Abstract

Geometrical parameters of micro-resonator for a quartz enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy sensor are optimized to perform sensitive and background-free spectroscopic measurements using mid-IR quantum cascade laser (QCL) excitation sources. Such an optimized configuration is applied to nitric oxide (NO) detection at 1900.08 cm−1 (5.26 µm) with a widely tunable, mode-hop-free external cavity QCL. For a selected NO absorption line that is free from H2O and CO2 interference, a NO detection sensitivity of 4.9 parts per billion by volume is achieved with a 1-s averaging time and 66 mW optical excitation power. This NO detection limit is determined at an optimal gas pressure of 210 Torr and 2.5% of water vapor concentration. Water is added to the analyzed mixture in order to improve the NO vibrational-translational relaxation process.

© 2011 OSA

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2011

M. R. McCurdy, A. Sharafkhaneh, H. Abdel-Monem, J. Rojo, and F. K. Tittel, “Exhaled nitric oxide parameters and functional capacity in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease,” J Breath Res 5(1), 016003 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Dong, A. A. Kosterev, D. Thomazy, and F. K. Tittel, “Compact portable QEPAS multi-gas sensor,” Proc. SPIE 7945, 50Q–1 (2011).

2010

A. A. Kosterev, L. Dong, D. Thomazy, F. K. Tittel, and S. Overby, “QEPAS for chemical analysis of multi-component gas mixtures,” Appl. Phys. B 101(3), 649–659 (2010).
[CrossRef]

V. Spagnolo, A. A. Kosterev, L. Dong, R. Lewicki, and F. K. Tittel, “NO trace gas sensor based on quartz enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy and external cavity quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. B 100(1), 125–130 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Bauer, U. Willer, and W. Schade, “Use of quantum cascade laser for detection of explosives: progress and challenges,” Opt. Eng. 49(11), 111126 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. H. Risby, “Current status of mid-infrared quantum and interband cascade lasers for clinical breath analysis,” Opt. Eng. 49(11), 111123 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. Dong, A. A. Kosterev, D. Thomazy, and F. K. Tittel, “QEPAS spectrophones: design, optimization, and performance,” Appl. Phys. B 100(3), 627–635 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Gray, A. Liu, F. Xie, and C. E. Zah, “Detection of nitric oxide in air with a 5.2 μm distributed-feedback quantum cascade laser using quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy,” Opt. Express 18(22), 23353–23357 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

A. A. Kosterev, Y. A. Bakhirkin, F. K. Tittel, S. Mcwhorter, and B. Ashcraft, “QEPAS methane sensor performance for humidified gases,” Appl. Phys. B 92(1), 103–109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

R. Lewicki, G. Wysocki, A. A. Kosterev, and F. K. Tittel, “Carbon dioxide and ammonia detection using 2μm diode laser based quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 87(1), 157–162 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005

A. A. Kosterev, F. K. Tittel, D. V. Serebryakov, A. L. Malinovsky, and I. V. Morozov, “Applications of quartz tuning forks in spectroscopic gas sensing,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76(4), 043105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, C. D. Brenner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaudi, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN Molecular Spectroscopic Database: Edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 82(1-4), 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

2000

R. D. Grober, J. Acimovic, J. Schuck, D. Hessman, P. J. Kindlemann, J. Hespanha, and A. S. Morse, “Fundamental limits to force detection using quartz tuning forks,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71(7), 2776–2780 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Abdel-Monem, H.

M. R. McCurdy, A. Sharafkhaneh, H. Abdel-Monem, J. Rojo, and F. K. Tittel, “Exhaled nitric oxide parameters and functional capacity in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease,” J Breath Res 5(1), 016003 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Acimovic, J.

R. D. Grober, J. Acimovic, J. Schuck, D. Hessman, P. J. Kindlemann, J. Hespanha, and A. S. Morse, “Fundamental limits to force detection using quartz tuning forks,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71(7), 2776–2780 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ashcraft, B.

A. A. Kosterev, Y. A. Bakhirkin, F. K. Tittel, S. Mcwhorter, and B. Ashcraft, “QEPAS methane sensor performance for humidified gases,” Appl. Phys. B 92(1), 103–109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bakhirkin, Y. A.

A. A. Kosterev, Y. A. Bakhirkin, F. K. Tittel, S. Mcwhorter, and B. Ashcraft, “QEPAS methane sensor performance for humidified gases,” Appl. Phys. B 92(1), 103–109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Kosterev, Y. A. Bakhirkin, R. F. Curl, and F. K. Tittel, “Quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 27(21), 1902–1904 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barbe, A.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, C. D. Brenner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaudi, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN Molecular Spectroscopic Database: Edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 82(1-4), 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bauer, C.

C. Bauer, U. Willer, and W. Schade, “Use of quantum cascade laser for detection of explosives: progress and challenges,” Opt. Eng. 49(11), 111126 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Brenner, C. D.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, C. D. Brenner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaudi, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN Molecular Spectroscopic Database: Edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 82(1-4), 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Brown, L. R.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, C. D. Brenner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaudi, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN Molecular Spectroscopic Database: Edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 82(1-4), 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Camy-Peyret, C.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, C. D. Brenner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaudi, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN Molecular Spectroscopic Database: Edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 82(1-4), 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Carleer, M. R.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, C. D. Brenner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaudi, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN Molecular Spectroscopic Database: Edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 82(1-4), 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chance, K.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, C. D. Brenner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaudi, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN Molecular Spectroscopic Database: Edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 82(1-4), 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Clerbaux, C.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, C. D. Brenner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaudi, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN Molecular Spectroscopic Database: Edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 82(1-4), 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Curl, R. F.

Dana, V.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, C. D. Brenner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaudi, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN Molecular Spectroscopic Database: Edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 82(1-4), 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Devi, V. M.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, C. D. Brenner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaudi, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN Molecular Spectroscopic Database: Edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 82(1-4), 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Dong, L.

L. Dong, A. A. Kosterev, D. Thomazy, and F. K. Tittel, “Compact portable QEPAS multi-gas sensor,” Proc. SPIE 7945, 50Q–1 (2011).

A. A. Kosterev, L. Dong, D. Thomazy, F. K. Tittel, and S. Overby, “QEPAS for chemical analysis of multi-component gas mixtures,” Appl. Phys. B 101(3), 649–659 (2010).
[CrossRef]

V. Spagnolo, A. A. Kosterev, L. Dong, R. Lewicki, and F. K. Tittel, “NO trace gas sensor based on quartz enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy and external cavity quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. B 100(1), 125–130 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. Dong, A. A. Kosterev, D. Thomazy, and F. K. Tittel, “QEPAS spectrophones: design, optimization, and performance,” Appl. Phys. B 100(3), 627–635 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Fayt, A.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, C. D. Brenner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaudi, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN Molecular Spectroscopic Database: Edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 82(1-4), 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Flaudi, J. M.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, C. D. Brenner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaudi, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN Molecular Spectroscopic Database: Edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 82(1-4), 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gamache, R. R.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, C. D. Brenner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaudi, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN Molecular Spectroscopic Database: Edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 82(1-4), 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Goldman, A.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, C. D. Brenner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaudi, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN Molecular Spectroscopic Database: Edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 82(1-4), 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gray, S.

Grober, R. D.

R. D. Grober, J. Acimovic, J. Schuck, D. Hessman, P. J. Kindlemann, J. Hespanha, and A. S. Morse, “Fundamental limits to force detection using quartz tuning forks,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71(7), 2776–2780 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hespanha, J.

R. D. Grober, J. Acimovic, J. Schuck, D. Hessman, P. J. Kindlemann, J. Hespanha, and A. S. Morse, “Fundamental limits to force detection using quartz tuning forks,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71(7), 2776–2780 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hessman, D.

R. D. Grober, J. Acimovic, J. Schuck, D. Hessman, P. J. Kindlemann, J. Hespanha, and A. S. Morse, “Fundamental limits to force detection using quartz tuning forks,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71(7), 2776–2780 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Jacquemart, D.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, C. D. Brenner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaudi, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN Molecular Spectroscopic Database: Edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 82(1-4), 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jucks, K. W.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, C. D. Brenner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaudi, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN Molecular Spectroscopic Database: Edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 82(1-4), 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kindlemann, P. J.

R. D. Grober, J. Acimovic, J. Schuck, D. Hessman, P. J. Kindlemann, J. Hespanha, and A. S. Morse, “Fundamental limits to force detection using quartz tuning forks,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71(7), 2776–2780 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kosterev, A. A.

L. Dong, A. A. Kosterev, D. Thomazy, and F. K. Tittel, “Compact portable QEPAS multi-gas sensor,” Proc. SPIE 7945, 50Q–1 (2011).

A. A. Kosterev, L. Dong, D. Thomazy, F. K. Tittel, and S. Overby, “QEPAS for chemical analysis of multi-component gas mixtures,” Appl. Phys. B 101(3), 649–659 (2010).
[CrossRef]

V. Spagnolo, A. A. Kosterev, L. Dong, R. Lewicki, and F. K. Tittel, “NO trace gas sensor based on quartz enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy and external cavity quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. B 100(1), 125–130 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. Dong, A. A. Kosterev, D. Thomazy, and F. K. Tittel, “QEPAS spectrophones: design, optimization, and performance,” Appl. Phys. B 100(3), 627–635 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Kosterev, Y. A. Bakhirkin, F. K. Tittel, S. Mcwhorter, and B. Ashcraft, “QEPAS methane sensor performance for humidified gases,” Appl. Phys. B 92(1), 103–109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Lewicki, G. Wysocki, A. A. Kosterev, and F. K. Tittel, “Carbon dioxide and ammonia detection using 2μm diode laser based quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 87(1), 157–162 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Kosterev, F. K. Tittel, D. V. Serebryakov, A. L. Malinovsky, and I. V. Morozov, “Applications of quartz tuning forks in spectroscopic gas sensing,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76(4), 043105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Kosterev, Y. A. Bakhirkin, R. F. Curl, and F. K. Tittel, “Quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 27(21), 1902–1904 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lafferty, W. J.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, C. D. Brenner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaudi, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN Molecular Spectroscopic Database: Edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 82(1-4), 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lewicki, R.

V. Spagnolo, A. A. Kosterev, L. Dong, R. Lewicki, and F. K. Tittel, “NO trace gas sensor based on quartz enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy and external cavity quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. B 100(1), 125–130 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. Lewicki, G. Wysocki, A. A. Kosterev, and F. K. Tittel, “Carbon dioxide and ammonia detection using 2μm diode laser based quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 87(1), 157–162 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Liu, A.

Malinovsky, A. L.

A. A. Kosterev, F. K. Tittel, D. V. Serebryakov, A. L. Malinovsky, and I. V. Morozov, “Applications of quartz tuning forks in spectroscopic gas sensing,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76(4), 043105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mandin, J. Y.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, C. D. Brenner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaudi, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN Molecular Spectroscopic Database: Edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 82(1-4), 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Massie, S. T.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, C. D. Brenner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaudi, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN Molecular Spectroscopic Database: Edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 82(1-4), 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

McCurdy, M. R.

M. R. McCurdy, A. Sharafkhaneh, H. Abdel-Monem, J. Rojo, and F. K. Tittel, “Exhaled nitric oxide parameters and functional capacity in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease,” J Breath Res 5(1), 016003 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mcwhorter, S.

A. A. Kosterev, Y. A. Bakhirkin, F. K. Tittel, S. Mcwhorter, and B. Ashcraft, “QEPAS methane sensor performance for humidified gases,” Appl. Phys. B 92(1), 103–109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Morozov, I. V.

A. A. Kosterev, F. K. Tittel, D. V. Serebryakov, A. L. Malinovsky, and I. V. Morozov, “Applications of quartz tuning forks in spectroscopic gas sensing,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76(4), 043105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Morse, A. S.

R. D. Grober, J. Acimovic, J. Schuck, D. Hessman, P. J. Kindlemann, J. Hespanha, and A. S. Morse, “Fundamental limits to force detection using quartz tuning forks,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71(7), 2776–2780 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Nemtchinov, V.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, C. D. Brenner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaudi, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN Molecular Spectroscopic Database: Edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 82(1-4), 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Newnham, D. A.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, C. D. Brenner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaudi, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN Molecular Spectroscopic Database: Edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 82(1-4), 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Overby, S.

A. A. Kosterev, L. Dong, D. Thomazy, F. K. Tittel, and S. Overby, “QEPAS for chemical analysis of multi-component gas mixtures,” Appl. Phys. B 101(3), 649–659 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Perrin, A.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, C. D. Brenner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaudi, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN Molecular Spectroscopic Database: Edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 82(1-4), 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rinsland, C. P.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, C. D. Brenner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaudi, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN Molecular Spectroscopic Database: Edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 82(1-4), 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Risby, T. H.

T. H. Risby, “Current status of mid-infrared quantum and interband cascade lasers for clinical breath analysis,” Opt. Eng. 49(11), 111123 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Rojo, J.

M. R. McCurdy, A. Sharafkhaneh, H. Abdel-Monem, J. Rojo, and F. K. Tittel, “Exhaled nitric oxide parameters and functional capacity in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease,” J Breath Res 5(1), 016003 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rothman, L. S.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, C. D. Brenner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaudi, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN Molecular Spectroscopic Database: Edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 82(1-4), 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Schade, W.

C. Bauer, U. Willer, and W. Schade, “Use of quantum cascade laser for detection of explosives: progress and challenges,” Opt. Eng. 49(11), 111126 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Schroeder, J.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, C. D. Brenner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaudi, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN Molecular Spectroscopic Database: Edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 82(1-4), 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Schuck, J.

R. D. Grober, J. Acimovic, J. Schuck, D. Hessman, P. J. Kindlemann, J. Hespanha, and A. S. Morse, “Fundamental limits to force detection using quartz tuning forks,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71(7), 2776–2780 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Serebryakov, D. V.

A. A. Kosterev, F. K. Tittel, D. V. Serebryakov, A. L. Malinovsky, and I. V. Morozov, “Applications of quartz tuning forks in spectroscopic gas sensing,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76(4), 043105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sharafkhaneh, A.

M. R. McCurdy, A. Sharafkhaneh, H. Abdel-Monem, J. Rojo, and F. K. Tittel, “Exhaled nitric oxide parameters and functional capacity in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease,” J Breath Res 5(1), 016003 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smith, K. M.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, C. D. Brenner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaudi, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN Molecular Spectroscopic Database: Edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 82(1-4), 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Smith, M. A. H.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, C. D. Brenner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaudi, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN Molecular Spectroscopic Database: Edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 82(1-4), 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Spagnolo, V.

V. Spagnolo, A. A. Kosterev, L. Dong, R. Lewicki, and F. K. Tittel, “NO trace gas sensor based on quartz enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy and external cavity quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. B 100(1), 125–130 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tang, K.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, C. D. Brenner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaudi, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN Molecular Spectroscopic Database: Edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 82(1-4), 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Thomazy, D.

L. Dong, A. A. Kosterev, D. Thomazy, and F. K. Tittel, “Compact portable QEPAS multi-gas sensor,” Proc. SPIE 7945, 50Q–1 (2011).

A. A. Kosterev, L. Dong, D. Thomazy, F. K. Tittel, and S. Overby, “QEPAS for chemical analysis of multi-component gas mixtures,” Appl. Phys. B 101(3), 649–659 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. Dong, A. A. Kosterev, D. Thomazy, and F. K. Tittel, “QEPAS spectrophones: design, optimization, and performance,” Appl. Phys. B 100(3), 627–635 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tittel, F. K.

M. R. McCurdy, A. Sharafkhaneh, H. Abdel-Monem, J. Rojo, and F. K. Tittel, “Exhaled nitric oxide parameters and functional capacity in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease,” J Breath Res 5(1), 016003 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Dong, A. A. Kosterev, D. Thomazy, and F. K. Tittel, “Compact portable QEPAS multi-gas sensor,” Proc. SPIE 7945, 50Q–1 (2011).

A. A. Kosterev, L. Dong, D. Thomazy, F. K. Tittel, and S. Overby, “QEPAS for chemical analysis of multi-component gas mixtures,” Appl. Phys. B 101(3), 649–659 (2010).
[CrossRef]

V. Spagnolo, A. A. Kosterev, L. Dong, R. Lewicki, and F. K. Tittel, “NO trace gas sensor based on quartz enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy and external cavity quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. B 100(1), 125–130 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. Dong, A. A. Kosterev, D. Thomazy, and F. K. Tittel, “QEPAS spectrophones: design, optimization, and performance,” Appl. Phys. B 100(3), 627–635 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Kosterev, Y. A. Bakhirkin, F. K. Tittel, S. Mcwhorter, and B. Ashcraft, “QEPAS methane sensor performance for humidified gases,” Appl. Phys. B 92(1), 103–109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Lewicki, G. Wysocki, A. A. Kosterev, and F. K. Tittel, “Carbon dioxide and ammonia detection using 2μm diode laser based quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 87(1), 157–162 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Kosterev, F. K. Tittel, D. V. Serebryakov, A. L. Malinovsky, and I. V. Morozov, “Applications of quartz tuning forks in spectroscopic gas sensing,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76(4), 043105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Kosterev, Y. A. Bakhirkin, R. F. Curl, and F. K. Tittel, “Quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 27(21), 1902–1904 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Toth, R. A.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, C. D. Brenner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaudi, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN Molecular Spectroscopic Database: Edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 82(1-4), 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Vander Auwera, J.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, C. D. Brenner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaudi, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN Molecular Spectroscopic Database: Edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 82(1-4), 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Varanasi, P.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, C. D. Brenner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaudi, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN Molecular Spectroscopic Database: Edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 82(1-4), 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Willer, U.

C. Bauer, U. Willer, and W. Schade, “Use of quantum cascade laser for detection of explosives: progress and challenges,” Opt. Eng. 49(11), 111126 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wysocki, G.

R. Lewicki, G. Wysocki, A. A. Kosterev, and F. K. Tittel, “Carbon dioxide and ammonia detection using 2μm diode laser based quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 87(1), 157–162 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Xie, F.

Yoshino, K.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, C. D. Brenner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaudi, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN Molecular Spectroscopic Database: Edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 82(1-4), 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zah, C. E.

Appl. Phys. B

R. Lewicki, G. Wysocki, A. A. Kosterev, and F. K. Tittel, “Carbon dioxide and ammonia detection using 2μm diode laser based quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 87(1), 157–162 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Dong, A. A. Kosterev, D. Thomazy, and F. K. Tittel, “QEPAS spectrophones: design, optimization, and performance,” Appl. Phys. B 100(3), 627–635 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Kosterev, L. Dong, D. Thomazy, F. K. Tittel, and S. Overby, “QEPAS for chemical analysis of multi-component gas mixtures,” Appl. Phys. B 101(3), 649–659 (2010).
[CrossRef]

V. Spagnolo, A. A. Kosterev, L. Dong, R. Lewicki, and F. K. Tittel, “NO trace gas sensor based on quartz enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy and external cavity quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. B 100(1), 125–130 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Kosterev, Y. A. Bakhirkin, F. K. Tittel, S. Mcwhorter, and B. Ashcraft, “QEPAS methane sensor performance for humidified gases,” Appl. Phys. B 92(1), 103–109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J Breath Res

M. R. McCurdy, A. Sharafkhaneh, H. Abdel-Monem, J. Rojo, and F. K. Tittel, “Exhaled nitric oxide parameters and functional capacity in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease,” J Breath Res 5(1), 016003 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, C. D. Brenner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaudi, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN Molecular Spectroscopic Database: Edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 82(1-4), 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng.

C. Bauer, U. Willer, and W. Schade, “Use of quantum cascade laser for detection of explosives: progress and challenges,” Opt. Eng. 49(11), 111126 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. H. Risby, “Current status of mid-infrared quantum and interband cascade lasers for clinical breath analysis,” Opt. Eng. 49(11), 111123 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Proc. SPIE

L. Dong, A. A. Kosterev, D. Thomazy, and F. K. Tittel, “Compact portable QEPAS multi-gas sensor,” Proc. SPIE 7945, 50Q–1 (2011).

Rev. Sci. Instrum.

R. D. Grober, J. Acimovic, J. Schuck, D. Hessman, P. J. Kindlemann, J. Hespanha, and A. S. Morse, “Fundamental limits to force detection using quartz tuning forks,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71(7), 2776–2780 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Kosterev, F. K. Tittel, D. V. Serebryakov, A. L. Malinovsky, and I. V. Morozov, “Applications of quartz tuning forks in spectroscopic gas sensing,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76(4), 043105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Other

R. Sarmiento, I. E. Santosa, S. T. Persijn, L. J. J. Laarhoven, and F. J. M. Harren, “Trace nitric oxide detection using CO-laser photoacoustic spectroscopy,” in Proceedings Forum Acusticum 2005, p.L139, Budapest (2005).

J. H. Seinfeld and S. N. Pandis, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics: from Air Pollution to Climate Change (Wiley, New York, 1998).

T. L. Cottrell and J. C. McCoubrey, Molecular Energy Transfer In Gases (Butterworths, London, 1961).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Signal-to-noise ratio as a function of pressure for mR tubes.of different inner and out diameters; l-length of each mR tube; ID, OD-inner and outer diameter of the mR tube. The data for a bare QTF are shown as a reference.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic of an EC-QCL based NO sensor system.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

QEPAS spectra of the NO absorption doublet at 1900.08 cm−1. The QEPAS signal is recorded in terms of internal CEU units, where 1cnt = 6.67 × 10−16A.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) QEPAS signal corresponding to the peak NO absorption at 1900.08 cm−1 for 8 different gas pressures as a function of laser current modulation depth. All measurements were carried out with a 10-ppmv NO in a N2 mixture containing a 2.5% water concentration; (b) normalized QEPAS signal and SNR as a function of gas mixture pressure.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

QEPAS signal of NO as a function of added water concentration. Total gas pressure is 210 Torr . 1cnt = 6.67 × 10−16A

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) (b) QEPAS signal is repetitively recorded in locked mode as the NO concentration is varied. (c) Same data averaged and plotted as a function of the NO concentration based on the calibration of the gas dilution system. 1cnt = 6.67 × 10−16A

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Optimal parameters of mR tubes for QCL based QEPAS sensor at different pressures

Equations (3)

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V rms 2 = R g 4 k B T R Δf ,
R= 1 Q L C ,
S= S 0 1 1+ tan 2 θ ,tanθ=ωτ( C tr / C 0 ),

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