Abstract

We control using bright light an actively-quenched avalanche single-photon detector. Actively-quenched detectors are commonly used for quantum key distribution (QKD) in the visible and near-infrared range. This study shows that these detectors are controllable by the same attack used to hack passively-quenched and gated detectors. This demonstrates the generality of our attack and its possible applicability to eavsdropping the full secret key of all QKD systems using avalanche photodiodes (APDs). Moreover, the commercial detector model we tested (PerkinElmer SPCM-AQR) exhibits two new blinding mechanisms in addition to the previously observed thermal blinding of the APD, namely: malfunctioning of the bias voltage control circuit, and overload of the DC/DC converter biasing the APD. These two new technical loopholes found just in one detector model suggest that this problem must be solved in general, by incorporating generally imperfect detectors into the security proof for QKD.

© 2011 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  33. V. Makarov, “Controlling passively quenched single photon detectors by bright light,” New J. Phys. 11, 065003 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  34. R. T. Thew, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Tunable upconversion photon detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 071104 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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  41. L. Lydersen, N. Jain, C. Wittmann, Ø. Marøy, J. Skaar, C. Marquardt, V. Makarov, and G. Leuchs, “Superlinear threshold detectors in quantum cryptography,” Phys. Rev. A 84, 032320 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  42. H.-K. Lo, M. Curty, and B. Qi, “Measurement device independent quantum key distribution,” arXiv:1109.1473 [quant-ph].
  43. S. L. Braunstein and S. Pirandola, “Side-channel free quantum key distribution,” arXiv:1109.2330 [quant-ph].
  44. L. Lydersen, M. K. Akhlaghi, A. H. Majedi, J. Skaar, and V. Makarov, “Controlling a superconducting nanowire single-photon detector using tailored bright illumination,” arXiv:1106.2396 [quant-ph].

2011

C. Wiechers, L. Lydersen, C. Wittmann, D. Elser, J. Skaar, C. Marquardt, V. Makarov, and G. Leuchs, “After-gate attack on a quantum cryptosystem,” New J. Phys. 13, 013043 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Z. L. Yuan, J. F. Dynes, and A. J. Shields, “Resilience of gated avalanche photodiodes against bright illumination attacks in quantum cryptography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 231104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

I. Gerhardt, Q. Liu, A. Lamas-Linares, J. Skaar, C. Kurtsiefer, and V. Makarov, “Full-field implementation of a perfect eavesdropper on a quantum cryptography system,” Nat. Commun. 2, 349 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Lydersen, V. Makarov, and J. Skaar, “Secure gated detection scheme for quantum cryptography,” Phys. Rev. A 83, 032306 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. Lydersen, N. Jain, C. Wittmann, Ø. Marøy, J. Skaar, C. Marquardt, V. Makarov, and G. Leuchs, “Superlinear threshold detectors in quantum cryptography,” Phys. Rev. A 84, 032320 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

L. Lydersen, C. Wiechers, C. Wittmann, D. Elser, J. Skaar, and V. Makarov, “Thermal blinding of gated detectors in quantum cryptography,” Opt. Express 18, 27938–27954 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. Lydersen, C. Wiechers, C. Wittmann, D. Elser, J. Skaar, and V. Makarov, “Hacking commercial quantum cryptography systems by tailored bright illumination,” Nat. Photonics 4, 686–689 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. L. Yuan, J. F. Dynes, and A. J. Shields, “Avoiding the blinding attack in QKD,” Nat. Photonics 4, 800–801 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. Lydersen, C. Wiechers, C. Wittmann, D. Elser, J. Skaar, and V. Makarov, “Reply to ‘Avoiding the blinding attack in QKD’,” Nat. Photonics 4, 801 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ø. Marøy, L. Lydersen, and J. Skaar, “Security of quantum key distribution with arbitrary individual imperfections,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 032337 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

M. Koashi, “Simple security proof of quantum key distribution based on complementarity,” New J. Phys. 11, 045018 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Stucki, N. Walenta, F. Vannel, R. T. Thew, N. Gisin, H. Zbinden, S. Gray, C. R. Towery, and S. Ten, “High rate, long-distance quantum key distribution over 250 km of ultra low loss fibres,” New J. Phys. 11, 075003 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Peloso, I. Gerhardt, C. Ho, A. Lamas-Linares, and C. Kurtsiefer, “Daylight operation of a free space, entanglement-based quantum key distribution system,” New J. Phys. 11, 045007 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Fossier, E. Diamanti, T. Debuisschert, A. Villing, R. Tualle-Brouri, and P. Grangier, “Field test of a continuous-variable quantum key distribution prototype,” New J. Phys. 11, 045023 (2009).
[CrossRef]

V. Makarov, “Controlling passively quenched single photon detectors by bright light,” New J. Phys. 11, 065003 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

2007

M. Heid and N. Lütkenhaus, “Security of coherent-state quantum cryptography in the presence of Gaussian noise,” Phys. Rev. A 76, 022313 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, T. Scheidl, M. Lindenthal, B. Blauensteiner, T. Jennewein, J. Perdigues, P. Trojek, B. Ömer, M. Fürst, M. Meyenburg, J. Rarity, Z. Sodnik, C. Barbieri, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “Entanglement-based quantum communication over 144 km,” Nat. Phys. 3, 481–486 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005

V. Makarov and D. R. Hjelme, “Faked states attack on quantum cryptosystems,” J. Mod. Opt. 52, 691–705 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

S. Cova, M. Ghioni, A. Lotito, I. Rech, and F. Zappa, “Evolution and prospects for single-photon avalanche diodes and quenching circuits,” J. Mod. Opt. 51, 1267–1288 (2004).

D. Gottesman, H.-K. Lo, N. Lütkenhaus, and J. Preskill, “Security of quantum key distribution with imperfect devices,” Quant. Inf. Comp. 4, 325–360 (2004).

K. J. Gordon, V. Fernandez, P. D. Townsend, and G. S. Buller, “A short wavelength gigahertz clocked fiber-optic quantum key distribution system,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40, 900–908 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002

A. Verevkin, J. Zhang, R. Sobolewski, A. Lipatov, O. Okunev, G. Chulkova, A. Korneev, K. Smirnov, G. N. Gol’tsman, and A. Semenov, “Detection efficiency of large-active-area NbN single-photon superconducting detectors in the ultraviolet to near-infrared range,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 4687–4689 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Hughes, J. E. Nordholt, D. Derkacs, and C. G. Peterson, “Practical free-space quantum key distribution over 10 km in daylight and at night,” New J. Phys. 4, 43 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

G. N. Gol’tsman, O. Okunev, G. Chulkova, A. Lipatov, A. Semenov, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, A. Dzardanov, C. Williams, and R. Sobolewski, “Picosecond superconducting single-photon optical detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 705–707 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

M. Hillery, “Quantum cryptography with squeezed states,” Phys. Rev. A 61, 022309 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Reid, “Quantum cryptography with a predetermined key, using continuous-variable Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen correlations,” Phys. Rev. A 62, 062308 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

T. C. Ralph, “Continuous variable quantum cryptography,” Phys. Rev. A 61, 010303 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1994

J. G. Rarity, P. C. M. Owens, and P. R. Tapster, “Quantum random-number generation and key sharing,” J. Mod. Opt. 41, 2435–2444 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993

1982

W. K. Wootters and W. H. Zurek, “A single quantum cannot be cloned,” Nature 299, 802–803 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Akhlaghi, M. K.

L. Lydersen, M. K. Akhlaghi, A. H. Majedi, J. Skaar, and V. Makarov, “Controlling a superconducting nanowire single-photon detector using tailored bright illumination,” arXiv:1106.2396 [quant-ph].

Barbieri, C.

R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, T. Scheidl, M. Lindenthal, B. Blauensteiner, T. Jennewein, J. Perdigues, P. Trojek, B. Ömer, M. Fürst, M. Meyenburg, J. Rarity, Z. Sodnik, C. Barbieri, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “Entanglement-based quantum communication over 144 km,” Nat. Phys. 3, 481–486 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bennett, C. H.

C. H. Bennett and G. Brassard, “Quantum cryptography: Public key distribution and coin tossing,” in “Proc. IEEE International Conference on Computers, Systems, and Signal Processing” (IEEE Press, New York, Bangalore, India, 1984), pp. 175–179.

Blauensteiner, B.

R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, T. Scheidl, M. Lindenthal, B. Blauensteiner, T. Jennewein, J. Perdigues, P. Trojek, B. Ömer, M. Fürst, M. Meyenburg, J. Rarity, Z. Sodnik, C. Barbieri, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “Entanglement-based quantum communication over 144 km,” Nat. Phys. 3, 481–486 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Brassard, G.

C. H. Bennett and G. Brassard, “Quantum cryptography: Public key distribution and coin tossing,” in “Proc. IEEE International Conference on Computers, Systems, and Signal Processing” (IEEE Press, New York, Bangalore, India, 1984), pp. 175–179.

Braunstein, S. L.

S. L. Braunstein and S. Pirandola, “Side-channel free quantum key distribution,” arXiv:1109.2330 [quant-ph].

Buller, G. S.

K. J. Gordon, V. Fernandez, P. D. Townsend, and G. S. Buller, “A short wavelength gigahertz clocked fiber-optic quantum key distribution system,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40, 900–908 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chulkova, G.

A. Verevkin, J. Zhang, R. Sobolewski, A. Lipatov, O. Okunev, G. Chulkova, A. Korneev, K. Smirnov, G. N. Gol’tsman, and A. Semenov, “Detection efficiency of large-active-area NbN single-photon superconducting detectors in the ultraviolet to near-infrared range,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 4687–4689 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. N. Gol’tsman, O. Okunev, G. Chulkova, A. Lipatov, A. Semenov, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, A. Dzardanov, C. Williams, and R. Sobolewski, “Picosecond superconducting single-photon optical detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 705–707 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Couteau, C.

Cova, S.

S. Cova, M. Ghioni, A. Lotito, I. Rech, and F. Zappa, “Evolution and prospects for single-photon avalanche diodes and quenching circuits,” J. Mod. Opt. 51, 1267–1288 (2004).

Curty, M.

H.-K. Lo, M. Curty, and B. Qi, “Measurement device independent quantum key distribution,” arXiv:1109.1473 [quant-ph].

Dautet, H.

Debuisschert, T.

S. Fossier, E. Diamanti, T. Debuisschert, A. Villing, R. Tualle-Brouri, and P. Grangier, “Field test of a continuous-variable quantum key distribution prototype,” New J. Phys. 11, 045023 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Derkacs, D.

R. J. Hughes, J. E. Nordholt, D. Derkacs, and C. G. Peterson, “Practical free-space quantum key distribution over 10 km in daylight and at night,” New J. Phys. 4, 43 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Deschamps, P.

Diamanti, E.

S. Fossier, E. Diamanti, T. Debuisschert, A. Villing, R. Tualle-Brouri, and P. Grangier, “Field test of a continuous-variable quantum key distribution prototype,” New J. Phys. 11, 045023 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dion, B.

Dynes, J. F.

Z. L. Yuan, J. F. Dynes, and A. J. Shields, “Resilience of gated avalanche photodiodes against bright illumination attacks in quantum cryptography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 231104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Z. L. Yuan, J. F. Dynes, and A. J. Shields, “Avoiding the blinding attack in QKD,” Nat. Photonics 4, 800–801 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. L. Yuan, J. F. Dynes, and A. J. Shields, “Reply to “Comment on ‘Resilience of gated avalanche photodiodes against bright illumination attacks in quantum cryptography’”,” arXiv:1109.3149 [quant-ph].

Dzardanov, A.

G. N. Gol’tsman, O. Okunev, G. Chulkova, A. Lipatov, A. Semenov, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, A. Dzardanov, C. Williams, and R. Sobolewski, “Picosecond superconducting single-photon optical detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 705–707 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Elser, D.

C. Wiechers, L. Lydersen, C. Wittmann, D. Elser, J. Skaar, C. Marquardt, V. Makarov, and G. Leuchs, “After-gate attack on a quantum cryptosystem,” New J. Phys. 13, 013043 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. Lydersen, C. Wiechers, C. Wittmann, D. Elser, J. Skaar, and V. Makarov, “Reply to ‘Avoiding the blinding attack in QKD’,” Nat. Photonics 4, 801 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. Lydersen, C. Wiechers, C. Wittmann, D. Elser, J. Skaar, and V. Makarov, “Hacking commercial quantum cryptography systems by tailored bright illumination,” Nat. Photonics 4, 686–689 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. Lydersen, C. Wiechers, C. Wittmann, D. Elser, J. Skaar, and V. Makarov, “Thermal blinding of gated detectors in quantum cryptography,” Opt. Express 18, 27938–27954 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Erven, C.

Fernandez, V.

K. J. Gordon, V. Fernandez, P. D. Townsend, and G. S. Buller, “A short wavelength gigahertz clocked fiber-optic quantum key distribution system,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40, 900–908 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fossier, S.

S. Fossier, E. Diamanti, T. Debuisschert, A. Villing, R. Tualle-Brouri, and P. Grangier, “Field test of a continuous-variable quantum key distribution prototype,” New J. Phys. 11, 045023 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fürst, M.

R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, T. Scheidl, M. Lindenthal, B. Blauensteiner, T. Jennewein, J. Perdigues, P. Trojek, B. Ömer, M. Fürst, M. Meyenburg, J. Rarity, Z. Sodnik, C. Barbieri, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “Entanglement-based quantum communication over 144 km,” Nat. Phys. 3, 481–486 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gautier, J.-D.

R. T. Thew, D. Stucki, J.-D. Gautier, H. Zbinden, and A. Rochas, “Free-running InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiode with active quenching for single photon counting at telecom wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 201114 (2007).

Gerhardt, I.

I. Gerhardt, Q. Liu, A. Lamas-Linares, J. Skaar, C. Kurtsiefer, and V. Makarov, “Full-field implementation of a perfect eavesdropper on a quantum cryptography system,” Nat. Commun. 2, 349 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. P. Peloso, I. Gerhardt, C. Ho, A. Lamas-Linares, and C. Kurtsiefer, “Daylight operation of a free space, entanglement-based quantum key distribution system,” New J. Phys. 11, 045007 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ghioni, M.

S. Cova, M. Ghioni, A. Lotito, I. Rech, and F. Zappa, “Evolution and prospects for single-photon avalanche diodes and quenching circuits,” J. Mod. Opt. 51, 1267–1288 (2004).

Gisin, N.

D. Stucki, N. Walenta, F. Vannel, R. T. Thew, N. Gisin, H. Zbinden, S. Gray, C. R. Towery, and S. Ten, “High rate, long-distance quantum key distribution over 250 km of ultra low loss fibres,” New J. Phys. 11, 075003 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. T. Thew, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Tunable upconversion photon detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 071104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gol’tsman, G. N.

A. Verevkin, J. Zhang, R. Sobolewski, A. Lipatov, O. Okunev, G. Chulkova, A. Korneev, K. Smirnov, G. N. Gol’tsman, and A. Semenov, “Detection efficiency of large-active-area NbN single-photon superconducting detectors in the ultraviolet to near-infrared range,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 4687–4689 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. N. Gol’tsman, O. Okunev, G. Chulkova, A. Lipatov, A. Semenov, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, A. Dzardanov, C. Williams, and R. Sobolewski, “Picosecond superconducting single-photon optical detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 705–707 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Gordon, K. J.

K. J. Gordon, V. Fernandez, P. D. Townsend, and G. S. Buller, “A short wavelength gigahertz clocked fiber-optic quantum key distribution system,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40, 900–908 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gottesman, D.

D. Gottesman, H.-K. Lo, N. Lütkenhaus, and J. Preskill, “Security of quantum key distribution with imperfect devices,” Quant. Inf. Comp. 4, 325–360 (2004).

Grangier, P.

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D. Stucki, N. Walenta, F. Vannel, R. T. Thew, N. Gisin, H. Zbinden, S. Gray, C. R. Towery, and S. Ten, “High rate, long-distance quantum key distribution over 250 km of ultra low loss fibres,” New J. Phys. 11, 075003 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. T. Thew, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Tunable upconversion photon detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 071104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tiefenbacher, F.

R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, T. Scheidl, M. Lindenthal, B. Blauensteiner, T. Jennewein, J. Perdigues, P. Trojek, B. Ömer, M. Fürst, M. Meyenburg, J. Rarity, Z. Sodnik, C. Barbieri, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “Entanglement-based quantum communication over 144 km,” Nat. Phys. 3, 481–486 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Towery, C. R.

D. Stucki, N. Walenta, F. Vannel, R. T. Thew, N. Gisin, H. Zbinden, S. Gray, C. R. Towery, and S. Ten, “High rate, long-distance quantum key distribution over 250 km of ultra low loss fibres,” New J. Phys. 11, 075003 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Townsend, P. D.

K. J. Gordon, V. Fernandez, P. D. Townsend, and G. S. Buller, “A short wavelength gigahertz clocked fiber-optic quantum key distribution system,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40, 900–908 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Trojek, P.

R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, T. Scheidl, M. Lindenthal, B. Blauensteiner, T. Jennewein, J. Perdigues, P. Trojek, B. Ömer, M. Fürst, M. Meyenburg, J. Rarity, Z. Sodnik, C. Barbieri, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “Entanglement-based quantum communication over 144 km,” Nat. Phys. 3, 481–486 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Trottier, C.

Tualle-Brouri, R.

S. Fossier, E. Diamanti, T. Debuisschert, A. Villing, R. Tualle-Brouri, and P. Grangier, “Field test of a continuous-variable quantum key distribution prototype,” New J. Phys. 11, 045023 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ursin, R.

R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, T. Scheidl, M. Lindenthal, B. Blauensteiner, T. Jennewein, J. Perdigues, P. Trojek, B. Ömer, M. Fürst, M. Meyenburg, J. Rarity, Z. Sodnik, C. Barbieri, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “Entanglement-based quantum communication over 144 km,” Nat. Phys. 3, 481–486 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Vannel, F.

D. Stucki, N. Walenta, F. Vannel, R. T. Thew, N. Gisin, H. Zbinden, S. Gray, C. R. Towery, and S. Ten, “High rate, long-distance quantum key distribution over 250 km of ultra low loss fibres,” New J. Phys. 11, 075003 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Verevkin, A.

A. Verevkin, J. Zhang, R. Sobolewski, A. Lipatov, O. Okunev, G. Chulkova, A. Korneev, K. Smirnov, G. N. Gol’tsman, and A. Semenov, “Detection efficiency of large-active-area NbN single-photon superconducting detectors in the ultraviolet to near-infrared range,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 4687–4689 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Villing, A.

S. Fossier, E. Diamanti, T. Debuisschert, A. Villing, R. Tualle-Brouri, and P. Grangier, “Field test of a continuous-variable quantum key distribution prototype,” New J. Phys. 11, 045023 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Voronov, B.

G. N. Gol’tsman, O. Okunev, G. Chulkova, A. Lipatov, A. Semenov, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, A. Dzardanov, C. Williams, and R. Sobolewski, “Picosecond superconducting single-photon optical detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 705–707 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Walenta, N.

D. Stucki, N. Walenta, F. Vannel, R. T. Thew, N. Gisin, H. Zbinden, S. Gray, C. R. Towery, and S. Ten, “High rate, long-distance quantum key distribution over 250 km of ultra low loss fibres,” New J. Phys. 11, 075003 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Webb, P. P.

Weier, H.

R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, T. Scheidl, M. Lindenthal, B. Blauensteiner, T. Jennewein, J. Perdigues, P. Trojek, B. Ömer, M. Fürst, M. Meyenburg, J. Rarity, Z. Sodnik, C. Barbieri, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “Entanglement-based quantum communication over 144 km,” Nat. Phys. 3, 481–486 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Weihs, G.

Weinfurter, H.

R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, T. Scheidl, M. Lindenthal, B. Blauensteiner, T. Jennewein, J. Perdigues, P. Trojek, B. Ömer, M. Fürst, M. Meyenburg, J. Rarity, Z. Sodnik, C. Barbieri, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “Entanglement-based quantum communication over 144 km,” Nat. Phys. 3, 481–486 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wiechers, C.

C. Wiechers, L. Lydersen, C. Wittmann, D. Elser, J. Skaar, C. Marquardt, V. Makarov, and G. Leuchs, “After-gate attack on a quantum cryptosystem,” New J. Phys. 13, 013043 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. Lydersen, C. Wiechers, C. Wittmann, D. Elser, J. Skaar, and V. Makarov, “Reply to ‘Avoiding the blinding attack in QKD’,” Nat. Photonics 4, 801 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. Lydersen, C. Wiechers, C. Wittmann, D. Elser, J. Skaar, and V. Makarov, “Thermal blinding of gated detectors in quantum cryptography,” Opt. Express 18, 27938–27954 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. Lydersen, C. Wiechers, C. Wittmann, D. Elser, J. Skaar, and V. Makarov, “Hacking commercial quantum cryptography systems by tailored bright illumination,” Nat. Photonics 4, 686–689 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Williams, C.

G. N. Gol’tsman, O. Okunev, G. Chulkova, A. Lipatov, A. Semenov, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, A. Dzardanov, C. Williams, and R. Sobolewski, “Picosecond superconducting single-photon optical detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 705–707 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wittmann, C.

C. Wiechers, L. Lydersen, C. Wittmann, D. Elser, J. Skaar, C. Marquardt, V. Makarov, and G. Leuchs, “After-gate attack on a quantum cryptosystem,” New J. Phys. 13, 013043 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. Lydersen, N. Jain, C. Wittmann, Ø. Marøy, J. Skaar, C. Marquardt, V. Makarov, and G. Leuchs, “Superlinear threshold detectors in quantum cryptography,” Phys. Rev. A 84, 032320 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. Lydersen, C. Wiechers, C. Wittmann, D. Elser, J. Skaar, and V. Makarov, “Hacking commercial quantum cryptography systems by tailored bright illumination,” Nat. Photonics 4, 686–689 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. Lydersen, C. Wiechers, C. Wittmann, D. Elser, J. Skaar, and V. Makarov, “Thermal blinding of gated detectors in quantum cryptography,” Opt. Express 18, 27938–27954 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. Lydersen, C. Wiechers, C. Wittmann, D. Elser, J. Skaar, and V. Makarov, “Reply to ‘Avoiding the blinding attack in QKD’,” Nat. Photonics 4, 801 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wootters, W. K.

W. K. Wootters and W. H. Zurek, “A single quantum cannot be cloned,” Nature 299, 802–803 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Yuan, Z. L.

Z. L. Yuan, J. F. Dynes, and A. J. Shields, “Resilience of gated avalanche photodiodes against bright illumination attacks in quantum cryptography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 231104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Z. L. Yuan, J. F. Dynes, and A. J. Shields, “Avoiding the blinding attack in QKD,” Nat. Photonics 4, 800–801 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. L. Yuan, J. F. Dynes, and A. J. Shields, “Reply to “Comment on ‘Resilience of gated avalanche photodiodes against bright illumination attacks in quantum cryptography’”,” arXiv:1109.3149 [quant-ph].

Zappa, F.

S. Cova, M. Ghioni, A. Lotito, I. Rech, and F. Zappa, “Evolution and prospects for single-photon avalanche diodes and quenching circuits,” J. Mod. Opt. 51, 1267–1288 (2004).

Zbinden, H.

R. T. Thew, D. Stucki, J.-D. Gautier, H. Zbinden, and A. Rochas, “Free-running InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiode with active quenching for single photon counting at telecom wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 201114 (2007).

D. Stucki, N. Walenta, F. Vannel, R. T. Thew, N. Gisin, H. Zbinden, S. Gray, C. R. Towery, and S. Ten, “High rate, long-distance quantum key distribution over 250 km of ultra low loss fibres,” New J. Phys. 11, 075003 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. T. Thew, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Tunable upconversion photon detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 071104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zeilinger, A.

R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, T. Scheidl, M. Lindenthal, B. Blauensteiner, T. Jennewein, J. Perdigues, P. Trojek, B. Ömer, M. Fürst, M. Meyenburg, J. Rarity, Z. Sodnik, C. Barbieri, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “Entanglement-based quantum communication over 144 km,” Nat. Phys. 3, 481–486 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J.

A. Verevkin, J. Zhang, R. Sobolewski, A. Lipatov, O. Okunev, G. Chulkova, A. Korneev, K. Smirnov, G. N. Gol’tsman, and A. Semenov, “Detection efficiency of large-active-area NbN single-photon superconducting detectors in the ultraviolet to near-infrared range,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 4687–4689 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zurek, W. H.

W. K. Wootters and W. H. Zurek, “A single quantum cannot be cloned,” Nature 299, 802–803 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

G. N. Gol’tsman, O. Okunev, G. Chulkova, A. Lipatov, A. Semenov, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, A. Dzardanov, C. Williams, and R. Sobolewski, “Picosecond superconducting single-photon optical detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 705–707 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Verevkin, J. Zhang, R. Sobolewski, A. Lipatov, O. Okunev, G. Chulkova, A. Korneev, K. Smirnov, G. N. Gol’tsman, and A. Semenov, “Detection efficiency of large-active-area NbN single-photon superconducting detectors in the ultraviolet to near-infrared range,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 4687–4689 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Z. L. Yuan, J. F. Dynes, and A. J. Shields, “Resilience of gated avalanche photodiodes against bright illumination attacks in quantum cryptography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 231104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. T. Thew, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Tunable upconversion photon detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 071104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. T. Thew, D. Stucki, J.-D. Gautier, H. Zbinden, and A. Rochas, “Free-running InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiode with active quenching for single photon counting at telecom wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 201114 (2007).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

K. J. Gordon, V. Fernandez, P. D. Townsend, and G. S. Buller, “A short wavelength gigahertz clocked fiber-optic quantum key distribution system,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40, 900–908 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Mod. Opt.

V. Makarov and D. R. Hjelme, “Faked states attack on quantum cryptosystems,” J. Mod. Opt. 52, 691–705 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. G. Rarity, P. C. M. Owens, and P. R. Tapster, “Quantum random-number generation and key sharing,” J. Mod. Opt. 41, 2435–2444 (1994).
[CrossRef]

S. Cova, M. Ghioni, A. Lotito, I. Rech, and F. Zappa, “Evolution and prospects for single-photon avalanche diodes and quenching circuits,” J. Mod. Opt. 51, 1267–1288 (2004).

Nat. Commun.

I. Gerhardt, Q. Liu, A. Lamas-Linares, J. Skaar, C. Kurtsiefer, and V. Makarov, “Full-field implementation of a perfect eavesdropper on a quantum cryptography system,” Nat. Commun. 2, 349 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics

L. Lydersen, C. Wiechers, C. Wittmann, D. Elser, J. Skaar, and V. Makarov, “Hacking commercial quantum cryptography systems by tailored bright illumination,” Nat. Photonics 4, 686–689 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. L. Yuan, J. F. Dynes, and A. J. Shields, “Avoiding the blinding attack in QKD,” Nat. Photonics 4, 800–801 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. Lydersen, C. Wiechers, C. Wittmann, D. Elser, J. Skaar, and V. Makarov, “Reply to ‘Avoiding the blinding attack in QKD’,” Nat. Photonics 4, 801 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Phys.

R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, T. Scheidl, M. Lindenthal, B. Blauensteiner, T. Jennewein, J. Perdigues, P. Trojek, B. Ömer, M. Fürst, M. Meyenburg, J. Rarity, Z. Sodnik, C. Barbieri, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “Entanglement-based quantum communication over 144 km,” Nat. Phys. 3, 481–486 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nature

W. K. Wootters and W. H. Zurek, “A single quantum cannot be cloned,” Nature 299, 802–803 (1982).
[CrossRef]

New J. Phys.

D. Stucki, N. Walenta, F. Vannel, R. T. Thew, N. Gisin, H. Zbinden, S. Gray, C. R. Towery, and S. Ten, “High rate, long-distance quantum key distribution over 250 km of ultra low loss fibres,” New J. Phys. 11, 075003 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Koashi, “Simple security proof of quantum key distribution based on complementarity,” New J. Phys. 11, 045018 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Wiechers, L. Lydersen, C. Wittmann, D. Elser, J. Skaar, C. Marquardt, V. Makarov, and G. Leuchs, “After-gate attack on a quantum cryptosystem,” New J. Phys. 13, 013043 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Peloso, I. Gerhardt, C. Ho, A. Lamas-Linares, and C. Kurtsiefer, “Daylight operation of a free space, entanglement-based quantum key distribution system,” New J. Phys. 11, 045007 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Hughes, J. E. Nordholt, D. Derkacs, and C. G. Peterson, “Practical free-space quantum key distribution over 10 km in daylight and at night,” New J. Phys. 4, 43 (2002).
[CrossRef]

V. Makarov, “Controlling passively quenched single photon detectors by bright light,” New J. Phys. 11, 065003 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Fossier, E. Diamanti, T. Debuisschert, A. Villing, R. Tualle-Brouri, and P. Grangier, “Field test of a continuous-variable quantum key distribution prototype,” New J. Phys. 11, 045023 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Phys. Rev. A

T. C. Ralph, “Continuous variable quantum cryptography,” Phys. Rev. A 61, 010303 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Hillery, “Quantum cryptography with squeezed states,” Phys. Rev. A 61, 022309 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Reid, “Quantum cryptography with a predetermined key, using continuous-variable Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen correlations,” Phys. Rev. A 62, 062308 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Heid and N. Lütkenhaus, “Security of coherent-state quantum cryptography in the presence of Gaussian noise,” Phys. Rev. A 76, 022313 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Lydersen, V. Makarov, and J. Skaar, “Secure gated detection scheme for quantum cryptography,” Phys. Rev. A 83, 032306 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. Lydersen, N. Jain, C. Wittmann, Ø. Marøy, J. Skaar, C. Marquardt, V. Makarov, and G. Leuchs, “Superlinear threshold detectors in quantum cryptography,” Phys. Rev. A 84, 032320 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ø. Marøy, L. Lydersen, and J. Skaar, “Security of quantum key distribution with arbitrary individual imperfections,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 032337 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Quant. Inf. Comp.

D. Gottesman, H.-K. Lo, N. Lütkenhaus, and J. Preskill, “Security of quantum key distribution with imperfect devices,” Quant. Inf. Comp. 4, 325–360 (2004).

Other

Commercial QKD systems are available from at least two companies: ID Quantique (Switzerland), http://www.idquantique.com ; MagiQ Technologies (USA), http://www.magiqtech.com .

D. Mayers, “Advances in cryptology,” in Proceedings of Crypto’96, vol. 1109, N. Koblitz, ed. (Springer, New York, 1996), vol. 1109, pp. 343–357.

PerkinElmer SPCM-AQR single photon counting module, data sheet, PerkinElmer (2005).

L. Lydersen, V. Makarov, and J. Skaar, “Comment on ‘Resilience of gated avalanche photodiodes against bright illumination attacks in quantum cryptography’,” arXiv:1106.3756 [quant-ph].

Z. L. Yuan, J. F. Dynes, and A. J. Shields, “Reply to “Comment on ‘Resilience of gated avalanche photodiodes against bright illumination attacks in quantum cryptography’”,” arXiv:1109.3149 [quant-ph].

H.-K. Lo, M. Curty, and B. Qi, “Measurement device independent quantum key distribution,” arXiv:1109.1473 [quant-ph].

S. L. Braunstein and S. Pirandola, “Side-channel free quantum key distribution,” arXiv:1109.2330 [quant-ph].

L. Lydersen, M. K. Akhlaghi, A. H. Majedi, J. Skaar, and V. Makarov, “Controlling a superconducting nanowire single-photon detector using tailored bright illumination,” arXiv:1106.2396 [quant-ph].

id210 advanced system for single photon detection, data sheet, ID Quantique (2011), http://www.idquantique.com/images/stories/PDF/id210-single-photon-counter/id210-specs.pdf (accessed on 1 August 2011).

PerkinElmer SPCM-AQ4C single photon counting module array, data sheet, PerkinElmer (2005).

C. H. Bennett and G. Brassard, “Quantum cryptography: Public key distribution and coin tossing,” in “Proc. IEEE International Conference on Computers, Systems, and Signal Processing” (IEEE Press, New York, Bangalore, India, 1984), pp. 175–179.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Intercept-resend (faked-state) attack Eve could launch against a QKD system which runs a four-state protocol with polarization coding and passive choice of basis [2124]. In the example, Eve targets the detector recording vertically polarized qubits in the horizontal/vertical (H/V) basis. We assume here that detectors click controllably when illuminated by an optical pulse with peak power ≥ Pth, and that they are blind (or kept blind) at power ≤ Pth/2 (characteristics of the ‘blinding generator’ potentially needed to bring detectors in this working mode will be described later). To address the target detector, Eve sends a faked state with V polarization and power 2Pth, thus the V detector receives power Pth after basis choice, and clicks. The detectors recording polarized qubits in the conjugate (45°-rotated, D/A) basis each receive a pulse of power Pth/2, and thus remain blinded. In the diagram: BS, 50:50% beamsplitter; PBS, polarizing beamsplitter; HWP, half-wave plate rotated 22.5°.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Oscillogram at detector output (lower trace) illuminated by bright optical pulses (upper trace) made of control pulses (808nm, 8mW, 50ns wide, 800kHz repetition rate) to blind the detector, and of weaker trigger pulses (8ns wide). The trigger pulses make the detector click with unity probability and sub-nanosecond time jitter only above a certain power threshold. In the example, detector always clicks at Pth = 2.88mW peak power trigger pulses, never clicks at ≤2.49mW.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Detector blinding: (a) APD bias voltage vs. frequency and peak optical power Pcontrol of rectangular 50ns wide input optical pulses. Normal bias voltage at low count rate for this detector sample is 410V (the other detector sample we tested had bias voltage of 350V). Filled symbols denote pulse parameters at which the detector got completely blind between the control pulses. (b) Parameters in the circuit vs. frequency of optical pulses with peak power Pcontrol = 8mW. Behavior of these parameters reveals three blinding mechanisms summarized over the top of the chart. The middle chart shows static voltage difference between the inputs of opamp, controlling the APD bias voltage (as similarity of the two top charts confirms). The lower chart shows current of the thermoelectric cooler (TEC) and the temperature of the APD as measured by a thermistor mounted nearby at the cold plate of the TEC.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Simplified reverse-engineered circuit diagram of PerkinElmer SPCM-AQR module. In normal operation, the cathode of the APD (superlow-k (SliK) type [37]) is biased at a constant high voltage, stabilized by a feedback loop containing an opamp U7.1 (Texas Instruments TLC2262), field-effect transistor Q11 and high-voltage DC/DC converter module U6 (EMCO custom model no. 9546). The anode of the APD is connected to a detection and quenching circuit (DQC). The DQC senses charge flowing through the APD during the avalanche, then briefly connects the APD anode to +30V to lower the voltage across the APD below breakdown and quench the avalanche. The APD anode voltage is subsequently reset to 0V, and the detector becomes ready for the next avalanche. (Note: the circuit diagram has been greatly simplified for the paper; do not use this figure for attempting detector repair or modification.)

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

APD package decapsulated: the cover and fibre coupling optics have been cut off. The dark dot in the center of the APD is its photosensitive area. The APD and thermistor are mounted on the cold plate of a two-stage thermoelectric cooler (TEC). In the assembled detector, the package base is in thermal contact with an aluminum detector outer case serving as a heatsink.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Comparison of thermal blinding characteristics of the PerkinElmer SPCM-AQR detector (a) to the ones reported for ID Quantique’s Clavis2 commercial QKD system [11] (b). Filled symbols denote regime in which the detector got completely blind between the control pulses. For the SPCM-AQR, characteristics at Pcontrol = 1mW are shown, because at this power thermal blinding is the only blinding mechanism.

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