Abstract

We determine the absolute frequencies of 56 rotation-vibration transitions of the ν3 band of CH4 from 88.2 to 90.5 THz with a typical uncertainty of 2 kHz corresponding to a relative uncertainty of 2.2 × 10−11 over an average time of a few hundred seconds. Saturated absorption lines are observed using a difference-frequency-generation source and a cavity-enhanced absorption cell, and the transition frequencies are measured with a fiber-laser-based optical frequency comb referenced to a rubidium atomic clock linked to the international atomic time. The determined value of the P(7) F2(2) line is consistent with the International Committee for Weights and Measures recommendation within the uncertainty.

© 2011 OSA

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2011 (2)

S. Okubo, H. Nakayama, and H. Sasada, “Hyperfine-resolved 3.4-μm spectroscopy of CH3I with a widely tunable frequency generation source and a cavity-enhanced cell: A case study of a local Coriolis interaction between the v1 = 1 and (v2, v6l) = (1, 22) states,” Phys. Rev. A 83(1), 012505 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Pinkert, D. Z. Kandula, C. Gohle, I. Barmes, J. Morgenweg, and K. S. E. Eikema, “Widely tunable extreme UV frequency comb generation,” Opt. Lett. 36(11), 2026–2028 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (3)

P. Maddaloni, P. Malara, E. De Tommasi, M. De Rosa, I. Ricciardi, G. Gagliardi, F. Tamassia, G. Di Lonardo, and P. De Natale, “Absolute measurement of the S(0) and S(1) lines in the electric quadrupole fundamental band of D2 around 3μm,” J. Chem. Phys. 133(15), 154317 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Giusfredi, S. Bartalini, S. Borri, P. Cancio, I. Galli, D. Mazzotti, and P. De Natale, “Saturated-absorption cavity ring-down spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(11), 110801 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Darquié, C. Stoeffler, A. Shelkovnikov, C. Daussy, A. Amy-Klein, C. Chardonnet, S. Zrig, L. Guy, J. Crassous, P. Soulard, P. Asselin, T. R. Huet, P. Schwerdtfeger, R. Bast, and T. Saue, “Progress toward the first observation of parity violation in chiral molecules by high-resolution laser spectroscopy,” Chirality 22(10), 870–884 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (3)

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashukun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Takahata, T. Kobayashi, H. Sasada, Y. Nakajima, H. Inaba, and F. L. Hong, “The absolute frequency measurement of sub-Doppler molecular lines using a 3.4-μm difference-frequency-generation spectrometer and a fiber-based frequency comb,” Phys. Rev. A 80(3), 032518 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Abe, K. Takahata, and H. Sasada, “Sub-Doppler resolution 3.4 microm spectrometer with an efficient difference-frequency-generation source,” Opt. Lett. 34(11), 1744–1746 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (5)

P. Malara, P. Maddaloni, G. Gagliardi, and P. De Natale, “Absolute measurement of molecular transitions by a direct link to a comb generated around 3 μm,” Opt. Express 16(11), 8242–8249 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Nakajima, H. Inaba, F. L. Hong, A. Onae, K. Minoshima, T. Kobayashi, M. Nakazawa, and H. Matsumoto, “Optimized amplification of femtosecond optical pulses by dispersion management for octave-spanning optical frequency comb generation,” Opt. Commun. 281(17), 4484–4487 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. Jacquinet-Husson, N. A. Scott, A. Chédin, L. Crépeau, R. Armante, V. Capelle, J. Orphal, A. Coustenis, C. Boonne, N. Poulet-Crovisier, A. Barbe, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, C. Claveau, K. Chance, N. Christidis, C. Clerbaux, P. F. Coheur, V. Dana, L. Daumont, M. R. De Backer-Barilly, G. Di Lonardo, J. M. Flaud, A. Goldman, A. Hamdouni, M. Hess, M. D. Hurley, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, P. Köpke, J. Y. Mandin, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, V. Nemtchinov, A. Nikitin, D. Newnham, A. Perrin, V. I. Perevalov, S. Pinnock, L. Régalia-Jarlot, C. P. Rinsland, A. Rublev, F. Schreier, L. Schult, K. M. Smith, S. A. Tashkun, J. L. Teffo, R. A. Toth, V. G. Tyuterev, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The GEISA spectroscopic database: Current and future archive for Earth and planetary atmosphere studies,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 109(6), 1043–1059 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. Casa, A. Castrillo, G. Galzerano, R. Wehr, A. Merlone, D. Di Serafino, P. Laporta, and L. Gianfrani, “Primary gas thermometry by means of laser-absorption spectroscopy: determination of the Boltzmann constant,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(20), 200801 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Quack, J. Stohner, and M. Willeke, “High-resolution spectroscopic studies and theory of parity violation in chiral molecules,” Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 59(1), 741–769 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

C. Daussy, M. Guinet, A. Amy-Klein, K. Djerroud, Y. Hermier, S. Briaudeau, ChJ. Bordé, and C. Chardonnet, “Direct determination of the Boltzmann constant by an optical method,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(25), 250801 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (4)

O. Tadanaga, T. Yanagawa, Y. Nishida, H. Miyazawa, K. Magari, M. Asobe, and H. Suzuki, “Efficient 3-μm difference frequency generation using direct-bonded quasi-phase-matched LiNbO3 ridge waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(6), 061101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Yasui, Y. Kabetani, E. Saneyoshi, S. Yokoyama, and T. Araki, “Terahertz frequency comb by multifrequency-heterodyning photoconductive detection for high-accuracy, high-resolution terahertz spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(24), 241104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Mazzotti, P. Cancio, A. Castrillo, I. Galli, G. Giusfredi, and P. De Natale, “A comb-referenced difference-frequency spectrometer for cavity ring-down spectroscopy in the 4.5 μm region,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 8(7), S490–S493 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Inaba, Y. Daimon, F. L. Hong, A. Onae, K. Minoshima, T. R. Schibli, H. Matsumoto, M. Hirano, T. Okuno, M. Onishi, and M. Nakazawa, “Long-term measurement of optical frequencies using a simple, robust and low-noise fiber based frequency comb,” Opt. Express 14(12), 5223–5231 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

2004 (2)

T. R. Schibli, K. Minoshima, F. L. Hong, H. Inaba, A. Onae, H. Matsumoto, I. Hartl, and M. E. Fermann, “Frequency metrology with a turnkey all-fiber system,” Opt. Lett. 29(21), 2467–2469 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Amy-Klein, H. Vigué, and C. Chardonnet, “Absolute frequency measurement of 12CO2 laser lines with a femtosecond laser comb and new determination of the 12CO2 molecular constants and frequency grid,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 228(1), 206–212 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

T. J. Quinn, “Practical realization of the definition of the metre, including recommended radiations of other optical frequency standards (2001),” Metrologia 40(2), 103–133 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

2000 (3)

J. T. Remillard, D. Uy, W. H. Weber, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, A. L. Hutchinson, D. Sivco, J. Baillargeon, and A. Y. Cho, “Sub-Doppler resolution limited Lamb-dip spectroscopy of NO with a quantum cascade distributed feedback laser,” Opt. Express 7(7), 243–248 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Féjard, J. P. Champion, J. M. Jouvard, L. R. Brown, and A. S. Pine, “The Intensities of Methane in the 3-5 μm Region Revisited,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 201, 83–94 (2000).

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science 288(5466), 635–639 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

C. Daussy, T. Marrel, A. Amy-Klein, C. T. Nguyen, C. J. Bordé, and C. Chardonnet, “Limit on the parity nonconserving energy difference between the enantiomers of a chiral molecule by laser spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83(8), 1554–1557 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

P. S. Ering, D. A. Tyurikov, G. Kramer, and B. Lipphardt, “Measurement of the absolute frequency of the methane E-line at 88 THz,” Opt. Commun. 151(4-6), 229–234 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

B. Meyer, S. Saupe, M. H. Wappelhorst, T. George, F. Kühnemann, M. Schneider, M. Havenith, W. Urban, and J. Legrand, “CO laser side-band spectrometer: Sub-Doppler heterodyne frequency measurements around 5 μm,” Appl. Phys. B 61, 169–173 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

T. George, W. Urban, and A. Le Floch, “Improved mass-independent Dunham parameters for the ground state of CO and calibration frequencies for the fundamental band,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 165(2), 500–505 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1992 (3)

A. G. Maki and J. S. Wells, “New wavenumber calibration tables from heterodyne frequency measurements,” J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 97, 409–470 (1992).

A. Pine, “Self-, N2, O2, H2, Ar, and He broadening in the ν3 band Q branch of CH4,” J. Chem. Phys. 97(2), 773–785 (1992).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Pursell and D. P. Weliky, “Pure rotational transitions in the v3 state of methane,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 153(1-2), 303–306 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

G. Magerl, J. M. Frey, W. A. Kreiner, and T. Oka, “Inverse Lamb dip spectroscopy using microwave modulation sidebands of CO2 laser lines,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 42(8), 656–658 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1976 (2)

J. L. Hall, C. J. Bordé, and K. Uehara, “Direct optical resolution of the recoil effect using saturated absorption spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 37(20), 1339–1342 (1976).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Hall and C. J. Bordé, “Shift and broadening of saturated absorption resonances due to curvature of the laser wave front,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 29(12), 788 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1975 (1)

E. V. Baklanov, B. Ya. Dubetskii, V. M. Semibalamut, and E. A. Titov, “Transit width of a nonlinear power resonance in low-pressure gases,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 5(11), 1374–1375 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1973 (3)

M. Takami, K. Uehara, and K. Shimoda, “Rotational transitions of CH4 in the v3 = 1 excited state observed by an infrared-microwave double resonance method,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 12(6), 924–925 (1973).
[CrossRef]

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R. L. Barger and J. L. Hall, “Pressure shift and broadening of methane line at 3.39 μ studied by laser-saturated molecular absorption,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 22(1), 4–8 (1969).
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Abe, M.

Amy-Klein, A.

B. Darquié, C. Stoeffler, A. Shelkovnikov, C. Daussy, A. Amy-Klein, C. Chardonnet, S. Zrig, L. Guy, J. Crassous, P. Soulard, P. Asselin, T. R. Huet, P. Schwerdtfeger, R. Bast, and T. Saue, “Progress toward the first observation of parity violation in chiral molecules by high-resolution laser spectroscopy,” Chirality 22(10), 870–884 (2010).
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C. Daussy, M. Guinet, A. Amy-Klein, K. Djerroud, Y. Hermier, S. Briaudeau, ChJ. Bordé, and C. Chardonnet, “Direct determination of the Boltzmann constant by an optical method,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(25), 250801 (2007).
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A. Amy-Klein, H. Vigué, and C. Chardonnet, “Absolute frequency measurement of 12CO2 laser lines with a femtosecond laser comb and new determination of the 12CO2 molecular constants and frequency grid,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 228(1), 206–212 (2004).
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C. Daussy, T. Marrel, A. Amy-Klein, C. T. Nguyen, C. J. Bordé, and C. Chardonnet, “Limit on the parity nonconserving energy difference between the enantiomers of a chiral molecule by laser spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83(8), 1554–1557 (1999).
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Araki, T.

T. Yasui, Y. Kabetani, E. Saneyoshi, S. Yokoyama, and T. Araki, “Terahertz frequency comb by multifrequency-heterodyning photoconductive detection for high-accuracy, high-resolution terahertz spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(24), 241104 (2006).
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Armante, R.

N. Jacquinet-Husson, N. A. Scott, A. Chédin, L. Crépeau, R. Armante, V. Capelle, J. Orphal, A. Coustenis, C. Boonne, N. Poulet-Crovisier, A. Barbe, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, C. Claveau, K. Chance, N. Christidis, C. Clerbaux, P. F. Coheur, V. Dana, L. Daumont, M. R. De Backer-Barilly, G. Di Lonardo, J. M. Flaud, A. Goldman, A. Hamdouni, M. Hess, M. D. Hurley, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, P. Köpke, J. Y. Mandin, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, V. Nemtchinov, A. Nikitin, D. Newnham, A. Perrin, V. I. Perevalov, S. Pinnock, L. Régalia-Jarlot, C. P. Rinsland, A. Rublev, F. Schreier, L. Schult, K. M. Smith, S. A. Tashkun, J. L. Teffo, R. A. Toth, V. G. Tyuterev, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The GEISA spectroscopic database: Current and future archive for Earth and planetary atmosphere studies,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 109(6), 1043–1059 (2008).
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Asobe, M.

O. Tadanaga, T. Yanagawa, Y. Nishida, H. Miyazawa, K. Magari, M. Asobe, and H. Suzuki, “Efficient 3-μm difference frequency generation using direct-bonded quasi-phase-matched LiNbO3 ridge waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(6), 061101 (2006).
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Asselin, P.

B. Darquié, C. Stoeffler, A. Shelkovnikov, C. Daussy, A. Amy-Klein, C. Chardonnet, S. Zrig, L. Guy, J. Crassous, P. Soulard, P. Asselin, T. R. Huet, P. Schwerdtfeger, R. Bast, and T. Saue, “Progress toward the first observation of parity violation in chiral molecules by high-resolution laser spectroscopy,” Chirality 22(10), 870–884 (2010).
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Baillargeon, J.

Baklanov, E. V.

E. V. Baklanov, B. Ya. Dubetskii, V. M. Semibalamut, and E. A. Titov, “Transit width of a nonlinear power resonance in low-pressure gases,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 5(11), 1374–1375 (1975).
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Barbe, A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashukun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
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N. Jacquinet-Husson, N. A. Scott, A. Chédin, L. Crépeau, R. Armante, V. Capelle, J. Orphal, A. Coustenis, C. Boonne, N. Poulet-Crovisier, A. Barbe, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, C. Claveau, K. Chance, N. Christidis, C. Clerbaux, P. F. Coheur, V. Dana, L. Daumont, M. R. De Backer-Barilly, G. Di Lonardo, J. M. Flaud, A. Goldman, A. Hamdouni, M. Hess, M. D. Hurley, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, P. Köpke, J. Y. Mandin, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, V. Nemtchinov, A. Nikitin, D. Newnham, A. Perrin, V. I. Perevalov, S. Pinnock, L. Régalia-Jarlot, C. P. Rinsland, A. Rublev, F. Schreier, L. Schult, K. M. Smith, S. A. Tashkun, J. L. Teffo, R. A. Toth, V. G. Tyuterev, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The GEISA spectroscopic database: Current and future archive for Earth and planetary atmosphere studies,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 109(6), 1043–1059 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Barger, R. L.

R. L. Barger and J. L. Hall, “Pressure shift and broadening of methane line at 3.39 μ studied by laser-saturated molecular absorption,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 22(1), 4–8 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Barmes, I.

Bartalini, S.

G. Giusfredi, S. Bartalini, S. Borri, P. Cancio, I. Galli, D. Mazzotti, and P. De Natale, “Saturated-absorption cavity ring-down spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(11), 110801 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bast, R.

B. Darquié, C. Stoeffler, A. Shelkovnikov, C. Daussy, A. Amy-Klein, C. Chardonnet, S. Zrig, L. Guy, J. Crassous, P. Soulard, P. Asselin, T. R. Huet, P. Schwerdtfeger, R. Bast, and T. Saue, “Progress toward the first observation of parity violation in chiral molecules by high-resolution laser spectroscopy,” Chirality 22(10), 870–884 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bernath, P. E.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashukun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Birk, M.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashukun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. Jacquinet-Husson, N. A. Scott, A. Chédin, L. Crépeau, R. Armante, V. Capelle, J. Orphal, A. Coustenis, C. Boonne, N. Poulet-Crovisier, A. Barbe, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, C. Claveau, K. Chance, N. Christidis, C. Clerbaux, P. F. Coheur, V. Dana, L. Daumont, M. R. De Backer-Barilly, G. Di Lonardo, J. M. Flaud, A. Goldman, A. Hamdouni, M. Hess, M. D. Hurley, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, P. Köpke, J. Y. Mandin, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, V. Nemtchinov, A. Nikitin, D. Newnham, A. Perrin, V. I. Perevalov, S. Pinnock, L. Régalia-Jarlot, C. P. Rinsland, A. Rublev, F. Schreier, L. Schult, K. M. Smith, S. A. Tashkun, J. L. Teffo, R. A. Toth, V. G. Tyuterev, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The GEISA spectroscopic database: Current and future archive for Earth and planetary atmosphere studies,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 109(6), 1043–1059 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Boonne, C.

N. Jacquinet-Husson, N. A. Scott, A. Chédin, L. Crépeau, R. Armante, V. Capelle, J. Orphal, A. Coustenis, C. Boonne, N. Poulet-Crovisier, A. Barbe, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, C. Claveau, K. Chance, N. Christidis, C. Clerbaux, P. F. Coheur, V. Dana, L. Daumont, M. R. De Backer-Barilly, G. Di Lonardo, J. M. Flaud, A. Goldman, A. Hamdouni, M. Hess, M. D. Hurley, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, P. Köpke, J. Y. Mandin, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, V. Nemtchinov, A. Nikitin, D. Newnham, A. Perrin, V. I. Perevalov, S. Pinnock, L. Régalia-Jarlot, C. P. Rinsland, A. Rublev, F. Schreier, L. Schult, K. M. Smith, S. A. Tashkun, J. L. Teffo, R. A. Toth, V. G. Tyuterev, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The GEISA spectroscopic database: Current and future archive for Earth and planetary atmosphere studies,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 109(6), 1043–1059 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bordé, C. J.

C. Daussy, T. Marrel, A. Amy-Klein, C. T. Nguyen, C. J. Bordé, and C. Chardonnet, “Limit on the parity nonconserving energy difference between the enantiomers of a chiral molecule by laser spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83(8), 1554–1557 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Hall, C. J. Bordé, and K. Uehara, “Direct optical resolution of the recoil effect using saturated absorption spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 37(20), 1339–1342 (1976).
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J. L. Hall and C. J. Bordé, “Shift and broadening of saturated absorption resonances due to curvature of the laser wave front,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 29(12), 788 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Bordé, ChJ.

C. Daussy, M. Guinet, A. Amy-Klein, K. Djerroud, Y. Hermier, S. Briaudeau, ChJ. Bordé, and C. Chardonnet, “Direct determination of the Boltzmann constant by an optical method,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(25), 250801 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Borri, S.

G. Giusfredi, S. Bartalini, S. Borri, P. Cancio, I. Galli, D. Mazzotti, and P. De Natale, “Saturated-absorption cavity ring-down spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(11), 110801 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boudon, V.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashukun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Braxmaier, C.

Briaudeau, S.

C. Daussy, M. Guinet, A. Amy-Klein, K. Djerroud, Y. Hermier, S. Briaudeau, ChJ. Bordé, and C. Chardonnet, “Direct determination of the Boltzmann constant by an optical method,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(25), 250801 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brown, L. R.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashukun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. Jacquinet-Husson, N. A. Scott, A. Chédin, L. Crépeau, R. Armante, V. Capelle, J. Orphal, A. Coustenis, C. Boonne, N. Poulet-Crovisier, A. Barbe, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, C. Claveau, K. Chance, N. Christidis, C. Clerbaux, P. F. Coheur, V. Dana, L. Daumont, M. R. De Backer-Barilly, G. Di Lonardo, J. M. Flaud, A. Goldman, A. Hamdouni, M. Hess, M. D. Hurley, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, P. Köpke, J. Y. Mandin, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, V. Nemtchinov, A. Nikitin, D. Newnham, A. Perrin, V. I. Perevalov, S. Pinnock, L. Régalia-Jarlot, C. P. Rinsland, A. Rublev, F. Schreier, L. Schult, K. M. Smith, S. A. Tashkun, J. L. Teffo, R. A. Toth, V. G. Tyuterev, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The GEISA spectroscopic database: Current and future archive for Earth and planetary atmosphere studies,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 109(6), 1043–1059 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Féjard, J. P. Champion, J. M. Jouvard, L. R. Brown, and A. S. Pine, “The Intensities of Methane in the 3-5 μm Region Revisited,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 201, 83–94 (2000).

Campargue, A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashukun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Camy-Peyret, C.

N. Jacquinet-Husson, N. A. Scott, A. Chédin, L. Crépeau, R. Armante, V. Capelle, J. Orphal, A. Coustenis, C. Boonne, N. Poulet-Crovisier, A. Barbe, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, C. Claveau, K. Chance, N. Christidis, C. Clerbaux, P. F. Coheur, V. Dana, L. Daumont, M. R. De Backer-Barilly, G. Di Lonardo, J. M. Flaud, A. Goldman, A. Hamdouni, M. Hess, M. D. Hurley, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, P. Köpke, J. Y. Mandin, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, V. Nemtchinov, A. Nikitin, D. Newnham, A. Perrin, V. I. Perevalov, S. Pinnock, L. Régalia-Jarlot, C. P. Rinsland, A. Rublev, F. Schreier, L. Schult, K. M. Smith, S. A. Tashkun, J. L. Teffo, R. A. Toth, V. G. Tyuterev, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The GEISA spectroscopic database: Current and future archive for Earth and planetary atmosphere studies,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 109(6), 1043–1059 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cancio, P.

G. Giusfredi, S. Bartalini, S. Borri, P. Cancio, I. Galli, D. Mazzotti, and P. De Natale, “Saturated-absorption cavity ring-down spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(11), 110801 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Mazzotti, P. Cancio, A. Castrillo, I. Galli, G. Giusfredi, and P. De Natale, “A comb-referenced difference-frequency spectrometer for cavity ring-down spectroscopy in the 4.5 μm region,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 8(7), S490–S493 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Mazzotti, P. Cancio, G. Giusfredi, P. De Natale, and M. Prevedelli, “Frequency-comb-based absolute frequency measurements in the mid-infrared with a difference-frequency spectrometer,” Opt. Lett. 30(9), 997–999 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Capasso, F.

Capelle, V.

N. Jacquinet-Husson, N. A. Scott, A. Chédin, L. Crépeau, R. Armante, V. Capelle, J. Orphal, A. Coustenis, C. Boonne, N. Poulet-Crovisier, A. Barbe, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, C. Claveau, K. Chance, N. Christidis, C. Clerbaux, P. F. Coheur, V. Dana, L. Daumont, M. R. De Backer-Barilly, G. Di Lonardo, J. M. Flaud, A. Goldman, A. Hamdouni, M. Hess, M. D. Hurley, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, P. Köpke, J. Y. Mandin, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, V. Nemtchinov, A. Nikitin, D. Newnham, A. Perrin, V. I. Perevalov, S. Pinnock, L. Régalia-Jarlot, C. P. Rinsland, A. Rublev, F. Schreier, L. Schult, K. M. Smith, S. A. Tashkun, J. L. Teffo, R. A. Toth, V. G. Tyuterev, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The GEISA spectroscopic database: Current and future archive for Earth and planetary atmosphere studies,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 109(6), 1043–1059 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Casa, G.

G. Casa, A. Castrillo, G. Galzerano, R. Wehr, A. Merlone, D. Di Serafino, P. Laporta, and L. Gianfrani, “Primary gas thermometry by means of laser-absorption spectroscopy: determination of the Boltzmann constant,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(20), 200801 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Castrillo, A.

G. Casa, A. Castrillo, G. Galzerano, R. Wehr, A. Merlone, D. Di Serafino, P. Laporta, and L. Gianfrani, “Primary gas thermometry by means of laser-absorption spectroscopy: determination of the Boltzmann constant,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(20), 200801 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Mazzotti, P. Cancio, A. Castrillo, I. Galli, G. Giusfredi, and P. De Natale, “A comb-referenced difference-frequency spectrometer for cavity ring-down spectroscopy in the 4.5 μm region,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 8(7), S490–S493 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Champion, J. P.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashukun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Féjard, J. P. Champion, J. M. Jouvard, L. R. Brown, and A. S. Pine, “The Intensities of Methane in the 3-5 μm Region Revisited,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 201, 83–94 (2000).

Chance, K.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashukun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. Jacquinet-Husson, N. A. Scott, A. Chédin, L. Crépeau, R. Armante, V. Capelle, J. Orphal, A. Coustenis, C. Boonne, N. Poulet-Crovisier, A. Barbe, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, C. Claveau, K. Chance, N. Christidis, C. Clerbaux, P. F. Coheur, V. Dana, L. Daumont, M. R. De Backer-Barilly, G. Di Lonardo, J. M. Flaud, A. Goldman, A. Hamdouni, M. Hess, M. D. Hurley, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, P. Köpke, J. Y. Mandin, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, V. Nemtchinov, A. Nikitin, D. Newnham, A. Perrin, V. I. Perevalov, S. Pinnock, L. Régalia-Jarlot, C. P. Rinsland, A. Rublev, F. Schreier, L. Schult, K. M. Smith, S. A. Tashkun, J. L. Teffo, R. A. Toth, V. G. Tyuterev, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The GEISA spectroscopic database: Current and future archive for Earth and planetary atmosphere studies,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 109(6), 1043–1059 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chardonnet, C.

B. Darquié, C. Stoeffler, A. Shelkovnikov, C. Daussy, A. Amy-Klein, C. Chardonnet, S. Zrig, L. Guy, J. Crassous, P. Soulard, P. Asselin, T. R. Huet, P. Schwerdtfeger, R. Bast, and T. Saue, “Progress toward the first observation of parity violation in chiral molecules by high-resolution laser spectroscopy,” Chirality 22(10), 870–884 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Daussy, M. Guinet, A. Amy-Klein, K. Djerroud, Y. Hermier, S. Briaudeau, ChJ. Bordé, and C. Chardonnet, “Direct determination of the Boltzmann constant by an optical method,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(25), 250801 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Amy-Klein, H. Vigué, and C. Chardonnet, “Absolute frequency measurement of 12CO2 laser lines with a femtosecond laser comb and new determination of the 12CO2 molecular constants and frequency grid,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 228(1), 206–212 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. Daussy, T. Marrel, A. Amy-Klein, C. T. Nguyen, C. J. Bordé, and C. Chardonnet, “Limit on the parity nonconserving energy difference between the enantiomers of a chiral molecule by laser spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83(8), 1554–1557 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chédin, A.

N. Jacquinet-Husson, N. A. Scott, A. Chédin, L. Crépeau, R. Armante, V. Capelle, J. Orphal, A. Coustenis, C. Boonne, N. Poulet-Crovisier, A. Barbe, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, C. Claveau, K. Chance, N. Christidis, C. Clerbaux, P. F. Coheur, V. Dana, L. Daumont, M. R. De Backer-Barilly, G. Di Lonardo, J. M. Flaud, A. Goldman, A. Hamdouni, M. Hess, M. D. Hurley, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, P. Köpke, J. Y. Mandin, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, V. Nemtchinov, A. Nikitin, D. Newnham, A. Perrin, V. I. Perevalov, S. Pinnock, L. Régalia-Jarlot, C. P. Rinsland, A. Rublev, F. Schreier, L. Schult, K. M. Smith, S. A. Tashkun, J. L. Teffo, R. A. Toth, V. G. Tyuterev, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The GEISA spectroscopic database: Current and future archive for Earth and planetary atmosphere studies,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 109(6), 1043–1059 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cho, A. Y.

Chris Benner, D.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashukun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Christidis, N.

N. Jacquinet-Husson, N. A. Scott, A. Chédin, L. Crépeau, R. Armante, V. Capelle, J. Orphal, A. Coustenis, C. Boonne, N. Poulet-Crovisier, A. Barbe, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, C. Claveau, K. Chance, N. Christidis, C. Clerbaux, P. F. Coheur, V. Dana, L. Daumont, M. R. De Backer-Barilly, G. Di Lonardo, J. M. Flaud, A. Goldman, A. Hamdouni, M. Hess, M. D. Hurley, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, P. Köpke, J. Y. Mandin, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, V. Nemtchinov, A. Nikitin, D. Newnham, A. Perrin, V. I. Perevalov, S. Pinnock, L. Régalia-Jarlot, C. P. Rinsland, A. Rublev, F. Schreier, L. Schult, K. M. Smith, S. A. Tashkun, J. L. Teffo, R. A. Toth, V. G. Tyuterev, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The GEISA spectroscopic database: Current and future archive for Earth and planetary atmosphere studies,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 109(6), 1043–1059 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Claveau, C.

N. Jacquinet-Husson, N. A. Scott, A. Chédin, L. Crépeau, R. Armante, V. Capelle, J. Orphal, A. Coustenis, C. Boonne, N. Poulet-Crovisier, A. Barbe, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, C. Claveau, K. Chance, N. Christidis, C. Clerbaux, P. F. Coheur, V. Dana, L. Daumont, M. R. De Backer-Barilly, G. Di Lonardo, J. M. Flaud, A. Goldman, A. Hamdouni, M. Hess, M. D. Hurley, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, P. Köpke, J. Y. Mandin, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, V. Nemtchinov, A. Nikitin, D. Newnham, A. Perrin, V. I. Perevalov, S. Pinnock, L. Régalia-Jarlot, C. P. Rinsland, A. Rublev, F. Schreier, L. Schult, K. M. Smith, S. A. Tashkun, J. L. Teffo, R. A. Toth, V. G. Tyuterev, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The GEISA spectroscopic database: Current and future archive for Earth and planetary atmosphere studies,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 109(6), 1043–1059 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Clerbaux, C.

N. Jacquinet-Husson, N. A. Scott, A. Chédin, L. Crépeau, R. Armante, V. Capelle, J. Orphal, A. Coustenis, C. Boonne, N. Poulet-Crovisier, A. Barbe, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, C. Claveau, K. Chance, N. Christidis, C. Clerbaux, P. F. Coheur, V. Dana, L. Daumont, M. R. De Backer-Barilly, G. Di Lonardo, J. M. Flaud, A. Goldman, A. Hamdouni, M. Hess, M. D. Hurley, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, P. Köpke, J. Y. Mandin, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, V. Nemtchinov, A. Nikitin, D. Newnham, A. Perrin, V. I. Perevalov, S. Pinnock, L. Régalia-Jarlot, C. P. Rinsland, A. Rublev, F. Schreier, L. Schult, K. M. Smith, S. A. Tashkun, J. L. Teffo, R. A. Toth, V. G. Tyuterev, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The GEISA spectroscopic database: Current and future archive for Earth and planetary atmosphere studies,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 109(6), 1043–1059 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Coheur, P. F.

N. Jacquinet-Husson, N. A. Scott, A. Chédin, L. Crépeau, R. Armante, V. Capelle, J. Orphal, A. Coustenis, C. Boonne, N. Poulet-Crovisier, A. Barbe, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, C. Claveau, K. Chance, N. Christidis, C. Clerbaux, P. F. Coheur, V. Dana, L. Daumont, M. R. De Backer-Barilly, G. Di Lonardo, J. M. Flaud, A. Goldman, A. Hamdouni, M. Hess, M. D. Hurley, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, P. Köpke, J. Y. Mandin, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, V. Nemtchinov, A. Nikitin, D. Newnham, A. Perrin, V. I. Perevalov, S. Pinnock, L. Régalia-Jarlot, C. P. Rinsland, A. Rublev, F. Schreier, L. Schult, K. M. Smith, S. A. Tashkun, J. L. Teffo, R. A. Toth, V. G. Tyuterev, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The GEISA spectroscopic database: Current and future archive for Earth and planetary atmosphere studies,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 109(6), 1043–1059 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Coudert, L. H.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashukun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Coustenis, A.

N. Jacquinet-Husson, N. A. Scott, A. Chédin, L. Crépeau, R. Armante, V. Capelle, J. Orphal, A. Coustenis, C. Boonne, N. Poulet-Crovisier, A. Barbe, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, C. Claveau, K. Chance, N. Christidis, C. Clerbaux, P. F. Coheur, V. Dana, L. Daumont, M. R. De Backer-Barilly, G. Di Lonardo, J. M. Flaud, A. Goldman, A. Hamdouni, M. Hess, M. D. Hurley, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, P. Köpke, J. Y. Mandin, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, V. Nemtchinov, A. Nikitin, D. Newnham, A. Perrin, V. I. Perevalov, S. Pinnock, L. Régalia-Jarlot, C. P. Rinsland, A. Rublev, F. Schreier, L. Schult, K. M. Smith, S. A. Tashkun, J. L. Teffo, R. A. Toth, V. G. Tyuterev, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The GEISA spectroscopic database: Current and future archive for Earth and planetary atmosphere studies,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 109(6), 1043–1059 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Crassous, J.

B. Darquié, C. Stoeffler, A. Shelkovnikov, C. Daussy, A. Amy-Klein, C. Chardonnet, S. Zrig, L. Guy, J. Crassous, P. Soulard, P. Asselin, T. R. Huet, P. Schwerdtfeger, R. Bast, and T. Saue, “Progress toward the first observation of parity violation in chiral molecules by high-resolution laser spectroscopy,” Chirality 22(10), 870–884 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Crépeau, L.

N. Jacquinet-Husson, N. A. Scott, A. Chédin, L. Crépeau, R. Armante, V. Capelle, J. Orphal, A. Coustenis, C. Boonne, N. Poulet-Crovisier, A. Barbe, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, C. Claveau, K. Chance, N. Christidis, C. Clerbaux, P. F. Coheur, V. Dana, L. Daumont, M. R. De Backer-Barilly, G. Di Lonardo, J. M. Flaud, A. Goldman, A. Hamdouni, M. Hess, M. D. Hurley, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, P. Köpke, J. Y. Mandin, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, V. Nemtchinov, A. Nikitin, D. Newnham, A. Perrin, V. I. Perevalov, S. Pinnock, L. Régalia-Jarlot, C. P. Rinsland, A. Rublev, F. Schreier, L. Schult, K. M. Smith, S. A. Tashkun, J. L. Teffo, R. A. Toth, V. G. Tyuterev, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The GEISA spectroscopic database: Current and future archive for Earth and planetary atmosphere studies,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 109(6), 1043–1059 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cundiff, S. T.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science 288(5466), 635–639 (2000).
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Curl, R. F.

R. F. Curl., “Infrared-radio frequency double resonance observations of pure rotational Q-branch transitions of methane,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 48(1), 165–173 (1973).
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R. F. Curl, T. Oka, and D. S. Smith, “The observation of a pure rotational Q-branch transition of methane by infrared-radio frequency double resonance,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 46(3), 518–520 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Daimon, Y.

Dana, V.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashukun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. Jacquinet-Husson, N. A. Scott, A. Chédin, L. Crépeau, R. Armante, V. Capelle, J. Orphal, A. Coustenis, C. Boonne, N. Poulet-Crovisier, A. Barbe, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, C. Claveau, K. Chance, N. Christidis, C. Clerbaux, P. F. Coheur, V. Dana, L. Daumont, M. R. De Backer-Barilly, G. Di Lonardo, J. M. Flaud, A. Goldman, A. Hamdouni, M. Hess, M. D. Hurley, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, P. Köpke, J. Y. Mandin, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, V. Nemtchinov, A. Nikitin, D. Newnham, A. Perrin, V. I. Perevalov, S. Pinnock, L. Régalia-Jarlot, C. P. Rinsland, A. Rublev, F. Schreier, L. Schult, K. M. Smith, S. A. Tashkun, J. L. Teffo, R. A. Toth, V. G. Tyuterev, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The GEISA spectroscopic database: Current and future archive for Earth and planetary atmosphere studies,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 109(6), 1043–1059 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Darquié, B.

B. Darquié, C. Stoeffler, A. Shelkovnikov, C. Daussy, A. Amy-Klein, C. Chardonnet, S. Zrig, L. Guy, J. Crassous, P. Soulard, P. Asselin, T. R. Huet, P. Schwerdtfeger, R. Bast, and T. Saue, “Progress toward the first observation of parity violation in chiral molecules by high-resolution laser spectroscopy,” Chirality 22(10), 870–884 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Daumont, L.

N. Jacquinet-Husson, N. A. Scott, A. Chédin, L. Crépeau, R. Armante, V. Capelle, J. Orphal, A. Coustenis, C. Boonne, N. Poulet-Crovisier, A. Barbe, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, C. Claveau, K. Chance, N. Christidis, C. Clerbaux, P. F. Coheur, V. Dana, L. Daumont, M. R. De Backer-Barilly, G. Di Lonardo, J. M. Flaud, A. Goldman, A. Hamdouni, M. Hess, M. D. Hurley, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, P. Köpke, J. Y. Mandin, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, V. Nemtchinov, A. Nikitin, D. Newnham, A. Perrin, V. I. Perevalov, S. Pinnock, L. Régalia-Jarlot, C. P. Rinsland, A. Rublev, F. Schreier, L. Schult, K. M. Smith, S. A. Tashkun, J. L. Teffo, R. A. Toth, V. G. Tyuterev, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The GEISA spectroscopic database: Current and future archive for Earth and planetary atmosphere studies,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 109(6), 1043–1059 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Daussy, C.

B. Darquié, C. Stoeffler, A. Shelkovnikov, C. Daussy, A. Amy-Klein, C. Chardonnet, S. Zrig, L. Guy, J. Crassous, P. Soulard, P. Asselin, T. R. Huet, P. Schwerdtfeger, R. Bast, and T. Saue, “Progress toward the first observation of parity violation in chiral molecules by high-resolution laser spectroscopy,” Chirality 22(10), 870–884 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Daussy, M. Guinet, A. Amy-Klein, K. Djerroud, Y. Hermier, S. Briaudeau, ChJ. Bordé, and C. Chardonnet, “Direct determination of the Boltzmann constant by an optical method,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(25), 250801 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Daussy, T. Marrel, A. Amy-Klein, C. T. Nguyen, C. J. Bordé, and C. Chardonnet, “Limit on the parity nonconserving energy difference between the enantiomers of a chiral molecule by laser spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83(8), 1554–1557 (1999).
[CrossRef]

De Backer-Barilly, M. R.

N. Jacquinet-Husson, N. A. Scott, A. Chédin, L. Crépeau, R. Armante, V. Capelle, J. Orphal, A. Coustenis, C. Boonne, N. Poulet-Crovisier, A. Barbe, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, C. Claveau, K. Chance, N. Christidis, C. Clerbaux, P. F. Coheur, V. Dana, L. Daumont, M. R. De Backer-Barilly, G. Di Lonardo, J. M. Flaud, A. Goldman, A. Hamdouni, M. Hess, M. D. Hurley, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, P. Köpke, J. Y. Mandin, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, V. Nemtchinov, A. Nikitin, D. Newnham, A. Perrin, V. I. Perevalov, S. Pinnock, L. Régalia-Jarlot, C. P. Rinsland, A. Rublev, F. Schreier, L. Schult, K. M. Smith, S. A. Tashkun, J. L. Teffo, R. A. Toth, V. G. Tyuterev, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The GEISA spectroscopic database: Current and future archive for Earth and planetary atmosphere studies,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 109(6), 1043–1059 (2008).
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De Natale, P.

G. Giusfredi, S. Bartalini, S. Borri, P. Cancio, I. Galli, D. Mazzotti, and P. De Natale, “Saturated-absorption cavity ring-down spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(11), 110801 (2010).
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P. Maddaloni, P. Malara, E. De Tommasi, M. De Rosa, I. Ricciardi, G. Gagliardi, F. Tamassia, G. Di Lonardo, and P. De Natale, “Absolute measurement of the S(0) and S(1) lines in the electric quadrupole fundamental band of D2 around 3μm,” J. Chem. Phys. 133(15), 154317 (2010).
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P. Malara, P. Maddaloni, G. Gagliardi, and P. De Natale, “Absolute measurement of molecular transitions by a direct link to a comb generated around 3 μm,” Opt. Express 16(11), 8242–8249 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Mazzotti, P. Cancio, A. Castrillo, I. Galli, G. Giusfredi, and P. De Natale, “A comb-referenced difference-frequency spectrometer for cavity ring-down spectroscopy in the 4.5 μm region,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 8(7), S490–S493 (2006).
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D. Mazzotti, P. Cancio, G. Giusfredi, P. De Natale, and M. Prevedelli, “Frequency-comb-based absolute frequency measurements in the mid-infrared with a difference-frequency spectrometer,” Opt. Lett. 30(9), 997–999 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

De Rosa, M.

P. Maddaloni, P. Malara, E. De Tommasi, M. De Rosa, I. Ricciardi, G. Gagliardi, F. Tamassia, G. Di Lonardo, and P. De Natale, “Absolute measurement of the S(0) and S(1) lines in the electric quadrupole fundamental band of D2 around 3μm,” J. Chem. Phys. 133(15), 154317 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

De Tommasi, E.

P. Maddaloni, P. Malara, E. De Tommasi, M. De Rosa, I. Ricciardi, G. Gagliardi, F. Tamassia, G. Di Lonardo, and P. De Natale, “Absolute measurement of the S(0) and S(1) lines in the electric quadrupole fundamental band of D2 around 3μm,” J. Chem. Phys. 133(15), 154317 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dekorsy, D.

Devi, V. M.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashukun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
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Di Lonardo, G.

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D. Mazzotti, P. Cancio, A. Castrillo, I. Galli, G. Giusfredi, and P. De Natale, “A comb-referenced difference-frequency spectrometer for cavity ring-down spectroscopy in the 4.5 μm region,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 8(7), S490–S493 (2006).
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Havenith, M.

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Hirano, M.

Hong, F. L.

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Hurley, M. D.

N. Jacquinet-Husson, N. A. Scott, A. Chédin, L. Crépeau, R. Armante, V. Capelle, J. Orphal, A. Coustenis, C. Boonne, N. Poulet-Crovisier, A. Barbe, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, C. Claveau, K. Chance, N. Christidis, C. Clerbaux, P. F. Coheur, V. Dana, L. Daumont, M. R. De Backer-Barilly, G. Di Lonardo, J. M. Flaud, A. Goldman, A. Hamdouni, M. Hess, M. D. Hurley, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, P. Köpke, J. Y. Mandin, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, V. Nemtchinov, A. Nikitin, D. Newnham, A. Perrin, V. I. Perevalov, S. Pinnock, L. Régalia-Jarlot, C. P. Rinsland, A. Rublev, F. Schreier, L. Schult, K. M. Smith, S. A. Tashkun, J. L. Teffo, R. A. Toth, V. G. Tyuterev, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The GEISA spectroscopic database: Current and future archive for Earth and planetary atmosphere studies,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 109(6), 1043–1059 (2008).
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Hutchinson, A. L.

Inaba, H.

K. Takahata, T. Kobayashi, H. Sasada, Y. Nakajima, H. Inaba, and F. L. Hong, “The absolute frequency measurement of sub-Doppler molecular lines using a 3.4-μm difference-frequency-generation spectrometer and a fiber-based frequency comb,” Phys. Rev. A 80(3), 032518 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashukun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
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E. V. Baklanov, B. Ya. Dubetskii, V. M. Semibalamut, and E. A. Titov, “Transit width of a nonlinear power resonance in low-pressure gases,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 5(11), 1374–1375 (1975).
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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashukun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
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N. Jacquinet-Husson, N. A. Scott, A. Chédin, L. Crépeau, R. Armante, V. Capelle, J. Orphal, A. Coustenis, C. Boonne, N. Poulet-Crovisier, A. Barbe, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, C. Claveau, K. Chance, N. Christidis, C. Clerbaux, P. F. Coheur, V. Dana, L. Daumont, M. R. De Backer-Barilly, G. Di Lonardo, J. M. Flaud, A. Goldman, A. Hamdouni, M. Hess, M. D. Hurley, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, P. Köpke, J. Y. Mandin, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, V. Nemtchinov, A. Nikitin, D. Newnham, A. Perrin, V. I. Perevalov, S. Pinnock, L. Régalia-Jarlot, C. P. Rinsland, A. Rublev, F. Schreier, L. Schult, K. M. Smith, S. A. Tashkun, J. L. Teffo, R. A. Toth, V. G. Tyuterev, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The GEISA spectroscopic database: Current and future archive for Earth and planetary atmosphere studies,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 109(6), 1043–1059 (2008).
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P. S. Ering, D. A. Tyurikov, G. Kramer, and B. Lipphardt, “Measurement of the absolute frequency of the methane E-line at 88 THz,” Opt. Commun. 151(4-6), 229–234 (1998).
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N. Jacquinet-Husson, N. A. Scott, A. Chédin, L. Crépeau, R. Armante, V. Capelle, J. Orphal, A. Coustenis, C. Boonne, N. Poulet-Crovisier, A. Barbe, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, C. Claveau, K. Chance, N. Christidis, C. Clerbaux, P. F. Coheur, V. Dana, L. Daumont, M. R. De Backer-Barilly, G. Di Lonardo, J. M. Flaud, A. Goldman, A. Hamdouni, M. Hess, M. D. Hurley, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, P. Köpke, J. Y. Mandin, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, V. Nemtchinov, A. Nikitin, D. Newnham, A. Perrin, V. I. Perevalov, S. Pinnock, L. Régalia-Jarlot, C. P. Rinsland, A. Rublev, F. Schreier, L. Schult, K. M. Smith, S. A. Tashkun, J. L. Teffo, R. A. Toth, V. G. Tyuterev, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The GEISA spectroscopic database: Current and future archive for Earth and planetary atmosphere studies,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 109(6), 1043–1059 (2008).
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J. L. Hall, C. J. Bordé, and K. Uehara, “Direct optical resolution of the recoil effect using saturated absorption spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 37(20), 1339–1342 (1976).
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B. Meyer, S. Saupe, M. H. Wappelhorst, T. George, F. Kühnemann, M. Schneider, M. Havenith, W. Urban, and J. Legrand, “CO laser side-band spectrometer: Sub-Doppler heterodyne frequency measurements around 5 μm,” Appl. Phys. B 61, 169–173 (1995).
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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashukun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashukun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
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N. Jacquinet-Husson, N. A. Scott, A. Chédin, L. Crépeau, R. Armante, V. Capelle, J. Orphal, A. Coustenis, C. Boonne, N. Poulet-Crovisier, A. Barbe, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, C. Claveau, K. Chance, N. Christidis, C. Clerbaux, P. F. Coheur, V. Dana, L. Daumont, M. R. De Backer-Barilly, G. Di Lonardo, J. M. Flaud, A. Goldman, A. Hamdouni, M. Hess, M. D. Hurley, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, P. Köpke, J. Y. Mandin, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, V. Nemtchinov, A. Nikitin, D. Newnham, A. Perrin, V. I. Perevalov, S. Pinnock, L. Régalia-Jarlot, C. P. Rinsland, A. Rublev, F. Schreier, L. Schult, K. M. Smith, S. A. Tashkun, J. L. Teffo, R. A. Toth, V. G. Tyuterev, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The GEISA spectroscopic database: Current and future archive for Earth and planetary atmosphere studies,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 109(6), 1043–1059 (2008).
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A. Amy-Klein, H. Vigué, and C. Chardonnet, “Absolute frequency measurement of 12CO2 laser lines with a femtosecond laser comb and new determination of the 12CO2 molecular constants and frequency grid,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 228(1), 206–212 (2004).
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N. Jacquinet-Husson, N. A. Scott, A. Chédin, L. Crépeau, R. Armante, V. Capelle, J. Orphal, A. Coustenis, C. Boonne, N. Poulet-Crovisier, A. Barbe, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, C. Claveau, K. Chance, N. Christidis, C. Clerbaux, P. F. Coheur, V. Dana, L. Daumont, M. R. De Backer-Barilly, G. Di Lonardo, J. M. Flaud, A. Goldman, A. Hamdouni, M. Hess, M. D. Hurley, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, P. Köpke, J. Y. Mandin, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, V. Nemtchinov, A. Nikitin, D. Newnham, A. Perrin, V. I. Perevalov, S. Pinnock, L. Régalia-Jarlot, C. P. Rinsland, A. Rublev, F. Schreier, L. Schult, K. M. Smith, S. A. Tashkun, J. L. Teffo, R. A. Toth, V. G. Tyuterev, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The GEISA spectroscopic database: Current and future archive for Earth and planetary atmosphere studies,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 109(6), 1043–1059 (2008).
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B. Meyer, S. Saupe, M. H. Wappelhorst, T. George, F. Kühnemann, M. Schneider, M. Havenith, W. Urban, and J. Legrand, “CO laser side-band spectrometer: Sub-Doppler heterodyne frequency measurements around 5 μm,” Appl. Phys. B 61, 169–173 (1995).
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Weber, W. H.

Wehr, R.

G. Casa, A. Castrillo, G. Galzerano, R. Wehr, A. Merlone, D. Di Serafino, P. Laporta, and L. Gianfrani, “Primary gas thermometry by means of laser-absorption spectroscopy: determination of the Boltzmann constant,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(20), 200801 (2008).
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C. J. Pursell and D. P. Weliky, “Pure rotational transitions in the v3 state of methane,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 153(1-2), 303–306 (1992).
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A. G. Maki and J. S. Wells, “New wavenumber calibration tables from heterodyne frequency measurements,” J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 97, 409–470 (1992).

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M. Quack, J. Stohner, and M. Willeke, “High-resolution spectroscopic studies and theory of parity violation in chiral molecules,” Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 59(1), 741–769 (2008).
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D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science 288(5466), 635–639 (2000).
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O. Tadanaga, T. Yanagawa, Y. Nishida, H. Miyazawa, K. Magari, M. Asobe, and H. Suzuki, “Efficient 3-μm difference frequency generation using direct-bonded quasi-phase-matched LiNbO3 ridge waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(6), 061101 (2006).
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T. Yasui, Y. Kabetani, E. Saneyoshi, S. Yokoyama, and T. Araki, “Terahertz frequency comb by multifrequency-heterodyning photoconductive detection for high-accuracy, high-resolution terahertz spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(24), 241104 (2006).
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T. Yasui, Y. Kabetani, E. Saneyoshi, S. Yokoyama, and T. Araki, “Terahertz frequency comb by multifrequency-heterodyning photoconductive detection for high-accuracy, high-resolution terahertz spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(24), 241104 (2006).
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B. Meyer, S. Saupe, M. H. Wappelhorst, T. George, F. Kühnemann, M. Schneider, M. Havenith, W. Urban, and J. Legrand, “CO laser side-band spectrometer: Sub-Doppler heterodyne frequency measurements around 5 μm,” Appl. Phys. B 61, 169–173 (1995).
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O. Tadanaga, T. Yanagawa, Y. Nishida, H. Miyazawa, K. Magari, M. Asobe, and H. Suzuki, “Efficient 3-μm difference frequency generation using direct-bonded quasi-phase-matched LiNbO3 ridge waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(6), 061101 (2006).
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A. Amy-Klein, H. Vigué, and C. Chardonnet, “Absolute frequency measurement of 12CO2 laser lines with a femtosecond laser comb and new determination of the 12CO2 molecular constants and frequency grid,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 228(1), 206–212 (2004).
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J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. (1)

D. Mazzotti, P. Cancio, A. Castrillo, I. Galli, G. Giusfredi, and P. De Natale, “A comb-referenced difference-frequency spectrometer for cavity ring-down spectroscopy in the 4.5 μm region,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 8(7), S490–S493 (2006).
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J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. (2)

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J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. (1)

A. G. Maki and J. S. Wells, “New wavenumber calibration tables from heterodyne frequency measurements,” J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 97, 409–470 (1992).

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

M. Takami, K. Uehara, and K. Shimoda, “Rotational transitions of CH4 in the v3 = 1 excited state observed by an infrared-microwave double resonance method,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 12(6), 924–925 (1973).
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T. J. Quinn, “Practical realization of the definition of the metre, including recommended radiations of other optical frequency standards (2001),” Metrologia 40(2), 103–133 (2003).
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P. S. Ering, D. A. Tyurikov, G. Kramer, and B. Lipphardt, “Measurement of the absolute frequency of the methane E-line at 88 THz,” Opt. Commun. 151(4-6), 229–234 (1998).
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Phys. Rev. A (2)

K. Takahata, T. Kobayashi, H. Sasada, Y. Nakajima, H. Inaba, and F. L. Hong, “The absolute frequency measurement of sub-Doppler molecular lines using a 3.4-μm difference-frequency-generation spectrometer and a fiber-based frequency comb,” Phys. Rev. A 80(3), 032518 (2009).
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Phys. Rev. Lett. (6)

G. Giusfredi, S. Bartalini, S. Borri, P. Cancio, I. Galli, D. Mazzotti, and P. De Natale, “Saturated-absorption cavity ring-down spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(11), 110801 (2010).
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Science (1)

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science 288(5466), 635–639 (2000).
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Sov. J. Quantum Electron. (1)

E. V. Baklanov, B. Ya. Dubetskii, V. M. Semibalamut, and E. A. Titov, “Transit width of a nonlinear power resonance in low-pressure gases,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 5(11), 1374–1375 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Other (6)

J. Ye and J. L. Hall, “Absorption detection at the quantum limit: Probing high-finesse cavities with modulation techniques,” in Cavity-enhanced spectroscopy, Experimental methods in the physical sciences vol. 40, R. D. van Zee and J. P. Looney ed. (Academic Press, San Diego, 2002).

J. L. Hall and J. A. Magyar, “High resolution saturated absorption studies of methane and some methyl-halides,” in High-Resolution Laser Spectroscopy, K. Shimoda ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1976).

P. Jensen and P. R. Bunker, eds., Computational molecular spectroscopy, (John-Wiley and Sons Inc., New York, 2000).

G. Guelachvili and K. Narahari Rao, Handbook of Infrared Standards (Academic, Orlando, Fla., 1986). G. Guelachvili and K. Narahari Rao, Handbook of Infrared Standards II (Academic, Orlando, Fla., 1993).

S. Svanberg, Atomic and molecular spectroscopy: Basic aspects and practical applications, 4th edition (Springer Verlag, Berlin, 2004).

J. Tennyson, Astronomical spectroscopy: An introduction to the atomic and molecular physics of astronomical spectra, (World Scientific Publishing Co. Inc., Singapore, 2010).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup of spectrometer. ECLD: external-cavity laser diode, EOM: electro-optic modulator, FA: fiber amplifier, XO: crystal oscillator, PPLN: periodically poled lithium niobate, BW: Brewster’s window, λ/4: quarter-wave plate, CEAC: cavity-enhanced absorption cell, OBPF: optical bandpass filter, PID controller: proportional-integral-derivative controller, CS: current source.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic of frequency control and measurements. OFC: optical frequency comb, λ/2: half-wave plate, LPF: electric lowpass filter, GPS: global position system, ECLD: external-cavity laser diode, BPF: electric bandpass filter, PI controller: proportional-integral controller.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Observed spectrum of the Q(6) F2(1) and Q(7) A2.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Observed saturated absorption spectrum of the P(7) F2(2) . The idler wave frequency is referred to the fiber comb.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Pressure dependence of the transition frequency of the P(7) E line. The dashed line indicates the frequency given in Reference [42].

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Power dependence of the transition frequency of the P(7) F2(2) line. The dashed line indicates the CIPM recommended value [9].

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Measured and Reference Frequencies of the ν3 Band of Methane

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