Abstract

Lasing behavior of a single-transverse-mode vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) was observed while the polarization direction of an optical feedback was rotated. Optical powers of two polarization modes of a VCSEL showed sinusoidal dependences on the polarization-rotation angle. The power variation was seen when an optical feedback ratio was larger than –20 dB, though the variation depth dropped suddenly as the feedback ratio became smaller than –25 dB. An in-line type rotation sensor utilizing this behavior is proposed. The sensor system was constructed and the detection principle was demonstrated.

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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2009

D. Larsson, A. Greve, J. M. Hvam, A. Boisen, and K. Yvind, “Self-mixing interferometry in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers for nanomechanical cantilever sensing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(9), 091103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Xiang, W. Pan, L. Yan, B. Luo, N. Jiang, and L. Yang, “Polarization properties of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers subject to feedback with variably rotated polarization angle,” Appl. Opt. 48(27), 5176–5183 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

N. Gavra, V. Ruseva, and M. Rosenbluh, “Enhancement in microwave modulation efficiency of vertical cavity surface-emitting laser by optical feedback,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(22), 221113 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2004

J. Albert, M. C. Soriano, I. Veretennicoff, K. Panajotov, J. Danckaert, P. A. Porta, D. P. Curtin, and J. G. McInerney, “Laser Doppler velocimetry with polarization-bistable VCSELs,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10(5), 1006–1012 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. Hong, P. S. Spencer, and K. A. Shore, “Suppression of polarization switching in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers by use of optical feedback,” Opt. Lett. 29(18), 2151–2153 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

M. Sciamanna, K. Panajotov, H. Thienpont, I. Veretennicoff, P. Mégret, and M. Blondel, “Optical feedback induces polarization mode hopping in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” Opt. Lett. 28(17), 1543–1545 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Heinis, C. Gorecki, C. Bringer, V. Bardinal, T. Camps, J.-B. Doucet, P. Dubreuil, and C. Fontaine, “Miniaturized scanning near-field microscope sensor based on optical feedback inside a single-mode oxide-confined vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42(Part 2, No. 12A), L1469–L1471 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

J. Hashizume, S. Shinada, F. Koyama, and K. Iga, “Reflection induced voltage change of surface emitting laser for optical probing,” Opt. Rev. 9(5), 186–188 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S.-Y. Ye, S. Mitsugi, Y.-J. Kim, and K. Goto, “Numerical simulation of readout using optical feedback in the integrated vertical cavity surface emitting laser microprobe head,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41(Part 1, No. 3B), 1636–1637 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1999

J. A. Hudgings, S. F. Lim, G. S. Li, W. Yuen, K. Y. Lau, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, “Compact, integrated optical disk readout head using a novel bistable vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11(2), 245–247 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. I. Wilkinson, J. Woodhead, J. E. F. Frost, J. S. Roberts, R. Wilson, and M. F. Lewis, “Enhancement of a liquid-crystal modulator using an external-cavity VCSEL,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11(8), 940–942 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. Masoller and N. B. Abraham, “Polarization dynamics in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with optical feedback through a quarter-wave plate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(8), 1078–1080 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997

D. V. Kuksenkov and H. Temkin, “Polarization related properties of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3(2), 390–395 (1997).
[CrossRef]

F. Robert, P. Besnard, M. L. Chares, and G. M. Stephan, “Polarization modulation dynamics of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with an extended cavity,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33(12), 2231–2239 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1993

S. Jiang, Z. Pan, M. Dagenais, R. A. Morgan, and K. Kojima, “High-frequency polarization self-modulation in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63(26), 3545–3547 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1981

Abraham, N. B.

C. Masoller and N. B. Abraham, “Polarization dynamics in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with optical feedback through a quarter-wave plate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(8), 1078–1080 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Albert, J.

J. Albert, M. C. Soriano, I. Veretennicoff, K. Panajotov, J. Danckaert, P. A. Porta, D. P. Curtin, and J. G. McInerney, “Laser Doppler velocimetry with polarization-bistable VCSELs,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10(5), 1006–1012 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Arditty, H. J.

Bardinal, V.

D. Heinis, C. Gorecki, C. Bringer, V. Bardinal, T. Camps, J.-B. Doucet, P. Dubreuil, and C. Fontaine, “Miniaturized scanning near-field microscope sensor based on optical feedback inside a single-mode oxide-confined vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42(Part 2, No. 12A), L1469–L1471 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Besnard, P.

F. Robert, P. Besnard, M. L. Chares, and G. M. Stephan, “Polarization modulation dynamics of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with an extended cavity,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33(12), 2231–2239 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Blondel, M.

Boisen, A.

D. Larsson, A. Greve, J. M. Hvam, A. Boisen, and K. Yvind, “Self-mixing interferometry in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers for nanomechanical cantilever sensing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(9), 091103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bringer, C.

D. Heinis, C. Gorecki, C. Bringer, V. Bardinal, T. Camps, J.-B. Doucet, P. Dubreuil, and C. Fontaine, “Miniaturized scanning near-field microscope sensor based on optical feedback inside a single-mode oxide-confined vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42(Part 2, No. 12A), L1469–L1471 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Camps, T.

D. Heinis, C. Gorecki, C. Bringer, V. Bardinal, T. Camps, J.-B. Doucet, P. Dubreuil, and C. Fontaine, “Miniaturized scanning near-field microscope sensor based on optical feedback inside a single-mode oxide-confined vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42(Part 2, No. 12A), L1469–L1471 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chang-Hasnain, C. J.

J. A. Hudgings, S. F. Lim, G. S. Li, W. Yuen, K. Y. Lau, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, “Compact, integrated optical disk readout head using a novel bistable vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11(2), 245–247 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chares, M. L.

F. Robert, P. Besnard, M. L. Chares, and G. M. Stephan, “Polarization modulation dynamics of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with an extended cavity,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33(12), 2231–2239 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Curtin, D. P.

J. Albert, M. C. Soriano, I. Veretennicoff, K. Panajotov, J. Danckaert, P. A. Porta, D. P. Curtin, and J. G. McInerney, “Laser Doppler velocimetry with polarization-bistable VCSELs,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10(5), 1006–1012 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Dagenais, M.

S. Jiang, Z. Pan, M. Dagenais, R. A. Morgan, and K. Kojima, “High-frequency polarization self-modulation in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63(26), 3545–3547 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Danckaert, J.

J. Albert, M. C. Soriano, I. Veretennicoff, K. Panajotov, J. Danckaert, P. A. Porta, D. P. Curtin, and J. G. McInerney, “Laser Doppler velocimetry with polarization-bistable VCSELs,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10(5), 1006–1012 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Davis, J. L.

Doucet, J.-B.

D. Heinis, C. Gorecki, C. Bringer, V. Bardinal, T. Camps, J.-B. Doucet, P. Dubreuil, and C. Fontaine, “Miniaturized scanning near-field microscope sensor based on optical feedback inside a single-mode oxide-confined vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42(Part 2, No. 12A), L1469–L1471 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Dubreuil, P.

D. Heinis, C. Gorecki, C. Bringer, V. Bardinal, T. Camps, J.-B. Doucet, P. Dubreuil, and C. Fontaine, “Miniaturized scanning near-field microscope sensor based on optical feedback inside a single-mode oxide-confined vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42(Part 2, No. 12A), L1469–L1471 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ezekiel, S.

Fontaine, C.

D. Heinis, C. Gorecki, C. Bringer, V. Bardinal, T. Camps, J.-B. Doucet, P. Dubreuil, and C. Fontaine, “Miniaturized scanning near-field microscope sensor based on optical feedback inside a single-mode oxide-confined vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42(Part 2, No. 12A), L1469–L1471 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Frost, J. E. F.

C. I. Wilkinson, J. Woodhead, J. E. F. Frost, J. S. Roberts, R. Wilson, and M. F. Lewis, “Enhancement of a liquid-crystal modulator using an external-cavity VCSEL,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11(8), 940–942 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gavra, N.

N. Gavra, V. Ruseva, and M. Rosenbluh, “Enhancement in microwave modulation efficiency of vertical cavity surface-emitting laser by optical feedback,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(22), 221113 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gorecki, C.

D. Heinis, C. Gorecki, C. Bringer, V. Bardinal, T. Camps, J.-B. Doucet, P. Dubreuil, and C. Fontaine, “Miniaturized scanning near-field microscope sensor based on optical feedback inside a single-mode oxide-confined vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42(Part 2, No. 12A), L1469–L1471 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Goto, K.

S.-Y. Ye, S. Mitsugi, Y.-J. Kim, and K. Goto, “Numerical simulation of readout using optical feedback in the integrated vertical cavity surface emitting laser microprobe head,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41(Part 1, No. 3B), 1636–1637 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Greve, A.

D. Larsson, A. Greve, J. M. Hvam, A. Boisen, and K. Yvind, “Self-mixing interferometry in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers for nanomechanical cantilever sensing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(9), 091103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hashizume, J.

J. Hashizume, S. Shinada, F. Koyama, and K. Iga, “Reflection induced voltage change of surface emitting laser for optical probing,” Opt. Rev. 9(5), 186–188 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Heinis, D.

D. Heinis, C. Gorecki, C. Bringer, V. Bardinal, T. Camps, J.-B. Doucet, P. Dubreuil, and C. Fontaine, “Miniaturized scanning near-field microscope sensor based on optical feedback inside a single-mode oxide-confined vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42(Part 2, No. 12A), L1469–L1471 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hong, Y.

Hudgings, J. A.

J. A. Hudgings, S. F. Lim, G. S. Li, W. Yuen, K. Y. Lau, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, “Compact, integrated optical disk readout head using a novel bistable vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11(2), 245–247 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hvam, J. M.

D. Larsson, A. Greve, J. M. Hvam, A. Boisen, and K. Yvind, “Self-mixing interferometry in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers for nanomechanical cantilever sensing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(9), 091103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Iga, K.

J. Hashizume, S. Shinada, F. Koyama, and K. Iga, “Reflection induced voltage change of surface emitting laser for optical probing,” Opt. Rev. 9(5), 186–188 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, N.

Jiang, S.

S. Jiang, Z. Pan, M. Dagenais, R. A. Morgan, and K. Kojima, “High-frequency polarization self-modulation in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63(26), 3545–3547 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kim, Y.-J.

S.-Y. Ye, S. Mitsugi, Y.-J. Kim, and K. Goto, “Numerical simulation of readout using optical feedback in the integrated vertical cavity surface emitting laser microprobe head,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41(Part 1, No. 3B), 1636–1637 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kojima, K.

S. Jiang, Z. Pan, M. Dagenais, R. A. Morgan, and K. Kojima, “High-frequency polarization self-modulation in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63(26), 3545–3547 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Koyama, F.

J. Hashizume, S. Shinada, F. Koyama, and K. Iga, “Reflection induced voltage change of surface emitting laser for optical probing,” Opt. Rev. 9(5), 186–188 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kuksenkov, D. V.

D. V. Kuksenkov and H. Temkin, “Polarization related properties of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3(2), 390–395 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Larsson, D.

D. Larsson, A. Greve, J. M. Hvam, A. Boisen, and K. Yvind, “Self-mixing interferometry in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers for nanomechanical cantilever sensing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(9), 091103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lau, K. Y.

J. A. Hudgings, S. F. Lim, G. S. Li, W. Yuen, K. Y. Lau, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, “Compact, integrated optical disk readout head using a novel bistable vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11(2), 245–247 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Leèfovre, H. C.

Lewis, M. F.

C. I. Wilkinson, J. Woodhead, J. E. F. Frost, J. S. Roberts, R. Wilson, and M. F. Lewis, “Enhancement of a liquid-crystal modulator using an external-cavity VCSEL,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11(8), 940–942 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Li, G. S.

J. A. Hudgings, S. F. Lim, G. S. Li, W. Yuen, K. Y. Lau, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, “Compact, integrated optical disk readout head using a novel bistable vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11(2), 245–247 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lim, S. F.

J. A. Hudgings, S. F. Lim, G. S. Li, W. Yuen, K. Y. Lau, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, “Compact, integrated optical disk readout head using a novel bistable vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11(2), 245–247 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Luo, B.

Masoller, C.

C. Masoller and N. B. Abraham, “Polarization dynamics in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with optical feedback through a quarter-wave plate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(8), 1078–1080 (1999).
[CrossRef]

McInerney, J. G.

J. Albert, M. C. Soriano, I. Veretennicoff, K. Panajotov, J. Danckaert, P. A. Porta, D. P. Curtin, and J. G. McInerney, “Laser Doppler velocimetry with polarization-bistable VCSELs,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10(5), 1006–1012 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Mégret, P.

Mitsugi, S.

S.-Y. Ye, S. Mitsugi, Y.-J. Kim, and K. Goto, “Numerical simulation of readout using optical feedback in the integrated vertical cavity surface emitting laser microprobe head,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41(Part 1, No. 3B), 1636–1637 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Morgan, R. A.

S. Jiang, Z. Pan, M. Dagenais, R. A. Morgan, and K. Kojima, “High-frequency polarization self-modulation in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63(26), 3545–3547 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Pan, W.

Pan, Z.

S. Jiang, Z. Pan, M. Dagenais, R. A. Morgan, and K. Kojima, “High-frequency polarization self-modulation in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63(26), 3545–3547 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Panajotov, K.

J. Albert, M. C. Soriano, I. Veretennicoff, K. Panajotov, J. Danckaert, P. A. Porta, D. P. Curtin, and J. G. McInerney, “Laser Doppler velocimetry with polarization-bistable VCSELs,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10(5), 1006–1012 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Sciamanna, K. Panajotov, H. Thienpont, I. Veretennicoff, P. Mégret, and M. Blondel, “Optical feedback induces polarization mode hopping in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” Opt. Lett. 28(17), 1543–1545 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Porta, P. A.

J. Albert, M. C. Soriano, I. Veretennicoff, K. Panajotov, J. Danckaert, P. A. Porta, D. P. Curtin, and J. G. McInerney, “Laser Doppler velocimetry with polarization-bistable VCSELs,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10(5), 1006–1012 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Robert, F.

F. Robert, P. Besnard, M. L. Chares, and G. M. Stephan, “Polarization modulation dynamics of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with an extended cavity,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33(12), 2231–2239 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Roberts, J. S.

C. I. Wilkinson, J. Woodhead, J. E. F. Frost, J. S. Roberts, R. Wilson, and M. F. Lewis, “Enhancement of a liquid-crystal modulator using an external-cavity VCSEL,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11(8), 940–942 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Rosenbluh, M.

N. Gavra, V. Ruseva, and M. Rosenbluh, “Enhancement in microwave modulation efficiency of vertical cavity surface-emitting laser by optical feedback,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(22), 221113 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ruseva, V.

N. Gavra, V. Ruseva, and M. Rosenbluh, “Enhancement in microwave modulation efficiency of vertical cavity surface-emitting laser by optical feedback,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(22), 221113 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sciamanna, M.

Shinada, S.

J. Hashizume, S. Shinada, F. Koyama, and K. Iga, “Reflection induced voltage change of surface emitting laser for optical probing,” Opt. Rev. 9(5), 186–188 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Shore, K. A.

Soriano, M. C.

J. Albert, M. C. Soriano, I. Veretennicoff, K. Panajotov, J. Danckaert, P. A. Porta, D. P. Curtin, and J. G. McInerney, “Laser Doppler velocimetry with polarization-bistable VCSELs,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10(5), 1006–1012 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Spencer, P. S.

Stephan, G. M.

F. Robert, P. Besnard, M. L. Chares, and G. M. Stephan, “Polarization modulation dynamics of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with an extended cavity,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33(12), 2231–2239 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Temkin, H.

D. V. Kuksenkov and H. Temkin, “Polarization related properties of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3(2), 390–395 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Thienpont, H.

Veretennicoff, I.

J. Albert, M. C. Soriano, I. Veretennicoff, K. Panajotov, J. Danckaert, P. A. Porta, D. P. Curtin, and J. G. McInerney, “Laser Doppler velocimetry with polarization-bistable VCSELs,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10(5), 1006–1012 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Sciamanna, K. Panajotov, H. Thienpont, I. Veretennicoff, P. Mégret, and M. Blondel, “Optical feedback induces polarization mode hopping in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” Opt. Lett. 28(17), 1543–1545 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wilkinson, C. I.

C. I. Wilkinson, J. Woodhead, J. E. F. Frost, J. S. Roberts, R. Wilson, and M. F. Lewis, “Enhancement of a liquid-crystal modulator using an external-cavity VCSEL,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11(8), 940–942 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wilson, R.

C. I. Wilkinson, J. Woodhead, J. E. F. Frost, J. S. Roberts, R. Wilson, and M. F. Lewis, “Enhancement of a liquid-crystal modulator using an external-cavity VCSEL,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11(8), 940–942 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Woodhead, J.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Measured dependences of the oscillation powers of x-polarization (circles) and y-polarization (triangles) modes of a VCSEL upon an operating current without an optical feedback.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental setup for measuring oscillation powers of the x- and y-polarization modes under optical feedback with polarization rotation.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Measured optical powers of the x-polarization (circles) and y-polarization (triangles) modes of the VCSEL against polarization-rotation angle of the optical feedback. Dashed curves show theoretical prediction.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Measured optical power variations of the x-polarization (squares) and y-polarization (rhombi) modes of the VCSEL against optical feedback ratio.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Proposed concept of rotation sensing system using a VCSEL with optical feedback.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Experimental setup for measuring feedback optical power and VCSEL power.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Obtained output signals from PD1 (lower side) and PD2 (upper side).

Equations (2)

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P x = P 0 2 ( 1+ cos 2 θ ),
P y = P 0 2 sin 2 θ,

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