Abstract

We report the observation of optical bistability in Si-based photonic crystal cavities operating around 4.5 µm. Time domain measurements indicate that the source of this optical bistability is thermal, with a time constant on the order of 5 µs. Quality (Q) factor improvement is shown by the use of surface treatments (wet processes and annealing), resulting in a significant increase in Q-factor, which in our best devices is on the order of ~45,000 at 4.48 µm. After annealing in a N2environment, optical bistability is no longer seen in our cavities.

© 2011 OSA

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2011 (3)

2010 (7)

T. Baehr-Jones, A. Spott, R. Ilic, A. Spott, B. Penkov, W. Asher, and M. Hochberg, “Silicon-on-sapphire integrated waveguides for the mid-infrared,” Opt. Express 18(12), 12127–12135 (2010), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-18-12-12127 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. H. P. Pernice, M. Li, and H. X. Tang, “Time-domain measurement of optical transport in silicon micro-ring resonators,” Opt. Express 18(17), 18438–18452 (2010), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?id=205135 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. W. Lee, C. Grillet, C. Monat, E. Mägi, S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, X. Gai, S. Madden, D. Y. Choi, D. Bulla, B. Luther-Davies, and B. J. Eggleton, “Photosensitive and thermal nonlinear effects in chalcogenide photonic crystal cavities,” Opt. Express 18(25), 26695–26703 (2010), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-18-25-26695 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Jalali, “Silicon photonics: nonlinear optics in the mid-infrared,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 506–508 (2010).
[CrossRef]

X. P. Liu, R. M. Osgood, Y. A. Vlasov, and W. M. J. Green, “Mid-infrared optical parametric amplifier using silicon nanophotonic waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 557–560 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Zlatanovic, J. S. Park, S. Moro, J. M. C. Boggio, I. B. Divliansky, N. Alic, S. Mookherjea, and S. Radic, “Mid-infrared wavelength conversion in silicon waveguides using ultracompact telecom-band-derived pump source,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 561–564 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Spott, Y. Liu, T. Baehr-Jones, R. Ilic, and M. Hochberg, “Silicon waveguides and ring resonators at 5.5 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(21), 213501 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (5)

M. Galli, S. L. Portalupi, M. Belotti, L. C. Andreani, L. O'Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, “Light scattering and Fano resonances in high-Q photonic crystal nanocavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(7), 071101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Deotare, M. W. McCutcheon, I. W. Frank, M. Khan, and M. Loncar, “High quality factor photonic crystal nanobeam cavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(12), 121106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. de Rossi, M. Lauritano, S. Combrie, Q. V. Tran, and C. Husko, “Interplay of plasma-induced and fast thermal nonlinearities in a GaAs-based photonic crystal nanocavity,” Phys. Rev. A 79(4), 043818 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Brunstein, R. Braive, R. Hostein, A. Beveratos, I. Rober-Philip, I. Sagnes, T. J. Karle, A. M. Yacomotti, J. A. Levenson, V. Moreau, G. Tessier, and Y. De Wilde, “Thermo-optical dynamics in an optically pumped photonic crystal nano-cavity,” Opt. Express 17(19), 17118–17129 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?id=185892 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. D. Haret, T. Tanabe, E. Kuramochi, and M. Notomi, “Extremely low power optical bistability in silicon demonstrated using 1D photonic crystal nanocavity,” Opt. Express 17(23), 21108–21117 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-23-21108 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

R. Kitamura, L. Pilon, and M. Jonasz, “Optical constants of silica glass from extreme ultraviolet to far infrared at near room temperature,” Appl. Opt. 46(33), 8118–8133 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Weidner, S. Combrie, A. de Rossi, N. V. Q. Tran, and S. Cassette, “Nonlinear and bistable behavior of an ultrahigh-Q GaAs photonic crystal nanocavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(10), 101118 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (3)

M. Borselli, T. J. Johnson, and O. Painter, “Measuring the role of surface chemistry in silicon microphotonics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(13), 131114 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Uesugi, B. S. Song, T. Asano, and S. Noda, “Investigation of optical nonlinearities in an ultra-high-Q Si nanocavity in a two-dimensional photonic crystal slab,” Opt. Express 14(1), 377–386 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?id=86921 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Soref, S. J. Emelett, and A. R. Buchwald, “Silicon waveguided components for the long-wave infrared region,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 8(10), 840–848 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (4)

B. S. Song, S. Noda, T. Asano, and Y. Akahane, “Ultra-high-Q photonic double-heterostructure nanocavity,” Nat. Mater. 4(3), 207–210 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. E. Barclay, K. Srinivasan, and O. Painter, “Nonlinear response of silicon photonic crystal microresonators excited via an integrated waveguide and fiber taper,” Opt. Express 13(3), 801–820 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-3-801 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Notomi, A. Shinya, S. Mitsugi, G. Kira, E. Kuramochi, and T. Tanabe, “Optical bistable switching action of Si high-Q photonic-crystal nanocavities,” Opt. Express 13(7), 2678–2687 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?&id=83310 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. W. McCutcheon, G. W. Rieger, I. W. Cheung, J. F. Young, D. Dalacu, S. Frederick, P. J. Poole, G. C. Aers, and R. L. Williams, “Resonant scattering and second-harmonic spectroscopy of planar photonic crystal microcavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(22), 221110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

1996 (1)

Y. Yamashita, K. Namba, Y. Nakato, Y. Nishioka, and H. Kobayashi, “Spectroscopic observation of interface states of ultrathin silicon oxide,” J. Appl. Phys. 79(9), 7051–7057 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

H. Froitzheim, H. Lammering, and H. L. Gunter, “Energy-loss-spectroscopy studies on the adsorption of hydrogen on cleaved Si(111)-(2x1) surfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 27(4), 2278–2284 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Aers, G. C.

M. W. McCutcheon, G. W. Rieger, I. W. Cheung, J. F. Young, D. Dalacu, S. Frederick, P. J. Poole, G. C. Aers, and R. L. Williams, “Resonant scattering and second-harmonic spectroscopy of planar photonic crystal microcavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(22), 221110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Akahane, Y.

B. S. Song, S. Noda, T. Asano, and Y. Akahane, “Ultra-high-Q photonic double-heterostructure nanocavity,” Nat. Mater. 4(3), 207–210 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Alic, N.

S. Zlatanovic, J. S. Park, S. Moro, J. M. C. Boggio, I. B. Divliansky, N. Alic, S. Mookherjea, and S. Radic, “Mid-infrared wavelength conversion in silicon waveguides using ultracompact telecom-band-derived pump source,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 561–564 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Almeida, V. R.

Andreani, L. C.

M. Galli, S. L. Portalupi, M. Belotti, L. C. Andreani, L. O'Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, “Light scattering and Fano resonances in high-Q photonic crystal nanocavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(7), 071101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Asano, T.

Asher, W.

Atanackovic, P.

Baehr-Jones, T.

Barclay, P. E.

Belotti, M.

M. Galli, S. L. Portalupi, M. Belotti, L. C. Andreani, L. O'Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, “Light scattering and Fano resonances in high-Q photonic crystal nanocavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(7), 071101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Beveratos, A.

Boggio, J. M. C.

S. Zlatanovic, J. S. Park, S. Moro, J. M. C. Boggio, I. B. Divliansky, N. Alic, S. Mookherjea, and S. Radic, “Mid-infrared wavelength conversion in silicon waveguides using ultracompact telecom-band-derived pump source,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 561–564 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Borselli, M.

M. Borselli, T. J. Johnson, and O. Painter, “Measuring the role of surface chemistry in silicon microphotonics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(13), 131114 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Braive, R.

Brunstein, M.

Buchwald, A. R.

R. A. Soref, S. J. Emelett, and A. R. Buchwald, “Silicon waveguided components for the long-wave infrared region,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 8(10), 840–848 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bulla, D.

Bulu, I.

Cassette, S.

E. Weidner, S. Combrie, A. de Rossi, N. V. Q. Tran, and S. Cassette, “Nonlinear and bistable behavior of an ultrahigh-Q GaAs photonic crystal nanocavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(10), 101118 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cheung, I. W.

M. W. McCutcheon, G. W. Rieger, I. W. Cheung, J. F. Young, D. Dalacu, S. Frederick, P. J. Poole, G. C. Aers, and R. L. Williams, “Resonant scattering and second-harmonic spectroscopy of planar photonic crystal microcavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(22), 221110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Choi, D. Y.

Combrie, S.

A. de Rossi, M. Lauritano, S. Combrie, Q. V. Tran, and C. Husko, “Interplay of plasma-induced and fast thermal nonlinearities in a GaAs-based photonic crystal nanocavity,” Phys. Rev. A 79(4), 043818 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. Weidner, S. Combrie, A. de Rossi, N. V. Q. Tran, and S. Cassette, “Nonlinear and bistable behavior of an ultrahigh-Q GaAs photonic crystal nanocavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(10), 101118 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dalacu, D.

M. W. McCutcheon, G. W. Rieger, I. W. Cheung, J. F. Young, D. Dalacu, S. Frederick, P. J. Poole, G. C. Aers, and R. L. Williams, “Resonant scattering and second-harmonic spectroscopy of planar photonic crystal microcavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(22), 221110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

de Rossi, A.

A. de Rossi, M. Lauritano, S. Combrie, Q. V. Tran, and C. Husko, “Interplay of plasma-induced and fast thermal nonlinearities in a GaAs-based photonic crystal nanocavity,” Phys. Rev. A 79(4), 043818 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. Weidner, S. Combrie, A. de Rossi, N. V. Q. Tran, and S. Cassette, “Nonlinear and bistable behavior of an ultrahigh-Q GaAs photonic crystal nanocavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(10), 101118 (2007).
[CrossRef]

De Wilde, Y.

Deotare, P. B.

P. B. Deotare, M. W. McCutcheon, I. W. Frank, M. Khan, and M. Loncar, “High quality factor photonic crystal nanobeam cavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(12), 121106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Divliansky, I. B.

S. Zlatanovic, J. S. Park, S. Moro, J. M. C. Boggio, I. B. Divliansky, N. Alic, S. Mookherjea, and S. Radic, “Mid-infrared wavelength conversion in silicon waveguides using ultracompact telecom-band-derived pump source,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 561–564 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Duvall, S. G.

Eggleton, B. J.

Emelett, S. J.

R. A. Soref, S. J. Emelett, and A. R. Buchwald, “Silicon waveguided components for the long-wave infrared region,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 8(10), 840–848 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Frank, I. W.

P. B. Deotare, M. W. McCutcheon, I. W. Frank, M. Khan, and M. Loncar, “High quality factor photonic crystal nanobeam cavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(12), 121106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Frederick, S.

M. W. McCutcheon, G. W. Rieger, I. W. Cheung, J. F. Young, D. Dalacu, S. Frederick, P. J. Poole, G. C. Aers, and R. L. Williams, “Resonant scattering and second-harmonic spectroscopy of planar photonic crystal microcavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(22), 221110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Froitzheim, H.

H. Froitzheim, H. Lammering, and H. L. Gunter, “Energy-loss-spectroscopy studies on the adsorption of hydrogen on cleaved Si(111)-(2x1) surfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 27(4), 2278–2284 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Gai, X.

Galli, M.

M. Galli, S. L. Portalupi, M. Belotti, L. C. Andreani, L. O'Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, “Light scattering and Fano resonances in high-Q photonic crystal nanocavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(7), 071101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Green, W. M. J.

X. P. Liu, R. M. Osgood, Y. A. Vlasov, and W. M. J. Green, “Mid-infrared optical parametric amplifier using silicon nanophotonic waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 557–560 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Grillet, C.

Gunter, H. L.

H. Froitzheim, H. Lammering, and H. L. Gunter, “Energy-loss-spectroscopy studies on the adsorption of hydrogen on cleaved Si(111)-(2x1) surfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 27(4), 2278–2284 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Haret, L. D.

Hochberg, M.

Hostein, R.

Hu, Y. F.

Hudson, D.

Husko, C.

A. de Rossi, M. Lauritano, S. Combrie, Q. V. Tran, and C. Husko, “Interplay of plasma-induced and fast thermal nonlinearities in a GaAs-based photonic crystal nanocavity,” Phys. Rev. A 79(4), 043818 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ilic, R.

Jackson, S. D.

Jalali, B.

B. Jalali, “Silicon photonics: nonlinear optics in the mid-infrared,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 506–508 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, T. J.

M. Borselli, T. J. Johnson, and O. Painter, “Measuring the role of surface chemistry in silicon microphotonics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(13), 131114 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jonasz, M.

Karle, T. J.

Khan, M.

P. B. Deotare, M. W. McCutcheon, I. W. Frank, M. Khan, and M. Loncar, “High quality factor photonic crystal nanobeam cavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(12), 121106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kira, G.

Kitamura, R.

Kobayashi, H.

Y. Yamashita, K. Namba, Y. Nakato, Y. Nishioka, and H. Kobayashi, “Spectroscopic observation of interface states of ultrathin silicon oxide,” J. Appl. Phys. 79(9), 7051–7057 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Krauss, T. F.

M. Galli, S. L. Portalupi, M. Belotti, L. C. Andreani, L. O'Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, “Light scattering and Fano resonances in high-Q photonic crystal nanocavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(7), 071101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kuramochi, E.

Lammering, H.

H. Froitzheim, H. Lammering, and H. L. Gunter, “Energy-loss-spectroscopy studies on the adsorption of hydrogen on cleaved Si(111)-(2x1) surfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 27(4), 2278–2284 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Lauritano, M.

A. de Rossi, M. Lauritano, S. Combrie, Q. V. Tran, and C. Husko, “Interplay of plasma-induced and fast thermal nonlinearities in a GaAs-based photonic crystal nanocavity,” Phys. Rev. A 79(4), 043818 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lee, M. W.

Leijssen, R.

Levenson, J. A.

Li, F. X.

Li, M.

Lipson, M.

Liu, X. P.

X. P. Liu, R. M. Osgood, Y. A. Vlasov, and W. M. J. Green, “Mid-infrared optical parametric amplifier using silicon nanophotonic waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 557–560 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y.

A. Spott, Y. Liu, T. Baehr-Jones, R. Ilic, and M. Hochberg, “Silicon waveguides and ring resonators at 5.5 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(21), 213501 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Loncar, M.

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P. B. Deotare, M. W. McCutcheon, I. W. Frank, M. Khan, and M. Loncar, “High quality factor photonic crystal nanobeam cavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(12), 121106 (2009).
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M. W. McCutcheon, G. W. Rieger, I. W. Cheung, J. F. Young, D. Dalacu, S. Frederick, P. J. Poole, G. C. Aers, and R. L. Williams, “Resonant scattering and second-harmonic spectroscopy of planar photonic crystal microcavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(22), 221110 (2005).
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S. Zlatanovic, J. S. Park, S. Moro, J. M. C. Boggio, I. B. Divliansky, N. Alic, S. Mookherjea, and S. Radic, “Mid-infrared wavelength conversion in silicon waveguides using ultracompact telecom-band-derived pump source,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 561–564 (2010).
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Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (6)

A. Spott, Y. Liu, T. Baehr-Jones, R. Ilic, and M. Hochberg, “Silicon waveguides and ring resonators at 5.5 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(21), 213501 (2010).
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[CrossRef]

M. Galli, S. L. Portalupi, M. Belotti, L. C. Andreani, L. O'Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, “Light scattering and Fano resonances in high-Q photonic crystal nanocavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(7), 071101 (2009).
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E. Weidner, S. Combrie, A. de Rossi, N. V. Q. Tran, and S. Cassette, “Nonlinear and bistable behavior of an ultrahigh-Q GaAs photonic crystal nanocavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(10), 101118 (2007).
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Y. Yamashita, K. Namba, Y. Nakato, Y. Nishioka, and H. Kobayashi, “Spectroscopic observation of interface states of ultrathin silicon oxide,” J. Appl. Phys. 79(9), 7051–7057 (1996).
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J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. (1)

R. A. Soref, S. J. Emelett, and A. R. Buchwald, “Silicon waveguided components for the long-wave infrared region,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 8(10), 840–848 (2006).
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S. Zlatanovic, J. S. Park, S. Moro, J. M. C. Boggio, I. B. Divliansky, N. Alic, S. Mookherjea, and S. Radic, “Mid-infrared wavelength conversion in silicon waveguides using ultracompact telecom-band-derived pump source,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 561–564 (2010).
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P. E. Barclay, K. Srinivasan, and O. Painter, “Nonlinear response of silicon photonic crystal microresonators excited via an integrated waveguide and fiber taper,” Opt. Express 13(3), 801–820 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-3-801 .
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M. Notomi, A. Shinya, S. Mitsugi, G. Kira, E. Kuramochi, and T. Tanabe, “Optical bistable switching action of Si high-Q photonic-crystal nanocavities,” Opt. Express 13(7), 2678–2687 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?&id=83310 .
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T. Uesugi, B. S. Song, T. Asano, and S. Noda, “Investigation of optical nonlinearities in an ultra-high-Q Si nanocavity in a two-dimensional photonic crystal slab,” Opt. Express 14(1), 377–386 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?id=86921 .
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M. Brunstein, R. Braive, R. Hostein, A. Beveratos, I. Rober-Philip, I. Sagnes, T. J. Karle, A. M. Yacomotti, J. A. Levenson, V. Moreau, G. Tessier, and Y. De Wilde, “Thermo-optical dynamics in an optically pumped photonic crystal nano-cavity,” Opt. Express 17(19), 17118–17129 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?id=185892 .
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T. Baehr-Jones, A. Spott, R. Ilic, A. Spott, B. Penkov, W. Asher, and M. Hochberg, “Silicon-on-sapphire integrated waveguides for the mid-infrared,” Opt. Express 18(12), 12127–12135 (2010), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-18-12-12127 .
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W. H. P. Pernice, M. Li, and H. X. Tang, “Time-domain measurement of optical transport in silicon micro-ring resonators,” Opt. Express 18(17), 18438–18452 (2010), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?id=205135 .
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M. W. Lee, C. Grillet, C. Monat, E. Mägi, S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, X. Gai, S. Madden, D. Y. Choi, D. Bulla, B. Luther-Davies, and B. J. Eggleton, “Photosensitive and thermal nonlinear effects in chalcogenide photonic crystal cavities,” Opt. Express 18(25), 26695–26703 (2010), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-18-25-26695 .
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R. Shankar, R. Leijssen, I. Bulu, and M. Lončar, “Mid-infrared photonic crystal cavities in silicon,” Opt. Express 19(6), 5579–5586 (2011), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-19-6-5579 .
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G. Z. Mashanovich, M. M. Milošević, M. Nedeljkovic, N. Owens, B. Q. Xiong, E. J. Teo, and Y. F. Hu, “Low loss silicon waveguides for the mid-infrared,” Opt. Express 19(8), 7112–7119 (2011), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?uri=oe-19-8-7112 .
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A. de Rossi, M. Lauritano, S. Combrie, Q. V. Tran, and C. Husko, “Interplay of plasma-induced and fast thermal nonlinearities in a GaAs-based photonic crystal nanocavity,” Phys. Rev. A 79(4), 043818 (2009).
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