Abstract

We describe the plasmonic properties of a two-dimensional periodic metallic grating of macroscopic size obtained by gold deposition on a self-assembled silica opal. Structural characterization shows a transition from microscopic order to isotropy at macroscopic scale. Optical reflection spectra exhibit a dip of almost complete absorption due to coupling to surface-plasmon-polaritons (SPP). This is explained by theoretical calculations introducing a density of coupled SPP modes. We demonstrate, at a given incidence angle, a broad continuum of coupled wavelengths over the visible spectrum. This opens new possibilities in fields where light-plasmon coupling is required over a broad range of wavelengths and incidence orientations.

© 2011 OSA

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  1. W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424, 824–830 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. E. Fort and S. Grésillon, “Surface enhanced fluorescence,” J. Phys. D 41, 013001 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. C. Brown and M. J. T. Milton, “Nanostructures and nanostructured substrates for surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS),” J. of Raman Spec. 39, 1313–1326 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. R. Lakowicz, “Plasmonics in biology and plasmon-controlled fluorescence,” Plasmonics 1, 5–33 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. S. Scarano, M. Mascini, A. P.F. Turner, and M. Minunni, “Surface plasmon resonance imaging for affinity-based biosensors,” Biosensors and bioelectronics 25, 957–966 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. Vuckovic, M. Loncar, and A. Scherer, “Surface plasmon enhanced light-emitting diodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36, 1131–1144 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  7. H. A. Atwater and A. Polman, “Plasmonics for improved photovoltaic devices,” Nature Mat. 9, 205–213 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  8. R. Esteban, M. Laroche, and J.-J. Greffet, “Influence of metallic nanoparticles on upconversion processes,” J. Appl. Phys. 105, 033107 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  9. C. Vion, P. Spinicelli, L. Coolen, C. Schwob, J.-M. Frigerio, J.-P. Hermier, and A. Maître, “Controlled modification of single colloidal CdSe/ZnS nanocrystal fluorescence through interactions with a gold surface,” Opt. Express 18, 7440–7455 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. V. E. Ferry, M. A. Verschuuren, H. B. T. Li, R. E. I. Schropp, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Improved red-response in thin film a-Si:H solar cells with soft-imprinted plasmonic back reflectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 183503 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  11. W. Zhou, H. Gao, and T. W. Odom, “Toward broadband plasmonics : tuning dispersion in rhombic plasmonic crystals,” ACS Nano 4, 1241–1247 (2010).
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  12. J. Zhang, Y.-J. Ye, X. Wang, P. Rochon, and M. Xiao, “Coupling between semiconductor quantum dots and two-dimensional surface plasmons,” Phys. Rev. B 72, 201306(R) (2005).
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  15. F. Marlow, Muldarisnur, P. Sharifi, R. Brinkmann, and C. Mendive, “Opals : status and prospects,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 48, 6212–6233 (2009).
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  16. A. R. Tao, D. P. Ceperley, P. Sinsermsuksakul, A. R. Neureuther, and P. Yang, “Self-organized silver nanoparticles for three-dimensional plasmonic crystals,” Nano Lett. 8, 4033–4038 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. H. W. Yan, C. F. Blanford, B. T. Holland, M. Parent, W. H. Smyrl, and A. Stein, “A chemical synthesis of periodic macroporous NiO and metallic Ni,” Adv. Mater. 11, 1003–1006 (1999).
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  19. P. Jiang, J. Cizeron, J. F. Bertone, and V. L. Colvin, “Preparation of macroporous metal films from colloidal crystals,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 121, 7957–7958 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  20. A. V. Akimov, A. A. Meluchev, D. A. Kurdyukov, A. V. Scherbakov, A. Holst, and V. G. Golubev, “Plasmonic effects and visible light diffraction in three-dimensional opal-metal photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 171108 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  22. P. Zhang, Z. Wang, H. Dong, J. Sun, J. Wu, H.-T. Wang, S. Zhu, N. Ming, and J. Zi, “The anomalous infrared transmission of gold films on two-dimensional colloidal crystals,” Adv. Mater. 18, 1612–1616 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  23. C. Farcau and S. Astilean, “Probing the unusual optical transmission of silver films deposited on two-dimensional regular arrays of polystyrene microspheres,” J. Opt. A 9, S345–S349 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  24. R. M. Cole, J. J. Baumberg, F. J. Garcia de Abajo, S. Mahajan, M. Abdelsalam, and P. N. Bartlett, “Understanding plasmons in nanoscale voids,” Nano Lett. 7, 2094–2100 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  25. S. Mahajan, M. Abdelsalam, Y. Suguwara, S. Cintra, Andrea Russell, J. Baumberg, and P. Bartlett, “Tuning plasmons on nano-structured substrates for NIR-SERS,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 9, 104–109 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  26. N. N. Lal, B. F. Soares, J. K. Sinha, F. Huang, S. Mahajan, P. N. Bartlett, N. C. Greenham, and J. J. Baumberg, “Enhancing solar cells with localized plasmons in nanovoids,” Opt. Express 19, 11256–11263 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. L. Landström, D. Brodoceanu, K. Piglmayer, and D. Bäuerle, “Extraordinary optical transmission through metal-coated colloidal monolayers,” Appl. Phys. A 84, 373–377 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  28. Z.-B. Wang, Y.-H. Ye, Y.-A. Zhang, and J.-Y. Zhang, “Visible transmission through metal-coated colloidal crystals,” Appl. Phys. A 97, 225–228 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  29. L. Landström, D. Brodoceanu, D. Bäuerle, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, S. G. Rodrigo, and L. Martin-Moreno, “Extraordinary transmission through metal-coated monolayers of microspheres,” Opt. Express 17, 761–772 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  30. B. Ding, M. E. Pemble, A. V. Korovin, U. Peschel, and S. G. Romanov, “Three-dimensional photonic crystals with an active surface : gold film terminated opals,” Phys. Rev. B 82, 035119 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  31. W. Mu, D.-K. Hwang, R. P. H. Chang, M. Sukharev, D. B. Tice, and J. B. Ketterson, “Surface-enhanced Raman scattering from silver-coated opals,” J. Chem. Phys. 134, 124312 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  32. J. Stropp, G. Trachta, G. Brehm, and S. Schneider, “A new version of AgFON substrates for high-throughput analytical SERS applications,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 34, 26–32 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  33. K. Liu, C. Sun, N. C. Linn, B. Jiang, and P. Jiang, “Wafer-scale surface-enhanced Raman scattering substrates with highly reproducible enhancement,” J. Phys. Chem. C 113, 14804 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  34. A. N. Gruzintsev, G. A. Emel’chenko, V. M. Masalov, M. Romanelli, C. Barthou, P. Benalloul, and A. Maître, “Luminescent properties of opals,” Inorg. Mater. 44, 159–164 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  35. C. Vion, C. Barthou, P. Bénalloul, C. Schwob, L. Coolen, A. Gruzintev, G. Emelchenko, W. Masalov, J.-M. Frigerio, and A. Maître, “Manipulating emission of CdTeSe nanocrystals embedded in three-dimensional photonic crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 105, 113120 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  36. A. V. Zayats, I. I. Smolyaninov, and A. A. Maradudin, “Nano-optics of surface plasmon polaritons,” Phys. Rep. 408, 131–314 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  37. The SPP skin depth δ is obtained from the experimentally measured θ and λ by (i) considering that the peak in ρ(λ) (Fig. 5(b)) corresponds to values of ϕ = 10°, (ii) calculating the experimental kSPP through the momentum conservation in eq. 1 with k// = (2π/λ)sinθ with ϕ = 10°, and (iii) using the energy conservation condition k02=(2πλ)2=kSPP2+(1/δ)2 to find δ.
  38. M. C. Hutley and D. Maystre, “The total absorption of light by a diffraction grating,” Opt. Commun. 19, 431–436 (1976).
    [CrossRef]

2011 (2)

W. Mu, D.-K. Hwang, R. P. H. Chang, M. Sukharev, D. B. Tice, and J. B. Ketterson, “Surface-enhanced Raman scattering from silver-coated opals,” J. Chem. Phys. 134, 124312 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. N. Lal, B. F. Soares, J. K. Sinha, F. Huang, S. Mahajan, P. N. Bartlett, N. C. Greenham, and J. J. Baumberg, “Enhancing solar cells with localized plasmons in nanovoids,” Opt. Express 19, 11256–11263 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (5)

B. Ding, M. E. Pemble, A. V. Korovin, U. Peschel, and S. G. Romanov, “Three-dimensional photonic crystals with an active surface : gold film terminated opals,” Phys. Rev. B 82, 035119 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Scarano, M. Mascini, A. P.F. Turner, and M. Minunni, “Surface plasmon resonance imaging for affinity-based biosensors,” Biosensors and bioelectronics 25, 957–966 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. A. Atwater and A. Polman, “Plasmonics for improved photovoltaic devices,” Nature Mat. 9, 205–213 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Vion, P. Spinicelli, L. Coolen, C. Schwob, J.-M. Frigerio, J.-P. Hermier, and A. Maître, “Controlled modification of single colloidal CdSe/ZnS nanocrystal fluorescence through interactions with a gold surface,” Opt. Express 18, 7440–7455 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Zhou, H. Gao, and T. W. Odom, “Toward broadband plasmonics : tuning dispersion in rhombic plasmonic crystals,” ACS Nano 4, 1241–1247 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (7)

V. E. Ferry, M. A. Verschuuren, H. B. T. Li, R. E. I. Schropp, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Improved red-response in thin film a-Si:H solar cells with soft-imprinted plasmonic back reflectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 183503 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. Marlow, Muldarisnur, P. Sharifi, R. Brinkmann, and C. Mendive, “Opals : status and prospects,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 48, 6212–6233 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Z.-B. Wang, Y.-H. Ye, Y.-A. Zhang, and J.-Y. Zhang, “Visible transmission through metal-coated colloidal crystals,” Appl. Phys. A 97, 225–228 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Landström, D. Brodoceanu, D. Bäuerle, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, S. G. Rodrigo, and L. Martin-Moreno, “Extraordinary transmission through metal-coated monolayers of microspheres,” Opt. Express 17, 761–772 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Liu, C. Sun, N. C. Linn, B. Jiang, and P. Jiang, “Wafer-scale surface-enhanced Raman scattering substrates with highly reproducible enhancement,” J. Phys. Chem. C 113, 14804 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Vion, C. Barthou, P. Bénalloul, C. Schwob, L. Coolen, A. Gruzintev, G. Emelchenko, W. Masalov, J.-M. Frigerio, and A. Maître, “Manipulating emission of CdTeSe nanocrystals embedded in three-dimensional photonic crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 105, 113120 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Esteban, M. Laroche, and J.-J. Greffet, “Influence of metallic nanoparticles on upconversion processes,” J. Appl. Phys. 105, 033107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (4)

A. N. Gruzintsev, G. A. Emel’chenko, V. M. Masalov, M. Romanelli, C. Barthou, P. Benalloul, and A. Maître, “Luminescent properties of opals,” Inorg. Mater. 44, 159–164 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. R. Tao, D. P. Ceperley, P. Sinsermsuksakul, A. R. Neureuther, and P. Yang, “Self-organized silver nanoparticles for three-dimensional plasmonic crystals,” Nano Lett. 8, 4033–4038 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Fort and S. Grésillon, “Surface enhanced fluorescence,” J. Phys. D 41, 013001 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Brown and M. J. T. Milton, “Nanostructures and nanostructured substrates for surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS),” J. of Raman Spec. 39, 1313–1326 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (4)

A. V. Akimov, A. A. Meluchev, D. A. Kurdyukov, A. V. Scherbakov, A. Holst, and V. G. Golubev, “Plasmonic effects and visible light diffraction in three-dimensional opal-metal photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 171108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Farcau and S. Astilean, “Probing the unusual optical transmission of silver films deposited on two-dimensional regular arrays of polystyrene microspheres,” J. Opt. A 9, S345–S349 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Cole, J. J. Baumberg, F. J. Garcia de Abajo, S. Mahajan, M. Abdelsalam, and P. N. Bartlett, “Understanding plasmons in nanoscale voids,” Nano Lett. 7, 2094–2100 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Mahajan, M. Abdelsalam, Y. Suguwara, S. Cintra, Andrea Russell, J. Baumberg, and P. Bartlett, “Tuning plasmons on nano-structured substrates for NIR-SERS,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 9, 104–109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (3)

J. R. Lakowicz, “Plasmonics in biology and plasmon-controlled fluorescence,” Plasmonics 1, 5–33 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Landström, D. Brodoceanu, K. Piglmayer, and D. Bäuerle, “Extraordinary optical transmission through metal-coated colloidal monolayers,” Appl. Phys. A 84, 373–377 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Zhang, Z. Wang, H. Dong, J. Sun, J. Wu, H.-T. Wang, S. Zhu, N. Ming, and J. Zi, “The anomalous infrared transmission of gold films on two-dimensional colloidal crystals,” Adv. Mater. 18, 1612–1616 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

A. V. Zayats, I. I. Smolyaninov, and A. A. Maradudin, “Nano-optics of surface plasmon polaritons,” Phys. Rep. 408, 131–314 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhang, Y.-J. Ye, X. Wang, P. Rochon, and M. Xiao, “Coupling between semiconductor quantum dots and two-dimensional surface plasmons,” Phys. Rev. B 72, 201306(R) (2005).

2003 (3)

C. Lopez, “Materials aspects of photonic crystals,” Adv. Mater. 15, 1679–1704 (2003).
[CrossRef]

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424, 824–830 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Stropp, G. Trachta, G. Brehm, and S. Schneider, “A new version of AgFON substrates for high-throughput analytical SERS applications,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 34, 26–32 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

J. Vuckovic, M. Loncar, and A. Scherer, “Surface plasmon enhanced light-emitting diodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36, 1131–1144 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (3)

H. W. Yan, C. F. Blanford, B. T. Holland, M. Parent, W. H. Smyrl, and A. Stein, “A chemical synthesis of periodic macroporous NiO and metallic Ni,” Adv. Mater. 11, 1003–1006 (1999).
[CrossRef]

O. D. Velev, P. M. Tessier, A. M. Lenhoff, and E. W. Kaler, “A class of porous metallic nanostructures,” Nature 401, 548 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. Jiang, J. Cizeron, J. F. Bertone, and V. L. Colvin, “Preparation of macroporous metal films from colloidal crystals,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 121, 7957–7958 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

S. C. Kitson, W. L. Barnes, and J. R. Sambles, “Full photonic band gap for surface modes in the visible,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 2670–2673 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (1)

J. C. Hulteen and R. P. Van Duyne, “Nanosphere lithography : a materials general fabrication process for periodic particlearray surfaces,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 13, 1553–1558 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1976 (1)

M. C. Hutley and D. Maystre, “The total absorption of light by a diffraction grating,” Opt. Commun. 19, 431–436 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Abdelsalam, M.

S. Mahajan, M. Abdelsalam, Y. Suguwara, S. Cintra, Andrea Russell, J. Baumberg, and P. Bartlett, “Tuning plasmons on nano-structured substrates for NIR-SERS,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 9, 104–109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Cole, J. J. Baumberg, F. J. Garcia de Abajo, S. Mahajan, M. Abdelsalam, and P. N. Bartlett, “Understanding plasmons in nanoscale voids,” Nano Lett. 7, 2094–2100 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Akimov, A. V.

A. V. Akimov, A. A. Meluchev, D. A. Kurdyukov, A. V. Scherbakov, A. Holst, and V. G. Golubev, “Plasmonic effects and visible light diffraction in three-dimensional opal-metal photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 171108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Astilean, S.

C. Farcau and S. Astilean, “Probing the unusual optical transmission of silver films deposited on two-dimensional regular arrays of polystyrene microspheres,” J. Opt. A 9, S345–S349 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Atwater, H. A.

H. A. Atwater and A. Polman, “Plasmonics for improved photovoltaic devices,” Nature Mat. 9, 205–213 (2010).
[CrossRef]

V. E. Ferry, M. A. Verschuuren, H. B. T. Li, R. E. I. Schropp, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Improved red-response in thin film a-Si:H solar cells with soft-imprinted plasmonic back reflectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 183503 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Barnes, W. L.

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424, 824–830 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. C. Kitson, W. L. Barnes, and J. R. Sambles, “Full photonic band gap for surface modes in the visible,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 2670–2673 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barthou, C.

C. Vion, C. Barthou, P. Bénalloul, C. Schwob, L. Coolen, A. Gruzintev, G. Emelchenko, W. Masalov, J.-M. Frigerio, and A. Maître, “Manipulating emission of CdTeSe nanocrystals embedded in three-dimensional photonic crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 105, 113120 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. N. Gruzintsev, G. A. Emel’chenko, V. M. Masalov, M. Romanelli, C. Barthou, P. Benalloul, and A. Maître, “Luminescent properties of opals,” Inorg. Mater. 44, 159–164 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bartlett, P.

S. Mahajan, M. Abdelsalam, Y. Suguwara, S. Cintra, Andrea Russell, J. Baumberg, and P. Bartlett, “Tuning plasmons on nano-structured substrates for NIR-SERS,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 9, 104–109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bartlett, P. N.

N. N. Lal, B. F. Soares, J. K. Sinha, F. Huang, S. Mahajan, P. N. Bartlett, N. C. Greenham, and J. J. Baumberg, “Enhancing solar cells with localized plasmons in nanovoids,” Opt. Express 19, 11256–11263 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. M. Cole, J. J. Baumberg, F. J. Garcia de Abajo, S. Mahajan, M. Abdelsalam, and P. N. Bartlett, “Understanding plasmons in nanoscale voids,” Nano Lett. 7, 2094–2100 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bäuerle, D.

L. Landström, D. Brodoceanu, D. Bäuerle, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, S. G. Rodrigo, and L. Martin-Moreno, “Extraordinary transmission through metal-coated monolayers of microspheres,” Opt. Express 17, 761–772 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Landström, D. Brodoceanu, K. Piglmayer, and D. Bäuerle, “Extraordinary optical transmission through metal-coated colloidal monolayers,” Appl. Phys. A 84, 373–377 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Baumberg, J.

S. Mahajan, M. Abdelsalam, Y. Suguwara, S. Cintra, Andrea Russell, J. Baumberg, and P. Bartlett, “Tuning plasmons on nano-structured substrates for NIR-SERS,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 9, 104–109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Baumberg, J. J.

N. N. Lal, B. F. Soares, J. K. Sinha, F. Huang, S. Mahajan, P. N. Bartlett, N. C. Greenham, and J. J. Baumberg, “Enhancing solar cells with localized plasmons in nanovoids,” Opt. Express 19, 11256–11263 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. M. Cole, J. J. Baumberg, F. J. Garcia de Abajo, S. Mahajan, M. Abdelsalam, and P. N. Bartlett, “Understanding plasmons in nanoscale voids,” Nano Lett. 7, 2094–2100 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Benalloul, P.

A. N. Gruzintsev, G. A. Emel’chenko, V. M. Masalov, M. Romanelli, C. Barthou, P. Benalloul, and A. Maître, “Luminescent properties of opals,” Inorg. Mater. 44, 159–164 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bénalloul, P.

C. Vion, C. Barthou, P. Bénalloul, C. Schwob, L. Coolen, A. Gruzintev, G. Emelchenko, W. Masalov, J.-M. Frigerio, and A. Maître, “Manipulating emission of CdTeSe nanocrystals embedded in three-dimensional photonic crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 105, 113120 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bertone, J. F.

P. Jiang, J. Cizeron, J. F. Bertone, and V. L. Colvin, “Preparation of macroporous metal films from colloidal crystals,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 121, 7957–7958 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Blanford, C. F.

H. W. Yan, C. F. Blanford, B. T. Holland, M. Parent, W. H. Smyrl, and A. Stein, “A chemical synthesis of periodic macroporous NiO and metallic Ni,” Adv. Mater. 11, 1003–1006 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Brehm, G.

J. Stropp, G. Trachta, G. Brehm, and S. Schneider, “A new version of AgFON substrates for high-throughput analytical SERS applications,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 34, 26–32 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Brinkmann, R.

F. Marlow, Muldarisnur, P. Sharifi, R. Brinkmann, and C. Mendive, “Opals : status and prospects,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 48, 6212–6233 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Brodoceanu, D.

L. Landström, D. Brodoceanu, D. Bäuerle, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, S. G. Rodrigo, and L. Martin-Moreno, “Extraordinary transmission through metal-coated monolayers of microspheres,” Opt. Express 17, 761–772 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Landström, D. Brodoceanu, K. Piglmayer, and D. Bäuerle, “Extraordinary optical transmission through metal-coated colloidal monolayers,” Appl. Phys. A 84, 373–377 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Brown, J. C.

J. C. Brown and M. J. T. Milton, “Nanostructures and nanostructured substrates for surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS),” J. of Raman Spec. 39, 1313–1326 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ceperley, D. P.

A. R. Tao, D. P. Ceperley, P. Sinsermsuksakul, A. R. Neureuther, and P. Yang, “Self-organized silver nanoparticles for three-dimensional plasmonic crystals,” Nano Lett. 8, 4033–4038 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, R. P. H.

W. Mu, D.-K. Hwang, R. P. H. Chang, M. Sukharev, D. B. Tice, and J. B. Ketterson, “Surface-enhanced Raman scattering from silver-coated opals,” J. Chem. Phys. 134, 124312 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cintra, S.

S. Mahajan, M. Abdelsalam, Y. Suguwara, S. Cintra, Andrea Russell, J. Baumberg, and P. Bartlett, “Tuning plasmons on nano-structured substrates for NIR-SERS,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 9, 104–109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cizeron, J.

P. Jiang, J. Cizeron, J. F. Bertone, and V. L. Colvin, “Preparation of macroporous metal films from colloidal crystals,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 121, 7957–7958 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Cole, R. M.

R. M. Cole, J. J. Baumberg, F. J. Garcia de Abajo, S. Mahajan, M. Abdelsalam, and P. N. Bartlett, “Understanding plasmons in nanoscale voids,” Nano Lett. 7, 2094–2100 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Colvin, V. L.

P. Jiang, J. Cizeron, J. F. Bertone, and V. L. Colvin, “Preparation of macroporous metal films from colloidal crystals,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 121, 7957–7958 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Coolen, L.

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W. Mu, D.-K. Hwang, R. P. H. Chang, M. Sukharev, D. B. Tice, and J. B. Ketterson, “Surface-enhanced Raman scattering from silver-coated opals,” J. Chem. Phys. 134, 124312 (2011).
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R. Esteban, M. Laroche, and J.-J. Greffet, “Influence of metallic nanoparticles on upconversion processes,” J. Appl. Phys. 105, 033107 (2009).
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O. D. Velev, P. M. Tessier, A. M. Lenhoff, and E. W. Kaler, “A class of porous metallic nanostructures,” Nature 401, 548 (1999).
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V. E. Ferry, M. A. Verschuuren, H. B. T. Li, R. E. I. Schropp, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Improved red-response in thin film a-Si:H solar cells with soft-imprinted plasmonic back reflectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 183503 (2009).
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K. Liu, C. Sun, N. C. Linn, B. Jiang, and P. Jiang, “Wafer-scale surface-enhanced Raman scattering substrates with highly reproducible enhancement,” J. Phys. Chem. C 113, 14804 (2009).
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K. Liu, C. Sun, N. C. Linn, B. Jiang, and P. Jiang, “Wafer-scale surface-enhanced Raman scattering substrates with highly reproducible enhancement,” J. Phys. Chem. C 113, 14804 (2009).
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C. Vion, P. Spinicelli, L. Coolen, C. Schwob, J.-M. Frigerio, J.-P. Hermier, and A. Maître, “Controlled modification of single colloidal CdSe/ZnS nanocrystal fluorescence through interactions with a gold surface,” Opt. Express 18, 7440–7455 (2010).
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C. Vion, C. Barthou, P. Bénalloul, C. Schwob, L. Coolen, A. Gruzintev, G. Emelchenko, W. Masalov, J.-M. Frigerio, and A. Maître, “Manipulating emission of CdTeSe nanocrystals embedded in three-dimensional photonic crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 105, 113120 (2009).
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A. N. Gruzintsev, G. A. Emel’chenko, V. M. Masalov, M. Romanelli, C. Barthou, P. Benalloul, and A. Maître, “Luminescent properties of opals,” Inorg. Mater. 44, 159–164 (2008).
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Masalov, V. M.

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C. Vion, C. Barthou, P. Bénalloul, C. Schwob, L. Coolen, A. Gruzintev, G. Emelchenko, W. Masalov, J.-M. Frigerio, and A. Maître, “Manipulating emission of CdTeSe nanocrystals embedded in three-dimensional photonic crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 105, 113120 (2009).
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S. Scarano, M. Mascini, A. P.F. Turner, and M. Minunni, “Surface plasmon resonance imaging for affinity-based biosensors,” Biosensors and bioelectronics 25, 957–966 (2010).
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M. C. Hutley and D. Maystre, “The total absorption of light by a diffraction grating,” Opt. Commun. 19, 431–436 (1976).
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A. V. Akimov, A. A. Meluchev, D. A. Kurdyukov, A. V. Scherbakov, A. Holst, and V. G. Golubev, “Plasmonic effects and visible light diffraction in three-dimensional opal-metal photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 171108 (2007).
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F. Marlow, Muldarisnur, P. Sharifi, R. Brinkmann, and C. Mendive, “Opals : status and prospects,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 48, 6212–6233 (2009).
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S. Scarano, M. Mascini, A. P.F. Turner, and M. Minunni, “Surface plasmon resonance imaging for affinity-based biosensors,” Biosensors and bioelectronics 25, 957–966 (2010).
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W. Mu, D.-K. Hwang, R. P. H. Chang, M. Sukharev, D. B. Tice, and J. B. Ketterson, “Surface-enhanced Raman scattering from silver-coated opals,” J. Chem. Phys. 134, 124312 (2011).
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F. Marlow, Muldarisnur, P. Sharifi, R. Brinkmann, and C. Mendive, “Opals : status and prospects,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 48, 6212–6233 (2009).
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A. R. Tao, D. P. Ceperley, P. Sinsermsuksakul, A. R. Neureuther, and P. Yang, “Self-organized silver nanoparticles for three-dimensional plasmonic crystals,” Nano Lett. 8, 4033–4038 (2008).
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W. Zhou, H. Gao, and T. W. Odom, “Toward broadband plasmonics : tuning dispersion in rhombic plasmonic crystals,” ACS Nano 4, 1241–1247 (2010).
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H. W. Yan, C. F. Blanford, B. T. Holland, M. Parent, W. H. Smyrl, and A. Stein, “A chemical synthesis of periodic macroporous NiO and metallic Ni,” Adv. Mater. 11, 1003–1006 (1999).
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B. Ding, M. E. Pemble, A. V. Korovin, U. Peschel, and S. G. Romanov, “Three-dimensional photonic crystals with an active surface : gold film terminated opals,” Phys. Rev. B 82, 035119 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Peschel, U.

B. Ding, M. E. Pemble, A. V. Korovin, U. Peschel, and S. G. Romanov, “Three-dimensional photonic crystals with an active surface : gold film terminated opals,” Phys. Rev. B 82, 035119 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Piglmayer, K.

L. Landström, D. Brodoceanu, K. Piglmayer, and D. Bäuerle, “Extraordinary optical transmission through metal-coated colloidal monolayers,” Appl. Phys. A 84, 373–377 (2006).
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H. A. Atwater and A. Polman, “Plasmonics for improved photovoltaic devices,” Nature Mat. 9, 205–213 (2010).
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V. E. Ferry, M. A. Verschuuren, H. B. T. Li, R. E. I. Schropp, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Improved red-response in thin film a-Si:H solar cells with soft-imprinted plasmonic back reflectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 183503 (2009).
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Rodrigo, S. G.

Romanelli, M.

A. N. Gruzintsev, G. A. Emel’chenko, V. M. Masalov, M. Romanelli, C. Barthou, P. Benalloul, and A. Maître, “Luminescent properties of opals,” Inorg. Mater. 44, 159–164 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Romanov, S. G.

B. Ding, M. E. Pemble, A. V. Korovin, U. Peschel, and S. G. Romanov, “Three-dimensional photonic crystals with an active surface : gold film terminated opals,” Phys. Rev. B 82, 035119 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Russell, Andrea

S. Mahajan, M. Abdelsalam, Y. Suguwara, S. Cintra, Andrea Russell, J. Baumberg, and P. Bartlett, “Tuning plasmons on nano-structured substrates for NIR-SERS,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 9, 104–109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sambles, J. R.

S. C. Kitson, W. L. Barnes, and J. R. Sambles, “Full photonic band gap for surface modes in the visible,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 2670–2673 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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S. Scarano, M. Mascini, A. P.F. Turner, and M. Minunni, “Surface plasmon resonance imaging for affinity-based biosensors,” Biosensors and bioelectronics 25, 957–966 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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A. V. Akimov, A. A. Meluchev, D. A. Kurdyukov, A. V. Scherbakov, A. Holst, and V. G. Golubev, “Plasmonic effects and visible light diffraction in three-dimensional opal-metal photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 171108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Scherer, A.

J. Vuckovic, M. Loncar, and A. Scherer, “Surface plasmon enhanced light-emitting diodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36, 1131–1144 (2000).
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J. Stropp, G. Trachta, G. Brehm, and S. Schneider, “A new version of AgFON substrates for high-throughput analytical SERS applications,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 34, 26–32 (2003).
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Schropp, R. E. I.

V. E. Ferry, M. A. Verschuuren, H. B. T. Li, R. E. I. Schropp, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Improved red-response in thin film a-Si:H solar cells with soft-imprinted plasmonic back reflectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 183503 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Schwob, C.

C. Vion, P. Spinicelli, L. Coolen, C. Schwob, J.-M. Frigerio, J.-P. Hermier, and A. Maître, “Controlled modification of single colloidal CdSe/ZnS nanocrystal fluorescence through interactions with a gold surface,” Opt. Express 18, 7440–7455 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Vion, C. Barthou, P. Bénalloul, C. Schwob, L. Coolen, A. Gruzintev, G. Emelchenko, W. Masalov, J.-M. Frigerio, and A. Maître, “Manipulating emission of CdTeSe nanocrystals embedded in three-dimensional photonic crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 105, 113120 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sharifi, P.

F. Marlow, Muldarisnur, P. Sharifi, R. Brinkmann, and C. Mendive, “Opals : status and prospects,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 48, 6212–6233 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sinha, J. K.

Sinsermsuksakul, P.

A. R. Tao, D. P. Ceperley, P. Sinsermsuksakul, A. R. Neureuther, and P. Yang, “Self-organized silver nanoparticles for three-dimensional plasmonic crystals,” Nano Lett. 8, 4033–4038 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smolyaninov, I. I.

A. V. Zayats, I. I. Smolyaninov, and A. A. Maradudin, “Nano-optics of surface plasmon polaritons,” Phys. Rep. 408, 131–314 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Smyrl, W. H.

H. W. Yan, C. F. Blanford, B. T. Holland, M. Parent, W. H. Smyrl, and A. Stein, “A chemical synthesis of periodic macroporous NiO and metallic Ni,” Adv. Mater. 11, 1003–1006 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Soares, B. F.

Spinicelli, P.

Stein, A.

H. W. Yan, C. F. Blanford, B. T. Holland, M. Parent, W. H. Smyrl, and A. Stein, “A chemical synthesis of periodic macroporous NiO and metallic Ni,” Adv. Mater. 11, 1003–1006 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Stropp, J.

J. Stropp, G. Trachta, G. Brehm, and S. Schneider, “A new version of AgFON substrates for high-throughput analytical SERS applications,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 34, 26–32 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Suguwara, Y.

S. Mahajan, M. Abdelsalam, Y. Suguwara, S. Cintra, Andrea Russell, J. Baumberg, and P. Bartlett, “Tuning plasmons on nano-structured substrates for NIR-SERS,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 9, 104–109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sukharev, M.

W. Mu, D.-K. Hwang, R. P. H. Chang, M. Sukharev, D. B. Tice, and J. B. Ketterson, “Surface-enhanced Raman scattering from silver-coated opals,” J. Chem. Phys. 134, 124312 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sun, C.

K. Liu, C. Sun, N. C. Linn, B. Jiang, and P. Jiang, “Wafer-scale surface-enhanced Raman scattering substrates with highly reproducible enhancement,” J. Phys. Chem. C 113, 14804 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sun, J.

P. Zhang, Z. Wang, H. Dong, J. Sun, J. Wu, H.-T. Wang, S. Zhu, N. Ming, and J. Zi, “The anomalous infrared transmission of gold films on two-dimensional colloidal crystals,” Adv. Mater. 18, 1612–1616 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tao, A. R.

A. R. Tao, D. P. Ceperley, P. Sinsermsuksakul, A. R. Neureuther, and P. Yang, “Self-organized silver nanoparticles for three-dimensional plasmonic crystals,” Nano Lett. 8, 4033–4038 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tessier, P. M.

O. D. Velev, P. M. Tessier, A. M. Lenhoff, and E. W. Kaler, “A class of porous metallic nanostructures,” Nature 401, 548 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tice, D. B.

W. Mu, D.-K. Hwang, R. P. H. Chang, M. Sukharev, D. B. Tice, and J. B. Ketterson, “Surface-enhanced Raman scattering from silver-coated opals,” J. Chem. Phys. 134, 124312 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Trachta, G.

J. Stropp, G. Trachta, G. Brehm, and S. Schneider, “A new version of AgFON substrates for high-throughput analytical SERS applications,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 34, 26–32 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Turner, A. P.F.

S. Scarano, M. Mascini, A. P.F. Turner, and M. Minunni, “Surface plasmon resonance imaging for affinity-based biosensors,” Biosensors and bioelectronics 25, 957–966 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Van Duyne, R. P.

J. C. Hulteen and R. P. Van Duyne, “Nanosphere lithography : a materials general fabrication process for periodic particlearray surfaces,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 13, 1553–1558 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Velev, O. D.

O. D. Velev, P. M. Tessier, A. M. Lenhoff, and E. W. Kaler, “A class of porous metallic nanostructures,” Nature 401, 548 (1999).
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Other (1)

The SPP skin depth δ is obtained from the experimentally measured θ and λ by (i) considering that the peak in ρ(λ) (Fig. 5(b)) corresponds to values of ϕ = 10°, (ii) calculating the experimental kSPP through the momentum conservation in eq. 1 with k// = (2π/λ)sinθ with ϕ = 10°, and (iii) using the energy conservation condition k02=(2πλ)2=kSPP2+(1/δ)2 to find δ.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) General structure of the fabricated samples : a gold layer evaporated on an artificial opal, with an optional silica smoothing layer. (b) AFM image of a sample with 500 nm gold layer (and no smoothing layer). (c) Profile of the sample along the purple line indicated in (b). A groove depth h = 90 nm is measured.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) SEM image of a plasmonic sample with a gold layer of 500 nm. (b) FTs of three sample portions of sizes 60×60, 40×40 and 20×20 μm2. (c) Autocorrelation curves A(ϕ) of the three FTs, as defined in the text.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Full lines : p- and s-polarized reflection spectra, at incidence angles θ ranging from 20 to 80°, with steps of 10°, of a plasmonic sample with groove depth h = 90 nm. Dashed lines : p- and s-polarized reflection spectra of a plane gold surface for θ = 20 (black) and 70° (grey) (divided by 2 for clarity because the reflectivity of the plane sample is larger).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Dots : experimental wavelengths λ of the p-polarized reflection dip as a function of θ for six samples with different groove depths h. Full line : theoretical position of the dip, as calculated in the last section for at the zero-th order in h. (b) Relative difference (λexp. – λtheo.)/λtheo. between the measured and theoretical wavelengths, as a function of the ratio of the groove depth h over the SPP skin depth in air δ. The colors correspond to the same values of h as indicated in (a).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Calculated values of the SPP-coupled wavelength as a function of the incidence angle θ, for the phase-matching vectors G⃗4 and G⃗5, for a = 390 nm and for various grating orientations ϕ. The line ϕ = 30° is a symmetry axis : λG4(60 – ϕ) = λG5(ϕ). (b) Density of coupled SPP modes for three angles θ, calculated as explained in text.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Control of the groove depth h (measured by AFM) by the thickness of the gold and silica layers.

Equations (1)

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k S P P = ( k / / cos ( ϕ ) + G i x ) 2 + ( k / / sin ( ϕ ) + G i y ) 2

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