee, “Polarization-insensitive wavelength selection in an axially symmetric liquid-crystal Fabry-Perot filter,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(6), 859 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1991 (2)

J. S. Patel, “Polarization insensitive tunable liquid-crystal etalon filter,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59(11), 1314 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Patel and M. W. Maeda, “Tunable polarization diversity liquid-crystal wavelength filter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3(8), 739–740 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

M. W. Maeda, J. S. Patel, C. Lin, J. Horrobin, and R. Spicer, “An electronically tunable liquid-crystal etalon filter for high-density WDM system,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2(11), 820–822 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1875 (1)

J. Kerr, “A new relation between electricity and light: dielectrified media birefringent,” Philos. Mag. 50, 337 (1875).

Abdulhalim, I.

I. Abdulhalim, R. Moses, and R. Sharon, “Biomedical optical applications of liquid crystal devices,” Polonica Ser. A 112, 715 (2007).

Bos, P. J.

S. Saeed, P. J. Bos, and Z. Li, “A method of generating full color in a liquid crystal display using birefringent filters,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40(Part 1, No. 5A), 3266–3271 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chen, K. M.

K. M. Chen, S. Gauza, H. Xianyu, and S. T. Wu, “Submillisecond gray-level response time of a polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid crystal,” J. Disp. Technol. 6(2), 49–51 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, H. C.

J. Yan, H. C. Cheng, S. Gauza, Y. Li, M. Jiao, L. Rao, and S. T. Wu, “Extended Kerr effect of polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(7), 071105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Choi, S. W.

S. W. Choi, S. I. Yamamoto, Y. Haseba, H. Higuchi, and H. Kikuchi, “Optically isotropic-nanostructured liquid crystal composite with high Kerr constant,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(4), 043119 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Crawford, G. P.

S. J. Woltman, G. D. Jay, and G. P. Crawford, “Liquid-crystal materials find a new order in biomedical applications,” Nat. Mater. 6(12), 929–938 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gauza, S.

K. M. Chen, S. Gauza, H. Xianyu, and S. T. Wu, “Submillisecond gray-level response time of a polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid crystal,” J. Disp. Technol. 6(2), 49–51 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Yan, H. C. Cheng, S. Gauza, Y. Li, M. Jiao, L. Rao, and S. T. Wu, “Extended Kerr effect of polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(7), 071105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Haseba, Y.

S. W. Choi, S. I. Yamamoto, Y. Haseba, H. Higuchi, and H. Kikuchi, “Optically isotropic-nanostructured liquid crystal composite with high Kerr constant,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(4), 043119 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Higuchi, H.

S. W. Choi, S. I. Yamamoto, Y. Haseba, H. Higuchi, and H. Kikuchi, “Optically isotropic-nanostructured liquid crystal composite with high Kerr constant,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(4), 043119 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hisakado, Y.

Y. Hisakado, H. Kikuchi, T. Nagamura, and T. Kajiyama, “Large electro-optic Kerr effect in polymer-stabilized liquid-crystalline blue phases,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 17(1), 96–98 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Kikuchi, M. Yokota, Y. Hisakado, H. Yang, and T. Kajiyama, “Polymer-stabilized liquid crystal blue phases,” Nat. Mater. 1(1), 64–68 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Horrobin, J.

M. W. Maeda, J. S. Patel, C. Lin, J. Horrobin, and R. Spicer, “An electronically tunable liquid-crystal etalon filter for high-density WDM system,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2(11), 820–822 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Hsieh, C.-W.

Jay, G. D.

S. J. Woltman, G. D. Jay, and G. P. Crawford, “Liquid-crystal materials find a new order in biomedical applications,” Nat. Mater. 6(12), 929–938 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jiao, M.

J. Yan, H. C. Cheng, S. Gauza, Y. Li, M. Jiao, L. Rao, and S. T. Wu, “Extended Kerr effect of polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(7), 071105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kajiyama, T.

Y. Hisakado, H. Kikuchi, T. Nagamura, and T. Kajiyama, “Large electro-optic Kerr effect in polymer-stabilized liquid-crystalline blue phases,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 17(1), 96–98 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Kikuchi, M. Yokota, Y. Hisakado, H. Yang, and T. Kajiyama, “Polymer-stabilized liquid crystal blue phases,” Nat. Mater. 1(1), 64–68 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kerr, J.

J. Kerr, “A new relation between electricity and light: dielectrified media birefringent,” Philos. Mag. 50, 337 (1875).

Kikuchi, H.

H. Kikuchi, “Liquid crystalline blue phases,” Struct. Bonding 128, 99–117 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. W. Choi, S. I. Yamamoto, Y. Haseba, H. Higuchi, and H. Kikuchi, “Optically isotropic-nanostructured liquid crystal composite with high Kerr constant,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(4), 043119 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Hisakado, H. Kikuchi, T. Nagamura, and T. Kajiyama, “Large electro-optic Kerr effect in polymer-stabilized liquid-crystalline blue phases,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 17(1), 96–98 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Kikuchi, M. Yokota, Y. Hisakado, H. Yang, and T. Kajiyama, “Polymer-stabilized liquid crystal blue phases,” Nat. Mater. 1(1), 64–68 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, H.-R.

J.-H. Lee, H.-R. Kim, and S.-D. Lee, “Polarization-insensitive wavelength selection in an axially symmetric liquid-crystal Fabry-Perot filter,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(6), 859 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J.-H.

J.-H. Lee, H.-R. Kim, and S.-D. Lee, “Polarization-insensitive wavelength selection in an axially symmetric liquid-crystal Fabry-Perot filter,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(6), 859 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S.-D.

J.-H. Lee, H.-R. Kim, and S.-D. Lee, “Polarization-insensitive wavelength selection in an axially symmetric liquid-crystal Fabry-Perot filter,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(6), 859 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y.

J. Yan, H. C. Cheng, S. Gauza, Y. Li, M. Jiao, L. Rao, and S. T. Wu, “Extended Kerr effect of polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(7), 071105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Li, Z.

S. Saeed, P. J. Bos, and Z. Li, “A method of generating full color in a liquid crystal display using birefringent filters,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40(Part 1, No. 5A), 3266–3271 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C.

M. W. Maeda, J. S. Patel, C. Lin, J. Horrobin, and R. Spicer, “An electronically tunable liquid-crystal etalon filter for high-density WDM system,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2(11), 820–822 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C.-H.

Maeda, M. W.

J. S. Patel and M. W. Maeda, “Tunable polarization diversity liquid-crystal wavelength filter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3(8), 739–740 (1991).
[CrossRef]

M. W. Maeda, J. S. Patel, C. Lin, J. Horrobin, and R. Spicer, “An electronically tunable liquid-crystal etalon filter for high-density WDM system,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2(11), 820–822 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Moses, R.

I. Abdulhalim, R. Moses, and R. Sharon, “Biomedical optical applications of liquid crystal devices,” Polonica Ser. A 112, 715 (2007).

Nagamura, T.

Y. Hisakado, H. Kikuchi, T. Nagamura, and T. Kajiyama, “Large electro-optic Kerr effect in polymer-stabilized liquid-crystalline blue phases,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 17(1), 96–98 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Patel, J. S.

J. S. Patel, “Polarization insensitive tunable liquid-crystal etalon filter,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59(11), 1314 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Patel and M. W. Maeda, “Tunable polarization diversity liquid-crystal wavelength filter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3(8), 739–740 (1991).
[CrossRef]

M. W. Maeda, J. S. Patel, C. Lin, J. Horrobin, and R. Spicer, “An electronically tunable liquid-crystal etalon filter for high-density WDM system,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2(11), 820–822 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Rao, L.

J. Yan, H. C. Cheng, S. Gauza, Y. Li, M. Jiao, L. Rao, and S. T. Wu, “Extended Kerr effect of polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(7), 071105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Saeed, S.

S. Saeed, P. J. Bos, and Z. Li, “A method of generating full color in a liquid crystal display using birefringent filters,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40(Part 1, No. 5A), 3266–3271 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sharon, R.

I. Abdulhalim, R. Moses, and R. Sharon, “Biomedical optical applications of liquid crystal devices,” Polonica Ser. A 112, 715 (2007).

Spicer, R.

M. W. Maeda, J. S. Patel, C. Lin, J. Horrobin, and R. Spicer, “An electronically tunable liquid-crystal etalon filter for high-density WDM system,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2(11), 820–822 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y.-Y.

Woltman, S. J.

S. J. Woltman, G. D. Jay, and G. P. Crawford, “Liquid-crystal materials find a new order in biomedical applications,” Nat. Mater. 6(12), 929–938 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, S. T.

K. M. Chen, S. Gauza, H. Xianyu, and S. T. Wu, “Submillisecond gray-level response time of a polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid crystal,” J. Disp. Technol. 6(2), 49–51 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Yan, H. C. Cheng, S. Gauza, Y. Li, M. Jiao, L. Rao, and S. T. Wu, “Extended Kerr effect of polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(7), 071105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Xianyu, H.

K. M. Chen, S. Gauza, H. Xianyu, and S. T. Wu, “Submillisecond gray-level response time of a polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid crystal,” J. Disp. Technol. 6(2), 49–51 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yamamoto, S. I.

S. W. Choi, S. I. Yamamoto, Y. Haseba, H. Higuchi, and H. Kikuchi, “Optically isotropic-nanostructured liquid crystal composite with high Kerr constant,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(4), 043119 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yan, J.

J. Yan, H. C. Cheng, S. Gauza, Y. Li, M. Jiao, L. Rao, and S. T. Wu, “Extended Kerr effect of polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(7), 071105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yang, H.

H. Kikuchi, M. Yokota, Y. Hisakado, H. Yang, and T. Kajiyama, “Polymer-stabilized liquid crystal blue phases,” Nat. Mater. 1(1), 64–68 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yokota, M.

H. Kikuchi, M. Yokota, Y. Hisakado, H. Yang, and T. Kajiyama, “Polymer-stabilized liquid crystal blue phases,” Nat. Mater. 1(1), 64–68 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) (1)

Y. Hisakado, H. Kikuchi, T. Nagamura, and T. Kajiyama, “Large electro-optic Kerr effect in polymer-stabilized liquid-crystalline blue phases,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 17(1), 96–98 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

S. W. Choi, S. I. Yamamoto, Y. Haseba, H. Higuchi, and H. Kikuchi, “Optically isotropic-nanostructured liquid crystal composite with high Kerr constant,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(4), 043119 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Yan, H. C. Cheng, S. Gauza, Y. Li, M. Jiao, L. Rao, and S. T. Wu, “Extended Kerr effect of polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(7), 071105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Patel, “Polarization insensitive tunable liquid-crystal etalon filter,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59(11), 1314 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J.-H. Lee, H.-R. Kim, and S.-D. Lee, “Polarization-insensitive wavelength selection in an axially symmetric liquid-crystal Fabry-Perot filter,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(6), 859 (1999).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

J. S. Patel and M. W. Maeda, “Tunable polarization diversity liquid-crystal wavelength filter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3(8), 739–740 (1991).
[CrossRef]

M. W. Maeda, J. S. Patel, C. Lin, J. Horrobin, and R. Spicer, “An electronically tunable liquid-crystal etalon filter for high-density WDM system,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2(11), 820–822 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Disp. Technol. (1)

K. M. Chen, S. Gauza, H. Xianyu, and S. T. Wu, “Submillisecond gray-level response time of a polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid crystal,” J. Disp. Technol. 6(2), 49–51 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

S. Saeed, P. J. Bos, and Z. Li, “A method of generating full color in a liquid crystal display using birefringent filters,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40(Part 1, No. 5A), 3266–3271 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Mater. (2)

S. J. Woltman, G. D. Jay, and G. P. Crawford, “Liquid-crystal materials find a new order in biomedical applications,” Nat. Mater. 6(12), 929–938 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Kikuchi, M. Yokota, Y. Hisakado, H. Yang, and T. Kajiyama, “Polymer-stabilized liquid crystal blue phases,” Nat. Mater. 1(1), 64–68 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Philos. Mag. (1)

J. Kerr, “A new relation between electricity and light: dielectrified media birefringent,” Philos. Mag. 50, 337 (1875).

Polonica Ser. A (1)

I. Abdulhalim, R. Moses, and R. Sharon, “Biomedical optical applications of liquid crystal devices,” Polonica Ser. A 112, 715 (2007).

Struct. Bonding (1)

H. Kikuchi, “Liquid crystalline blue phases,” Struct. Bonding 128, 99–117 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

A. Yariv, Optical Electronics in Modern Communications, 5th ed. (Oxford University Press, 1997), Chap. 4.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Configuration of sample and morphology of PSBPLCs under crossed polarizing R-POM. (b) Experimental setup.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Voltage-dependent transmittance of FP filter for unpolarized light in (a)visible region and (c) NIR region. Wavelengths of transmission peak as a function of applied voltage in (b) visible region and (d) NIR region.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Experimental setup of Michelson interferometer to measure phase shift of BPLC sample. M: mirror, V: applied voltage, and BS: beam splitter. (b) Measured optical phase difference in BPLC sample against applied electric field.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Normalized transmittance as function of angle of polarization incident light for (a) 0V (=572.5nm) and (b) 60V (λ=569.3nm).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Response time of FP filter with applied voltages of 0 and 60V. (a) Rise time, (b) decay time.

Equations (1)

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T= τ (1ρ) 2 +4ρ sin 2 ( 2πnd /λ )

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