Abstract

Feedback from a diode mixer integrated into a 2.8 THz quantum cascade laser (QCL) was used to phase lock the difference frequencies (DFs) among the Fabry-Perot (F-P) longitudinal modes of a QCL. Approximately 40% of the DF power was phase locked, consistent with feedback loop bandwidth of 10 kHz and phase noise bandwidth ∼0.5 MHz. While the locked DF signal has ≤ 1 Hz linewidth and negligible drift over ∼30 min, mixing measurements between two QCLs and between a QCL and molecular gas laser show that the common mode frequency stability is no better than a free-running QCL.

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P. Gellie, S. Barbieri, J.-F. Lampin, P. Filloux, C. Manquest, C. Sirtori, I. Sagnes, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, H. Beere, and D. Ritchie, “Injection-locking of terahertz quantum cascade lasers up to 35GHz using RF amplitude modulation,” Opt. Express 18, 20799–20816 (2010).
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2009

2008

M. Lee, M. C. Wanke, M. Lerttamrab, E. W. Young, A. D. Grine, J. L. Reno, P. H. Siegel, and R. J. Dengler, “Heterodyne mixing of terahertz quantum cascade lasers using a planar Schottky diode,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14, 370–373 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

2006

A. Baryshev, J. N. Hovenier, A. J. L. Adam, I. Kasalynas, J. R. Gao, T. O. Klaassen, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Phase locking and spectral linewidth of a two-mode terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 031115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

2004

2002

R. Kohler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. Beere, E. Linfield, A. Davies, D. Ritchie, R. Iotti, and F. Rossi, “Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser,” Nature 417, 156–159 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adam, A. J. L.

A. Baryshev, J. N. Hovenier, A. J. L. Adam, I. Kasalynas, J. R. Gao, T. O. Klaassen, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Phase locking and spectral linewidth of a two-mode terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 031115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ajili, L.

Alton, J.

Barbieri, S.

Barkan, A.

Baryshev, A.

P. Khosropanah, A. Baryshev, W. Zhang, W. Jellema, J. N. Hovenier, J. R. Gao, T. M. Klapwijk, D. G. Paveliev, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, J. L. Reno, B. Klein, and J. L. Hesler, “Phase locking of a 2.7 THz quantum cascade laser to a microwave reference,” Opt. Lett. 34, 2958–2960 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Baryshev, J. N. Hovenier, A. J. L. Adam, I. Kasalynas, J. R. Gao, T. O. Klaassen, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Phase locking and spectral linewidth of a two-mode terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 031115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Beere, H.

Beltram, F.

R. Kohler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. Beere, E. Linfield, A. Davies, D. Ritchie, R. Iotti, and F. Rossi, “Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser,” Nature 417, 156–159 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Betz, A.

Boreiko, R.

Colombelli, R.

S. Barbieri, P. Gellie, G. Santarelli, L. Ding, W. Maineult, C. Sirtori, R. Colombelli, H. Beere, and D. Ritchie, “Phase-locking of a 2.7-THz quantum cascade laser to a mode-locked erbium-doped fibre laser,” Nat. Photonics 4, 636–640 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Coulombe, M. J.

Danylov, A. A.

Davies, A.

Davies, A. G.

Dengler, R.

Dengler, R. J.

M. Lee, M. C. Wanke, M. Lerttamrab, E. W. Young, A. D. Grine, J. L. Reno, P. H. Siegel, and R. J. Dengler, “Heterodyne mixing of terahertz quantum cascade lasers using a planar Schottky diode,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14, 370–373 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ding, L.

S. Barbieri, P. Gellie, G. Santarelli, L. Ding, W. Maineult, C. Sirtori, R. Colombelli, H. Beere, and D. Ritchie, “Phase-locking of a 2.7-THz quantum cascade laser to a mode-locked erbium-doped fibre laser,” Nat. Photonics 4, 636–640 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Doeringshoff, K.

Ernsting, I.

Faist, J.

Filloux, P.

Fischer, M.

Gao, J. R.

P. Khosropanah, A. Baryshev, W. Zhang, W. Jellema, J. N. Hovenier, J. R. Gao, T. M. Klapwijk, D. G. Paveliev, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, J. L. Reno, B. Klein, and J. L. Hesler, “Phase locking of a 2.7 THz quantum cascade laser to a microwave reference,” Opt. Lett. 34, 2958–2960 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Baryshev, J. N. Hovenier, A. J. L. Adam, I. Kasalynas, J. R. Gao, T. O. Klaassen, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Phase locking and spectral linewidth of a two-mode terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 031115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gatesman, A. J.

Gellie, P.

P. Gellie, S. Barbieri, J.-F. Lampin, P. Filloux, C. Manquest, C. Sirtori, I. Sagnes, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, H. Beere, and D. Ritchie, “Injection-locking of terahertz quantum cascade lasers up to 35GHz using RF amplitude modulation,” Opt. Express 18, 20799–20816 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Barbieri, P. Gellie, G. Santarelli, L. Ding, W. Maineult, C. Sirtori, R. Colombelli, H. Beere, and D. Ritchie, “Phase-locking of a 2.7-THz quantum cascade laser to a mode-locked erbium-doped fibre laser,” Nat. Photonics 4, 636–640 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Giles, R. H.

Goodhue, W. D.

Goyette, T. M.

Graf, U. U.

Grine, A. D.

M. Lee, M. C. Wanke, M. Lerttamrab, E. W. Young, A. D. Grine, J. L. Reno, P. H. Siegel, and R. J. Dengler, “Heterodyne mixing of terahertz quantum cascade lasers using a planar Schottky diode,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14, 370–373 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hesler, J. L.

Hovenier, J. N.

P. Khosropanah, A. Baryshev, W. Zhang, W. Jellema, J. N. Hovenier, J. R. Gao, T. M. Klapwijk, D. G. Paveliev, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, J. L. Reno, B. Klein, and J. L. Hesler, “Phase locking of a 2.7 THz quantum cascade laser to a microwave reference,” Opt. Lett. 34, 2958–2960 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Baryshev, J. N. Hovenier, A. J. L. Adam, I. Kasalynas, J. R. Gao, T. O. Klaassen, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Phase locking and spectral linewidth of a two-mode terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 031115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hu, Q.

Iotti, R.

R. Kohler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. Beere, E. Linfield, A. Davies, D. Ritchie, R. Iotti, and F. Rossi, “Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser,” Nature 417, 156–159 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jellema, W.

Kasalynas, I.

A. Baryshev, J. N. Hovenier, A. J. L. Adam, I. Kasalynas, J. R. Gao, T. O. Klaassen, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Phase locking and spectral linewidth of a two-mode terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 031115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Khanna, S. P.

Khosropanah, P.

Klaassen, T. O.

A. Baryshev, J. N. Hovenier, A. J. L. Adam, I. Kasalynas, J. R. Gao, T. O. Klaassen, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Phase locking and spectral linewidth of a two-mode terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 031115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Klapwijk, T. M.

Klein, B.

Kohler, R.

R. Kohler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. Beere, E. Linfield, A. Davies, D. Ritchie, R. Iotti, and F. Rossi, “Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser,” Nature 417, 156–159 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kumar, S.

Lampin, J.-F.

Lee, M.

M. Lee, M. C. Wanke, M. Lerttamrab, E. W. Young, A. D. Grine, J. L. Reno, P. H. Siegel, and R. J. Dengler, “Heterodyne mixing of terahertz quantum cascade lasers using a planar Schottky diode,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14, 370–373 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Lee and M. C. Wanke, “Searching for a solid-state terahertz technology,” Science 316, 64–65 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lerttamrab, M.

M. Lee, M. C. Wanke, M. Lerttamrab, E. W. Young, A. D. Grine, J. L. Reno, P. H. Siegel, and R. J. Dengler, “Heterodyne mixing of terahertz quantum cascade lasers using a planar Schottky diode,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14, 370–373 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Linfield, E.

Linfield, E. H.

Maineult, W.

S. Barbieri, P. Gellie, G. Santarelli, L. Ding, W. Maineult, C. Sirtori, R. Colombelli, H. Beere, and D. Ritchie, “Phase-locking of a 2.7-THz quantum cascade laser to a mode-locked erbium-doped fibre laser,” Nat. Photonics 4, 636–640 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Manquest, C.

Mittleman, D.

Nixon, W. E.

Paveliev, D. G.

Philipp, M.

Qian, X.

Rabanus, D.

Reno, J.

Reno, J. L.

P. Khosropanah, A. Baryshev, W. Zhang, W. Jellema, J. N. Hovenier, J. R. Gao, T. M. Klapwijk, D. G. Paveliev, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, J. L. Reno, B. Klein, and J. L. Hesler, “Phase locking of a 2.7 THz quantum cascade laser to a microwave reference,” Opt. Lett. 34, 2958–2960 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Lee, M. C. Wanke, M. Lerttamrab, E. W. Young, A. D. Grine, J. L. Reno, P. H. Siegel, and R. J. Dengler, “Heterodyne mixing of terahertz quantum cascade lasers using a planar Schottky diode,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14, 370–373 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Baryshev, J. N. Hovenier, A. J. L. Adam, I. Kasalynas, J. R. Gao, T. O. Klaassen, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Phase locking and spectral linewidth of a two-mode terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 031115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ricken, O.

Rinkleff, R.-H.

Ritchie, D.

Rossi, F.

R. Kohler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. Beere, E. Linfield, A. Davies, D. Ritchie, R. Iotti, and F. Rossi, “Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser,” Nature 417, 156–159 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sagnes, I.

Santarelli, G.

S. Barbieri, P. Gellie, G. Santarelli, L. Ding, W. Maineult, C. Sirtori, R. Colombelli, H. Beere, and D. Ritchie, “Phase-locking of a 2.7-THz quantum cascade laser to a mode-locked erbium-doped fibre laser,” Nat. Photonics 4, 636–640 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Scalari, G.

Schiller, S.

Siegel, P.

Siegel, P. H.

M. Lee, M. C. Wanke, M. Lerttamrab, E. W. Young, A. D. Grine, J. L. Reno, P. H. Siegel, and R. J. Dengler, “Heterodyne mixing of terahertz quantum cascade lasers using a planar Schottky diode,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14, 370–373 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sirtori, C.

S. Barbieri, P. Gellie, G. Santarelli, L. Ding, W. Maineult, C. Sirtori, R. Colombelli, H. Beere, and D. Ritchie, “Phase-locking of a 2.7-THz quantum cascade laser to a mode-locked erbium-doped fibre laser,” Nat. Photonics 4, 636–640 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. Gellie, S. Barbieri, J.-F. Lampin, P. Filloux, C. Manquest, C. Sirtori, I. Sagnes, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, H. Beere, and D. Ritchie, “Injection-locking of terahertz quantum cascade lasers up to 35GHz using RF amplitude modulation,” Opt. Express 18, 20799–20816 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stutzki, J.

Tittel, F.

Tredicucci, A.

R. Kohler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. Beere, E. Linfield, A. Davies, D. Ritchie, R. Iotti, and F. Rossi, “Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser,” Nature 417, 156–159 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vowinkel, B.

Waldman, J.

Walther, C.

Wanke, M. C.

M. Lee, M. C. Wanke, M. Lerttamrab, E. W. Young, A. D. Grine, J. L. Reno, P. H. Siegel, and R. J. Dengler, “Heterodyne mixing of terahertz quantum cascade lasers using a planar Schottky diode,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14, 370–373 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Lee and M. C. Wanke, “Searching for a solid-state terahertz technology,” Science 316, 64–65 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wicht, A.

Wiedner, M. C.

Williams, B.

Williams, B. S.

P. Khosropanah, A. Baryshev, W. Zhang, W. Jellema, J. N. Hovenier, J. R. Gao, T. M. Klapwijk, D. G. Paveliev, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, J. L. Reno, B. Klein, and J. L. Hesler, “Phase locking of a 2.7 THz quantum cascade laser to a microwave reference,” Opt. Lett. 34, 2958–2960 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Baryshev, J. N. Hovenier, A. J. L. Adam, I. Kasalynas, J. R. Gao, T. O. Klaassen, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Phase locking and spectral linewidth of a two-mode terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 031115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Withington, S.

Young, E. W.

M. Lee, M. C. Wanke, M. Lerttamrab, E. W. Young, A. D. Grine, J. L. Reno, P. H. Siegel, and R. J. Dengler, “Heterodyne mixing of terahertz quantum cascade lasers using a planar Schottky diode,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14, 370–373 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, W.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

A. Baryshev, J. N. Hovenier, A. J. L. Adam, I. Kasalynas, J. R. Gao, T. O. Klaassen, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Phase locking and spectral linewidth of a two-mode terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 031115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

M. Lee, M. C. Wanke, M. Lerttamrab, E. W. Young, A. D. Grine, J. L. Reno, P. H. Siegel, and R. J. Dengler, “Heterodyne mixing of terahertz quantum cascade lasers using a planar Schottky diode,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14, 370–373 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics

S. Barbieri, P. Gellie, G. Santarelli, L. Ding, W. Maineult, C. Sirtori, R. Colombelli, H. Beere, and D. Ritchie, “Phase-locking of a 2.7-THz quantum cascade laser to a mode-locked erbium-doped fibre laser,” Nat. Photonics 4, 636–640 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nature

R. Kohler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. Beere, E. Linfield, A. Davies, D. Ritchie, R. Iotti, and F. Rossi, “Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser,” Nature 417, 156–159 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Science

M. Lee and M. C. Wanke, “Searching for a solid-state terahertz technology,” Science 316, 64–65 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Internal F-P mode difference frequency spectra of one phased locked QCL transceiver taken with spectrum analyzer RBWs of (a) 1 MHz, (b) 10 kHz, and (c) 1 Hz, and a constant 30 Hz VBW. Frequency scale is shown as an offset from the 12.9287 GHz center frequency. At 1 Hz the −3dB linewidth of the peak signal is instrumentally limited by the RBW. (d) F-P difference frequency peak power plotted against the RBW of a phase locked QCL. The phase locked loop has a feedback bandwidth of 10 kHz. The open circles were taken as as the RBW was increased, and the closed circles correspond to repeating the measurement but starting from high RBW and decreasing.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Schematic of the two combs of lines emitted by two QCLs indicating the Fabry-Perot difference frequency for each QCL (DFF-P,i) and the set of difference frequencies between the two combs (DFi). (b) Time dependence of the difference frequency comb (DFi), generated by mixing the F-P modes of two separately locked QCLs. Frequency scale is shown as an offset from 18.6497 GHz. The peaks wander by approximately ±5 MHz over an 8 minute time interval. The scale bar units are dBm. (c) Time dependence of the internal F-P difference frequency peak of one of the locked QCLs. Frequency scale is shown as an offset from 12.9287 GHz. The peaks are fixed to within 1 Hz over a 5 minute time interval.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Temperature dependence of the QCL frequency. obtained by measuring the difference frequency between a molecular gas laser line (νFIRL = 2.841143 THz) and one of the modes of a locked QCL. This difference frequency decreases by approximately 1 GHz as the operating temperature of the locked QCL is increased from 15 K to 45 K. The inset shows the RF spectrum of the mixer at 20K. The taller peak at 12.8897 GHz corresponds to the stable difference frequency between the QCL modes (locked to within ±1 Hz). The shorter peak is the difference frequency between the calculated QCL mode and the molecular gas laser line.

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