Abstract

We report on the fabrication of planar waveguide in Nd:YVO4 crystal by using swift Ar8+ ion irradiation. At room temperature continuous wave (cw) laser oscillation at wavelength of ~1067 nm has been realized through the optical pump at 808 nm with a low threshold of 9.3 mW. The slope efficiency of the waveguide laser system is of 8.5%. The optical-to-optical conversion efficiency is 6.6%.

© 2011 OSA

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  8. T. Calmano, J. Siebenmorgen, O. Hellmig, K. Petermann, and G. Huber, “Nd:YAG waveguide laser with 1.3 W output power, fabricated by direct femtosecond laser writing,” Appl. Phys. B 100(1), 131–135 (2010).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2011

2010

W. F. Silva, C. Jacinto, A. Benayas, J. R. Vazquez de Aldana, G. A. Torchia, F. Chen, Y. Tan, and D. Jaque, “Femtosecond-laser-written, stress-induced Nd:YVO4 waveguides preserving fluorescence and Raman gain,” Opt. Lett. 35(7), 916–918 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Y. Ren, N. N. Dong, F. Chen, A. Benayas, D. Jaque, F. Qiu, and T. Narusawa, “Swift heavy-ion irradiated active waveguides in Nd:YAG crystals: fabrication and laser generation,” Opt. Lett. 35(19), 3276–3278 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Calmano, J. Siebenmorgen, O. Hellmig, K. Petermann, and G. Huber, “Nd:YAG waveguide laser with 1.3 W output power, fabricated by direct femtosecond laser writing,” Appl. Phys. B 100(1), 131–135 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Tan, F. Chen, J. R. Vázquez de Aldana, G. A. Torchia, A. Benayas, and D. Jaque, “Continuous wave laser generation at 1064 nm in femtosecond laser inscribed Nd:YVO4 channel waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(3), 031119 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Rivera, M. L. Crespillo, J. Olivares, G. García, and F. Agulló-López, “Effect of defect accumulation on ion-beam damage morphology by electronic excitation in lithium niobate: a MonteCarlo approach,” Nuclear Instrum. Methods Phy. Res. Sect. B Beam Interactions Mater. Atoms 268(13), 2249–2256 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

F. Chen, “Photonic guiding structures in lithium niobate crystals produced by energetic ion beams,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(8), 081101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Sánchez-Morales, G. V. Vázquez, E. B. Mejía, H. Márquez, J. Rickards, and R. Trejo-Luna, “Laser emission in Nd:YVO4 channel waveguides at 1064 nm,” Appl. Phys. B 94(2), 215–219 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Siebenmorgen, K. Petermann, G. Huber, K. Rademaker, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Femtosecond laser written stress-induced Nd:Y3Al5O12 (Nd:YAG) channel waveguide laser,” Appl. Phys. B 97(2), 251–255 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

A. Benayas, D. Jaque, S. J. Hettrick, J. S. Wilkinson, and D. P. Shepherd, “Investigation of neodymium-diffused yttrium vanadate waveguides by confocal microluminescence,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(10), 103104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Chen, “Construction of two-dimensional waveguides in insulating optical materials by means of ion beam implantation for photonic applications: fabrication methods and research progress,” Crit. Rev. Solid State Mater. Sci. 33(3-4), 165–182 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. A. Torchia, A. Rodenas, A. Benayas, E. Cantelar, L. Roso, and D. Jaque, “Highly efficient laser action in femtosecond-written Nd:yttrium aluminum garnet ceramic waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(11), 111103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

F. Chen, X. L. Wang, and K. M. Wang, “Development of ion-implanted optical waveguides in optical materials: a review,” Opt. Mater. 29(11), 1523–1542 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. Kumar, S. Moorthy Babu, S. Ganesamoorthy, A. K. Karnal, and D. Kanjilal, “Influence of swift ions and proton implantation on the formation of optical waveguides in lithium niobate,” J. Appl. Phys. 102(8), 084905 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. I. Mackenzie, “Dielectric Solid-State Planar Waveguide Lasers: A Review,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(3), 626–637 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Sánchez-Morales, G. V. Vázquez, P. Moretti, and H. Márquez, “Optical waveguides in Nd:YVO4 crystals by multi-implants with protons and helium ions,” Opt. Mater. 29(7), 840–844 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Olivares, A. García-Navarro, G. García, A. Méndez, F. Agulló-López, A. García-Cabañes, M. Carrascosa, and O. Caballero, “Nonlinear optical waveguides generated in lithium niobate by swift-ion irradiation at ultralow fluences,” Opt. Lett. 32(17), 2587–2589 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

A. García-Navarro, J. Olivares, G. García, F. Agulló-López, S. García-Blanco, C. Merchant, and J. Stewart Aitchison, “Fabrication of optical waveguides in KGW by swift heavy ion beam irradiation,” Nuclear Instrum. Methods Phy. Res. Sect. B Beam Interactions Mater. Atoms 249(1-2), 177–180 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. Chen, L. Wang, Y. Jiang, X. L. Wang, K. M. Wang, G. Fu, Q.-M. Lu, C. E. Rüter, and D. Kip, “Optical channel waveguides in Nd:YVO4 crystal produced by O+ ion implantation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(7), 071123 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

J. Olivares, G. García, A. García-Navarro, F. Agulló-López, O. Caballero, and A. García-Cabañes, “Generation of high-confinement step-like optical waveguides in LiNbO3 by swift heavy ion-beam irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(18), 183501 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2002

2000

P. K. Yang and J. Y. Huang, “An inexpensive diode-pumped mode-locked Nd:YVO4 laser for nonlinear optical microscopy,” Opt. Commun. 173(1-6), 315–321 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998

D. Kip, “Photorefractive waveguides in oxide crystals: fabrication, properties, and applications,” Appl. Phys. B 67(2), 131–150 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Agulló-López, F.

A. Rivera, M. L. Crespillo, J. Olivares, G. García, and F. Agulló-López, “Effect of defect accumulation on ion-beam damage morphology by electronic excitation in lithium niobate: a MonteCarlo approach,” Nuclear Instrum. Methods Phy. Res. Sect. B Beam Interactions Mater. Atoms 268(13), 2249–2256 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Olivares, A. García-Navarro, G. García, A. Méndez, F. Agulló-López, A. García-Cabañes, M. Carrascosa, and O. Caballero, “Nonlinear optical waveguides generated in lithium niobate by swift-ion irradiation at ultralow fluences,” Opt. Lett. 32(17), 2587–2589 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. García-Navarro, J. Olivares, G. García, F. Agulló-López, S. García-Blanco, C. Merchant, and J. Stewart Aitchison, “Fabrication of optical waveguides in KGW by swift heavy ion beam irradiation,” Nuclear Instrum. Methods Phy. Res. Sect. B Beam Interactions Mater. Atoms 249(1-2), 177–180 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Olivares, G. García, A. García-Navarro, F. Agulló-López, O. Caballero, and A. García-Cabañes, “Generation of high-confinement step-like optical waveguides in LiNbO3 by swift heavy ion-beam irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(18), 183501 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Akhmadaliev, Sh.

Benayas, A.

W. F. Silva, C. Jacinto, A. Benayas, J. R. Vazquez de Aldana, G. A. Torchia, F. Chen, Y. Tan, and D. Jaque, “Femtosecond-laser-written, stress-induced Nd:YVO4 waveguides preserving fluorescence and Raman gain,” Opt. Lett. 35(7), 916–918 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Tan, F. Chen, J. R. Vázquez de Aldana, G. A. Torchia, A. Benayas, and D. Jaque, “Continuous wave laser generation at 1064 nm in femtosecond laser inscribed Nd:YVO4 channel waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(3), 031119 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Y. Ren, N. N. Dong, F. Chen, A. Benayas, D. Jaque, F. Qiu, and T. Narusawa, “Swift heavy-ion irradiated active waveguides in Nd:YAG crystals: fabrication and laser generation,” Opt. Lett. 35(19), 3276–3278 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Benayas, D. Jaque, S. J. Hettrick, J. S. Wilkinson, and D. P. Shepherd, “Investigation of neodymium-diffused yttrium vanadate waveguides by confocal microluminescence,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(10), 103104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. A. Torchia, A. Rodenas, A. Benayas, E. Cantelar, L. Roso, and D. Jaque, “Highly efficient laser action in femtosecond-written Nd:yttrium aluminum garnet ceramic waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(11), 111103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Caballero, O.

J. Olivares, A. García-Navarro, G. García, A. Méndez, F. Agulló-López, A. García-Cabañes, M. Carrascosa, and O. Caballero, “Nonlinear optical waveguides generated in lithium niobate by swift-ion irradiation at ultralow fluences,” Opt. Lett. 32(17), 2587–2589 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Olivares, G. García, A. García-Navarro, F. Agulló-López, O. Caballero, and A. García-Cabañes, “Generation of high-confinement step-like optical waveguides in LiNbO3 by swift heavy ion-beam irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(18), 183501 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Calmano, T.

T. Calmano, J. Siebenmorgen, O. Hellmig, K. Petermann, and G. Huber, “Nd:YAG waveguide laser with 1.3 W output power, fabricated by direct femtosecond laser writing,” Appl. Phys. B 100(1), 131–135 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Cantelar, E.

G. A. Torchia, A. Rodenas, A. Benayas, E. Cantelar, L. Roso, and D. Jaque, “Highly efficient laser action in femtosecond-written Nd:yttrium aluminum garnet ceramic waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(11), 111103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Carrascosa, M.

Chen, F.

Y. Ren, Y. Jia, F. Chen, Q. Lu, Sh. Akhmadaliev, and S. Zhou, “Second harmonic generation of swift carbon ion irradiated Nd:GdCOB waveguides,” Opt. Express 19(13), 12490–12495 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Y. Ren, N. N. Dong, F. Chen, and D. Jaque, “Swift nitrogen ion irradiated waveguide lasers in Nd:YAG crystal,” Opt. Express 19(6), 5522–5527 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Y. Ren, N. N. Dong, F. Chen, A. Benayas, D. Jaque, F. Qiu, and T. Narusawa, “Swift heavy-ion irradiated active waveguides in Nd:YAG crystals: fabrication and laser generation,” Opt. Lett. 35(19), 3276–3278 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Tan, F. Chen, J. R. Vázquez de Aldana, G. A. Torchia, A. Benayas, and D. Jaque, “Continuous wave laser generation at 1064 nm in femtosecond laser inscribed Nd:YVO4 channel waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(3), 031119 (2010).
[CrossRef]

W. F. Silva, C. Jacinto, A. Benayas, J. R. Vazquez de Aldana, G. A. Torchia, F. Chen, Y. Tan, and D. Jaque, “Femtosecond-laser-written, stress-induced Nd:YVO4 waveguides preserving fluorescence and Raman gain,” Opt. Lett. 35(7), 916–918 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Chen, “Photonic guiding structures in lithium niobate crystals produced by energetic ion beams,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(8), 081101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. Chen, “Construction of two-dimensional waveguides in insulating optical materials by means of ion beam implantation for photonic applications: fabrication methods and research progress,” Crit. Rev. Solid State Mater. Sci. 33(3-4), 165–182 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Chen, X. L. Wang, and K. M. Wang, “Development of ion-implanted optical waveguides in optical materials: a review,” Opt. Mater. 29(11), 1523–1542 (2007).
[CrossRef]

F. Chen, L. Wang, Y. Jiang, X. L. Wang, K. M. Wang, G. Fu, Q.-M. Lu, C. E. Rüter, and D. Kip, “Optical channel waveguides in Nd:YVO4 crystal produced by O+ ion implantation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(7), 071123 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chen, M.

Crespillo, M. L.

A. Rivera, M. L. Crespillo, J. Olivares, G. García, and F. Agulló-López, “Effect of defect accumulation on ion-beam damage morphology by electronic excitation in lithium niobate: a MonteCarlo approach,” Nuclear Instrum. Methods Phy. Res. Sect. B Beam Interactions Mater. Atoms 268(13), 2249–2256 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Dong, N. N.

Fu, G.

F. Chen, L. Wang, Y. Jiang, X. L. Wang, K. M. Wang, G. Fu, Q.-M. Lu, C. E. Rüter, and D. Kip, “Optical channel waveguides in Nd:YVO4 crystal produced by O+ ion implantation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(7), 071123 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ganesamoorthy, S.

P. Kumar, S. Moorthy Babu, S. Ganesamoorthy, A. K. Karnal, and D. Kanjilal, “Influence of swift ions and proton implantation on the formation of optical waveguides in lithium niobate,” J. Appl. Phys. 102(8), 084905 (2007).
[CrossRef]

García, G.

A. Rivera, M. L. Crespillo, J. Olivares, G. García, and F. Agulló-López, “Effect of defect accumulation on ion-beam damage morphology by electronic excitation in lithium niobate: a MonteCarlo approach,” Nuclear Instrum. Methods Phy. Res. Sect. B Beam Interactions Mater. Atoms 268(13), 2249–2256 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Olivares, A. García-Navarro, G. García, A. Méndez, F. Agulló-López, A. García-Cabañes, M. Carrascosa, and O. Caballero, “Nonlinear optical waveguides generated in lithium niobate by swift-ion irradiation at ultralow fluences,” Opt. Lett. 32(17), 2587–2589 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. García-Navarro, J. Olivares, G. García, F. Agulló-López, S. García-Blanco, C. Merchant, and J. Stewart Aitchison, “Fabrication of optical waveguides in KGW by swift heavy ion beam irradiation,” Nuclear Instrum. Methods Phy. Res. Sect. B Beam Interactions Mater. Atoms 249(1-2), 177–180 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Olivares, G. García, A. García-Navarro, F. Agulló-López, O. Caballero, and A. García-Cabañes, “Generation of high-confinement step-like optical waveguides in LiNbO3 by swift heavy ion-beam irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(18), 183501 (2005).
[CrossRef]

García-Blanco, S.

A. García-Navarro, J. Olivares, G. García, F. Agulló-López, S. García-Blanco, C. Merchant, and J. Stewart Aitchison, “Fabrication of optical waveguides in KGW by swift heavy ion beam irradiation,” Nuclear Instrum. Methods Phy. Res. Sect. B Beam Interactions Mater. Atoms 249(1-2), 177–180 (2006).
[CrossRef]

García-Cabañes, A.

J. Olivares, A. García-Navarro, G. García, A. Méndez, F. Agulló-López, A. García-Cabañes, M. Carrascosa, and O. Caballero, “Nonlinear optical waveguides generated in lithium niobate by swift-ion irradiation at ultralow fluences,” Opt. Lett. 32(17), 2587–2589 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Olivares, G. García, A. García-Navarro, F. Agulló-López, O. Caballero, and A. García-Cabañes, “Generation of high-confinement step-like optical waveguides in LiNbO3 by swift heavy ion-beam irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(18), 183501 (2005).
[CrossRef]

García-Navarro, A.

J. Olivares, A. García-Navarro, G. García, A. Méndez, F. Agulló-López, A. García-Cabañes, M. Carrascosa, and O. Caballero, “Nonlinear optical waveguides generated in lithium niobate by swift-ion irradiation at ultralow fluences,” Opt. Lett. 32(17), 2587–2589 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. García-Navarro, J. Olivares, G. García, F. Agulló-López, S. García-Blanco, C. Merchant, and J. Stewart Aitchison, “Fabrication of optical waveguides in KGW by swift heavy ion beam irradiation,” Nuclear Instrum. Methods Phy. Res. Sect. B Beam Interactions Mater. Atoms 249(1-2), 177–180 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Olivares, G. García, A. García-Navarro, F. Agulló-López, O. Caballero, and A. García-Cabañes, “Generation of high-confinement step-like optical waveguides in LiNbO3 by swift heavy ion-beam irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(18), 183501 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Grivas, Ch.

Ch. Grivas, “Optically pumped planar waveguide lasers, Part I: Fundamentals and fabrication techniques,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 35(6), 159–239 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hellmig, O.

T. Calmano, J. Siebenmorgen, O. Hellmig, K. Petermann, and G. Huber, “Nd:YAG waveguide laser with 1.3 W output power, fabricated by direct femtosecond laser writing,” Appl. Phys. B 100(1), 131–135 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hettrick, S. J.

A. Benayas, D. Jaque, S. J. Hettrick, J. S. Wilkinson, and D. P. Shepherd, “Investigation of neodymium-diffused yttrium vanadate waveguides by confocal microluminescence,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(10), 103104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Hettrick, J. S. Wilkinson, and D. P. Shepherd, “Neodymium and gadolinium diffusion in yttrium vanadate,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19(1), 33 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Huang, J. Y.

P. K. Yang and J. Y. Huang, “An inexpensive diode-pumped mode-locked Nd:YVO4 laser for nonlinear optical microscopy,” Opt. Commun. 173(1-6), 315–321 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Huber, G.

T. Calmano, J. Siebenmorgen, O. Hellmig, K. Petermann, and G. Huber, “Nd:YAG waveguide laser with 1.3 W output power, fabricated by direct femtosecond laser writing,” Appl. Phys. B 100(1), 131–135 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Siebenmorgen, K. Petermann, G. Huber, K. Rademaker, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Femtosecond laser written stress-induced Nd:Y3Al5O12 (Nd:YAG) channel waveguide laser,” Appl. Phys. B 97(2), 251–255 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jacinto, C.

Jaque, D.

Y. Y. Ren, N. N. Dong, F. Chen, and D. Jaque, “Swift nitrogen ion irradiated waveguide lasers in Nd:YAG crystal,” Opt. Express 19(6), 5522–5527 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Y. Ren, N. N. Dong, F. Chen, A. Benayas, D. Jaque, F. Qiu, and T. Narusawa, “Swift heavy-ion irradiated active waveguides in Nd:YAG crystals: fabrication and laser generation,” Opt. Lett. 35(19), 3276–3278 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. F. Silva, C. Jacinto, A. Benayas, J. R. Vazquez de Aldana, G. A. Torchia, F. Chen, Y. Tan, and D. Jaque, “Femtosecond-laser-written, stress-induced Nd:YVO4 waveguides preserving fluorescence and Raman gain,” Opt. Lett. 35(7), 916–918 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Tan, F. Chen, J. R. Vázquez de Aldana, G. A. Torchia, A. Benayas, and D. Jaque, “Continuous wave laser generation at 1064 nm in femtosecond laser inscribed Nd:YVO4 channel waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(3), 031119 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. A. Torchia, A. Rodenas, A. Benayas, E. Cantelar, L. Roso, and D. Jaque, “Highly efficient laser action in femtosecond-written Nd:yttrium aluminum garnet ceramic waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(11), 111103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Benayas, D. Jaque, S. J. Hettrick, J. S. Wilkinson, and D. P. Shepherd, “Investigation of neodymium-diffused yttrium vanadate waveguides by confocal microluminescence,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(10), 103104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jia, Y.

Jiang, Y.

F. Chen, L. Wang, Y. Jiang, X. L. Wang, K. M. Wang, G. Fu, Q.-M. Lu, C. E. Rüter, and D. Kip, “Optical channel waveguides in Nd:YVO4 crystal produced by O+ ion implantation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(7), 071123 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kanjilal, D.

P. Kumar, S. Moorthy Babu, S. Ganesamoorthy, A. K. Karnal, and D. Kanjilal, “Influence of swift ions and proton implantation on the formation of optical waveguides in lithium niobate,” J. Appl. Phys. 102(8), 084905 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Karnal, A. K.

P. Kumar, S. Moorthy Babu, S. Ganesamoorthy, A. K. Karnal, and D. Kanjilal, “Influence of swift ions and proton implantation on the formation of optical waveguides in lithium niobate,” J. Appl. Phys. 102(8), 084905 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kip, D.

F. Chen, L. Wang, Y. Jiang, X. L. Wang, K. M. Wang, G. Fu, Q.-M. Lu, C. E. Rüter, and D. Kip, “Optical channel waveguides in Nd:YVO4 crystal produced by O+ ion implantation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(7), 071123 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Kip, “Photorefractive waveguides in oxide crystals: fabrication, properties, and applications,” Appl. Phys. B 67(2), 131–150 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kumar, P.

P. Kumar, S. Moorthy Babu, S. Ganesamoorthy, A. K. Karnal, and D. Kanjilal, “Influence of swift ions and proton implantation on the formation of optical waveguides in lithium niobate,” J. Appl. Phys. 102(8), 084905 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Liu, X. H.

Lu, Q.

Lu, Q.-M.

F. Chen, L. Wang, Y. Jiang, X. L. Wang, K. M. Wang, G. Fu, Q.-M. Lu, C. E. Rüter, and D. Kip, “Optical channel waveguides in Nd:YVO4 crystal produced by O+ ion implantation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(7), 071123 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mackenzie, J. I.

J. I. Mackenzie, “Dielectric Solid-State Planar Waveguide Lasers: A Review,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(3), 626–637 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Márquez, H.

M. E. Sánchez-Morales, G. V. Vázquez, E. B. Mejía, H. Márquez, J. Rickards, and R. Trejo-Luna, “Laser emission in Nd:YVO4 channel waveguides at 1064 nm,” Appl. Phys. B 94(2), 215–219 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Sánchez-Morales, G. V. Vázquez, P. Moretti, and H. Márquez, “Optical waveguides in Nd:YVO4 crystals by multi-implants with protons and helium ions,” Opt. Mater. 29(7), 840–844 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mejía, E. B.

M. E. Sánchez-Morales, G. V. Vázquez, E. B. Mejía, H. Márquez, J. Rickards, and R. Trejo-Luna, “Laser emission in Nd:YVO4 channel waveguides at 1064 nm,” Appl. Phys. B 94(2), 215–219 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Méndez, A.

Merchant, C.

A. García-Navarro, J. Olivares, G. García, F. Agulló-López, S. García-Blanco, C. Merchant, and J. Stewart Aitchison, “Fabrication of optical waveguides in KGW by swift heavy ion beam irradiation,” Nuclear Instrum. Methods Phy. Res. Sect. B Beam Interactions Mater. Atoms 249(1-2), 177–180 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Moorthy Babu, S.

P. Kumar, S. Moorthy Babu, S. Ganesamoorthy, A. K. Karnal, and D. Kanjilal, “Influence of swift ions and proton implantation on the formation of optical waveguides in lithium niobate,” J. Appl. Phys. 102(8), 084905 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Moretti, P.

M. E. Sánchez-Morales, G. V. Vázquez, P. Moretti, and H. Márquez, “Optical waveguides in Nd:YVO4 crystals by multi-implants with protons and helium ions,” Opt. Mater. 29(7), 840–844 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Narusawa, T.

Nolte, S.

J. Siebenmorgen, K. Petermann, G. Huber, K. Rademaker, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Femtosecond laser written stress-induced Nd:Y3Al5O12 (Nd:YAG) channel waveguide laser,” Appl. Phys. B 97(2), 251–255 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Olivares, J.

A. Rivera, M. L. Crespillo, J. Olivares, G. García, and F. Agulló-López, “Effect of defect accumulation on ion-beam damage morphology by electronic excitation in lithium niobate: a MonteCarlo approach,” Nuclear Instrum. Methods Phy. Res. Sect. B Beam Interactions Mater. Atoms 268(13), 2249–2256 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Olivares, A. García-Navarro, G. García, A. Méndez, F. Agulló-López, A. García-Cabañes, M. Carrascosa, and O. Caballero, “Nonlinear optical waveguides generated in lithium niobate by swift-ion irradiation at ultralow fluences,” Opt. Lett. 32(17), 2587–2589 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. García-Navarro, J. Olivares, G. García, F. Agulló-López, S. García-Blanco, C. Merchant, and J. Stewart Aitchison, “Fabrication of optical waveguides in KGW by swift heavy ion beam irradiation,” Nuclear Instrum. Methods Phy. Res. Sect. B Beam Interactions Mater. Atoms 249(1-2), 177–180 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Olivares, G. García, A. García-Navarro, F. Agulló-López, O. Caballero, and A. García-Cabañes, “Generation of high-confinement step-like optical waveguides in LiNbO3 by swift heavy ion-beam irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(18), 183501 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Peng, B. G.

Petermann, K.

T. Calmano, J. Siebenmorgen, O. Hellmig, K. Petermann, and G. Huber, “Nd:YAG waveguide laser with 1.3 W output power, fabricated by direct femtosecond laser writing,” Appl. Phys. B 100(1), 131–135 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Siebenmorgen, K. Petermann, G. Huber, K. Rademaker, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Femtosecond laser written stress-induced Nd:Y3Al5O12 (Nd:YAG) channel waveguide laser,” Appl. Phys. B 97(2), 251–255 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Qin, X. F.

Qiu, F.

Rademaker, K.

J. Siebenmorgen, K. Petermann, G. Huber, K. Rademaker, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Femtosecond laser written stress-induced Nd:Y3Al5O12 (Nd:YAG) channel waveguide laser,” Appl. Phys. B 97(2), 251–255 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ren, Y.

Ren, Y. Y.

Rickards, J.

M. E. Sánchez-Morales, G. V. Vázquez, E. B. Mejía, H. Márquez, J. Rickards, and R. Trejo-Luna, “Laser emission in Nd:YVO4 channel waveguides at 1064 nm,” Appl. Phys. B 94(2), 215–219 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rivera, A.

A. Rivera, M. L. Crespillo, J. Olivares, G. García, and F. Agulló-López, “Effect of defect accumulation on ion-beam damage morphology by electronic excitation in lithium niobate: a MonteCarlo approach,” Nuclear Instrum. Methods Phy. Res. Sect. B Beam Interactions Mater. Atoms 268(13), 2249–2256 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Rodenas, A.

G. A. Torchia, A. Rodenas, A. Benayas, E. Cantelar, L. Roso, and D. Jaque, “Highly efficient laser action in femtosecond-written Nd:yttrium aluminum garnet ceramic waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(11), 111103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Roso, L.

G. A. Torchia, A. Rodenas, A. Benayas, E. Cantelar, L. Roso, and D. Jaque, “Highly efficient laser action in femtosecond-written Nd:yttrium aluminum garnet ceramic waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(11), 111103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Rüter, C. E.

F. Chen, L. Wang, Y. Jiang, X. L. Wang, K. M. Wang, G. Fu, Q.-M. Lu, C. E. Rüter, and D. Kip, “Optical channel waveguides in Nd:YVO4 crystal produced by O+ ion implantation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(7), 071123 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sánchez-Morales, M. E.

M. E. Sánchez-Morales, G. V. Vázquez, E. B. Mejía, H. Márquez, J. Rickards, and R. Trejo-Luna, “Laser emission in Nd:YVO4 channel waveguides at 1064 nm,” Appl. Phys. B 94(2), 215–219 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Sánchez-Morales, G. V. Vázquez, P. Moretti, and H. Márquez, “Optical waveguides in Nd:YVO4 crystals by multi-implants with protons and helium ions,” Opt. Mater. 29(7), 840–844 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shepherd, D. P.

A. Benayas, D. Jaque, S. J. Hettrick, J. S. Wilkinson, and D. P. Shepherd, “Investigation of neodymium-diffused yttrium vanadate waveguides by confocal microluminescence,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(10), 103104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Hettrick, J. S. Wilkinson, and D. P. Shepherd, “Neodymium and gadolinium diffusion in yttrium vanadate,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19(1), 33 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Siebenmorgen, J.

T. Calmano, J. Siebenmorgen, O. Hellmig, K. Petermann, and G. Huber, “Nd:YAG waveguide laser with 1.3 W output power, fabricated by direct femtosecond laser writing,” Appl. Phys. B 100(1), 131–135 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Siebenmorgen, K. Petermann, G. Huber, K. Rademaker, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Femtosecond laser written stress-induced Nd:Y3Al5O12 (Nd:YAG) channel waveguide laser,” Appl. Phys. B 97(2), 251–255 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Silva, W. F.

Stewart Aitchison, J.

A. García-Navarro, J. Olivares, G. García, F. Agulló-López, S. García-Blanco, C. Merchant, and J. Stewart Aitchison, “Fabrication of optical waveguides in KGW by swift heavy ion beam irradiation,” Nuclear Instrum. Methods Phy. Res. Sect. B Beam Interactions Mater. Atoms 249(1-2), 177–180 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tan, Y.

Y. Tan, F. Chen, J. R. Vázquez de Aldana, G. A. Torchia, A. Benayas, and D. Jaque, “Continuous wave laser generation at 1064 nm in femtosecond laser inscribed Nd:YVO4 channel waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(3), 031119 (2010).
[CrossRef]

W. F. Silva, C. Jacinto, A. Benayas, J. R. Vazquez de Aldana, G. A. Torchia, F. Chen, Y. Tan, and D. Jaque, “Femtosecond-laser-written, stress-induced Nd:YVO4 waveguides preserving fluorescence and Raman gain,” Opt. Lett. 35(7), 916–918 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Torchia, G. A.

W. F. Silva, C. Jacinto, A. Benayas, J. R. Vazquez de Aldana, G. A. Torchia, F. Chen, Y. Tan, and D. Jaque, “Femtosecond-laser-written, stress-induced Nd:YVO4 waveguides preserving fluorescence and Raman gain,” Opt. Lett. 35(7), 916–918 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Tan, F. Chen, J. R. Vázquez de Aldana, G. A. Torchia, A. Benayas, and D. Jaque, “Continuous wave laser generation at 1064 nm in femtosecond laser inscribed Nd:YVO4 channel waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(3), 031119 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. A. Torchia, A. Rodenas, A. Benayas, E. Cantelar, L. Roso, and D. Jaque, “Highly efficient laser action in femtosecond-written Nd:yttrium aluminum garnet ceramic waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(11), 111103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Trejo-Luna, R.

M. E. Sánchez-Morales, G. V. Vázquez, E. B. Mejía, H. Márquez, J. Rickards, and R. Trejo-Luna, “Laser emission in Nd:YVO4 channel waveguides at 1064 nm,” Appl. Phys. B 94(2), 215–219 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tünnermann, A.

J. Siebenmorgen, K. Petermann, G. Huber, K. Rademaker, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Femtosecond laser written stress-induced Nd:Y3Al5O12 (Nd:YAG) channel waveguide laser,” Appl. Phys. B 97(2), 251–255 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Vázquez, G. V.

M. E. Sánchez-Morales, G. V. Vázquez, E. B. Mejía, H. Márquez, J. Rickards, and R. Trejo-Luna, “Laser emission in Nd:YVO4 channel waveguides at 1064 nm,” Appl. Phys. B 94(2), 215–219 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Sánchez-Morales, G. V. Vázquez, P. Moretti, and H. Márquez, “Optical waveguides in Nd:YVO4 crystals by multi-implants with protons and helium ions,” Opt. Mater. 29(7), 840–844 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Vazquez de Aldana, J. R.

Vázquez de Aldana, J. R.

Y. Tan, F. Chen, J. R. Vázquez de Aldana, G. A. Torchia, A. Benayas, and D. Jaque, “Continuous wave laser generation at 1064 nm in femtosecond laser inscribed Nd:YVO4 channel waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(3), 031119 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wang, K. M.

X. H. Liu, S. M. Zhang, J. H. Zhao, M. Chen, B. G. Peng, X. F. Qin, and K. M. Wang, “Optical properties of a single mode planar waveguide in Nd:YVO4 fabricated by multienergy He ion implantation,” Appl. Opt. 50(21), 3865–3870 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Chen, X. L. Wang, and K. M. Wang, “Development of ion-implanted optical waveguides in optical materials: a review,” Opt. Mater. 29(11), 1523–1542 (2007).
[CrossRef]

F. Chen, L. Wang, Y. Jiang, X. L. Wang, K. M. Wang, G. Fu, Q.-M. Lu, C. E. Rüter, and D. Kip, “Optical channel waveguides in Nd:YVO4 crystal produced by O+ ion implantation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(7), 071123 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wang, L.

F. Chen, L. Wang, Y. Jiang, X. L. Wang, K. M. Wang, G. Fu, Q.-M. Lu, C. E. Rüter, and D. Kip, “Optical channel waveguides in Nd:YVO4 crystal produced by O+ ion implantation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(7), 071123 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wang, X. L.

F. Chen, X. L. Wang, and K. M. Wang, “Development of ion-implanted optical waveguides in optical materials: a review,” Opt. Mater. 29(11), 1523–1542 (2007).
[CrossRef]

F. Chen, L. Wang, Y. Jiang, X. L. Wang, K. M. Wang, G. Fu, Q.-M. Lu, C. E. Rüter, and D. Kip, “Optical channel waveguides in Nd:YVO4 crystal produced by O+ ion implantation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(7), 071123 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wilkinson, J. S.

A. Benayas, D. Jaque, S. J. Hettrick, J. S. Wilkinson, and D. P. Shepherd, “Investigation of neodymium-diffused yttrium vanadate waveguides by confocal microluminescence,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(10), 103104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Hettrick, J. S. Wilkinson, and D. P. Shepherd, “Neodymium and gadolinium diffusion in yttrium vanadate,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19(1), 33 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yang, P. K.

P. K. Yang and J. Y. Huang, “An inexpensive diode-pumped mode-locked Nd:YVO4 laser for nonlinear optical microscopy,” Opt. Commun. 173(1-6), 315–321 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, S. M.

Zhao, J. H.

Zhou, S.

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. B

J. Siebenmorgen, K. Petermann, G. Huber, K. Rademaker, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Femtosecond laser written stress-induced Nd:Y3Al5O12 (Nd:YAG) channel waveguide laser,” Appl. Phys. B 97(2), 251–255 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Sánchez-Morales, G. V. Vázquez, E. B. Mejía, H. Márquez, J. Rickards, and R. Trejo-Luna, “Laser emission in Nd:YVO4 channel waveguides at 1064 nm,” Appl. Phys. B 94(2), 215–219 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Kip, “Photorefractive waveguides in oxide crystals: fabrication, properties, and applications,” Appl. Phys. B 67(2), 131–150 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. Calmano, J. Siebenmorgen, O. Hellmig, K. Petermann, and G. Huber, “Nd:YAG waveguide laser with 1.3 W output power, fabricated by direct femtosecond laser writing,” Appl. Phys. B 100(1), 131–135 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

F. Chen, L. Wang, Y. Jiang, X. L. Wang, K. M. Wang, G. Fu, Q.-M. Lu, C. E. Rüter, and D. Kip, “Optical channel waveguides in Nd:YVO4 crystal produced by O+ ion implantation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(7), 071123 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. A. Torchia, A. Rodenas, A. Benayas, E. Cantelar, L. Roso, and D. Jaque, “Highly efficient laser action in femtosecond-written Nd:yttrium aluminum garnet ceramic waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(11), 111103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Tan, F. Chen, J. R. Vázquez de Aldana, G. A. Torchia, A. Benayas, and D. Jaque, “Continuous wave laser generation at 1064 nm in femtosecond laser inscribed Nd:YVO4 channel waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(3), 031119 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Olivares, G. García, A. García-Navarro, F. Agulló-López, O. Caballero, and A. García-Cabañes, “Generation of high-confinement step-like optical waveguides in LiNbO3 by swift heavy ion-beam irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(18), 183501 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Crit. Rev. Solid State Mater. Sci.

F. Chen, “Construction of two-dimensional waveguides in insulating optical materials by means of ion beam implantation for photonic applications: fabrication methods and research progress,” Crit. Rev. Solid State Mater. Sci. 33(3-4), 165–182 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

J. I. Mackenzie, “Dielectric Solid-State Planar Waveguide Lasers: A Review,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(3), 626–637 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

P. Kumar, S. Moorthy Babu, S. Ganesamoorthy, A. K. Karnal, and D. Kanjilal, “Influence of swift ions and proton implantation on the formation of optical waveguides in lithium niobate,” J. Appl. Phys. 102(8), 084905 (2007).
[CrossRef]

F. Chen, “Photonic guiding structures in lithium niobate crystals produced by energetic ion beams,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(8), 081101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Benayas, D. Jaque, S. J. Hettrick, J. S. Wilkinson, and D. P. Shepherd, “Investigation of neodymium-diffused yttrium vanadate waveguides by confocal microluminescence,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(10), 103104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Nuclear Instrum. Methods Phy. Res. Sect. B Beam Interactions Mater. Atoms

A. Rivera, M. L. Crespillo, J. Olivares, G. García, and F. Agulló-López, “Effect of defect accumulation on ion-beam damage morphology by electronic excitation in lithium niobate: a MonteCarlo approach,” Nuclear Instrum. Methods Phy. Res. Sect. B Beam Interactions Mater. Atoms 268(13), 2249–2256 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. García-Navarro, J. Olivares, G. García, F. Agulló-López, S. García-Blanco, C. Merchant, and J. Stewart Aitchison, “Fabrication of optical waveguides in KGW by swift heavy ion beam irradiation,” Nuclear Instrum. Methods Phy. Res. Sect. B Beam Interactions Mater. Atoms 249(1-2), 177–180 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

P. K. Yang and J. Y. Huang, “An inexpensive diode-pumped mode-locked Nd:YVO4 laser for nonlinear optical microscopy,” Opt. Commun. 173(1-6), 315–321 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Opt. Mater.

F. Chen, X. L. Wang, and K. M. Wang, “Development of ion-implanted optical waveguides in optical materials: a review,” Opt. Mater. 29(11), 1523–1542 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Sánchez-Morales, G. V. Vázquez, P. Moretti, and H. Márquez, “Optical waveguides in Nd:YVO4 crystals by multi-implants with protons and helium ions,” Opt. Mater. 29(7), 840–844 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Prog. Quantum Electron.

Ch. Grivas, “Optically pumped planar waveguide lasers, Part I: Fundamentals and fabrication techniques,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 35(6), 159–239 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Other

A. A. Kaminskii, Laser Crystals: Their Physics and Properties (Springer, New York, 1990).

E. J. Murphy, Integrated optical circuits and components: Design and applications (Marcel Dekker, New York, 1999).

J. F. Ziegler, computer code at “SRIM & TRIM,” http://www.srim.org .

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

The electronic (dashed line) and nuclear stopping power (solid line) curves of 180 MeV Ar ions in Nd:YVO4 crystal as functions of penetration depth from the irradiated sample surface.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) The microscope image of the end-face of the 180 MeV Ar ion irradiated Nd:YVO4 sample, and (b) the near-field modal profile through end-face coupling system, captured by a CCD camera. White dashed line indicates the boundary of the sample surface and the air. The waveguide mode is TM2.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Typical luminescence spectrum of Nd:YVO4 crystal, (b) 1D spatial scan of the emitted intensity, (c) spectral shift, and (d) spectral broadening of the hyper-sensitive 913.6 nm Nd3+ emission line.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Laser emission spectrum (cw) from the 180 MeV Ar ion irradiated Nd:YVO4 planar waveguide (inset shows the near-field modal profile at TM polarization) and (b) the dependence curve of the output laser power as a function of absorbed pump power.

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