Abstract

Highly-ordered vertical nanowire and nanowall arrays are studied on Si solar cell surface. The nanowall textured solar cell is found to be more effective in reducing the overall optical reflectance, resulting in higher short circuit current (Jsc = 24.9 mA/cm2) over nanowire structured (Jsc = 23.3 mA/cm2) and planar (Jsc = 17.5 mA/cm2) solar cells. The extracted energy conversion efficiency (η) from planar solar cell is 7.1%, while nanowire/nanowall cells show efficiency of 8.2% and 6.3%, respectively. If corrected with series resistance (Rs), nanowall solar cell exhibits the highest η of 9.8% in this experiment. A careful study of the series resistance from different types of the nanostructures is also presented.

© 2011 OSA

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. L. Hu and G. Chen, “Analysis of optical absorption in silicon nanowire arrays for photovoltaic applications,” Nano Lett. 7(11), 3249–3252 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. L. Tsakalakos, J. Balch, J. Fronheiser, M. Y. Shih, S. F. LeBoeuf, M. Pietrzykowski, P. J. Codella, B. A. Korevaar, O. Sulima, J. Rand, A. Davuluru, and U. Rapol, “Strong broadband optical absorption in silicon nanowire films,” J. Nanophotonics 1(1), 013552 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  3. R. A. Street, P. Qi, R. Lujan, and W. S. Wong, “Reflectivity of disordered silicon nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(16), 163109 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. S. Li, H. Y. Yu, S. M. Wong, G. Zhang, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Surface nanostructure optimization for solar energy harvesting in Si thin film based solar cells,” in 2009 IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting (IEDM) (IEEE, 2009), pp. 1–4.
  5. L. Tsakalakos, J. Balch, J. Fronheiser, B. A. Korevaar, O. Sulima, and J. Rand, “Silicon nanowire solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(23), 233117 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  6. B. Tian, X. Zheng, T. J. Kempa, Y. Fang, N. Yu, G. Yu, J. Huang, and C. M. Lieber, “Coaxial silicon nanowires as solar cells and nanoelectronic power sources,” Nature 449(7164), 885–889 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. K. Peng, Y. Xu, Y. Wu, Y. Yan, S. T. Lee, and J. Zhu, “Aligned single-crystalline Si nanowire arrays for photovoltaic applications,” Small 1(11), 1062–1067 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. S. M. Wong, H. Y. Yu, J. S. Li, G. Zhang, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Design high-efficiency Si nanopillar-array-textured thin-film solar cell,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 31(4), 335–337 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  9. L. Guo, “Recent progress in nanoimprint technology and its applications,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 37(11), R123–R141 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  10. M. Born, E. Wolf, and A. Bhatia, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, Oxford, 1975).
  11. B. S. Richards, “Single-material TiO2 double-layer antireflection coatings,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 79(3), 369–390 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  12. J. Zhao and M. A. Green, “Optimized antireflection coatings for high-efficiency silicon solar cells,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 38(8), 1925–1934 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  13. D. Schroder and D. Meier, “Solar cell contact resistance—a review,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 31(5), 637–647 (1984).
    [CrossRef]

2010

S. M. Wong, H. Y. Yu, J. S. Li, G. Zhang, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Design high-efficiency Si nanopillar-array-textured thin-film solar cell,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 31(4), 335–337 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2008

R. A. Street, P. Qi, R. Lujan, and W. S. Wong, “Reflectivity of disordered silicon nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(16), 163109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

L. Tsakalakos, J. Balch, J. Fronheiser, B. A. Korevaar, O. Sulima, and J. Rand, “Silicon nanowire solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(23), 233117 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. Tian, X. Zheng, T. J. Kempa, Y. Fang, N. Yu, G. Yu, J. Huang, and C. M. Lieber, “Coaxial silicon nanowires as solar cells and nanoelectronic power sources,” Nature 449(7164), 885–889 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Hu and G. Chen, “Analysis of optical absorption in silicon nanowire arrays for photovoltaic applications,” Nano Lett. 7(11), 3249–3252 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Tsakalakos, J. Balch, J. Fronheiser, M. Y. Shih, S. F. LeBoeuf, M. Pietrzykowski, P. J. Codella, B. A. Korevaar, O. Sulima, J. Rand, A. Davuluru, and U. Rapol, “Strong broadband optical absorption in silicon nanowire films,” J. Nanophotonics 1(1), 013552 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005

K. Peng, Y. Xu, Y. Wu, Y. Yan, S. T. Lee, and J. Zhu, “Aligned single-crystalline Si nanowire arrays for photovoltaic applications,” Small 1(11), 1062–1067 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

L. Guo, “Recent progress in nanoimprint technology and its applications,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 37(11), R123–R141 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

B. S. Richards, “Single-material TiO2 double-layer antireflection coatings,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 79(3), 369–390 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1991

J. Zhao and M. A. Green, “Optimized antireflection coatings for high-efficiency silicon solar cells,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 38(8), 1925–1934 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1984

D. Schroder and D. Meier, “Solar cell contact resistance—a review,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 31(5), 637–647 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Balch, J.

L. Tsakalakos, J. Balch, J. Fronheiser, B. A. Korevaar, O. Sulima, and J. Rand, “Silicon nanowire solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(23), 233117 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Tsakalakos, J. Balch, J. Fronheiser, M. Y. Shih, S. F. LeBoeuf, M. Pietrzykowski, P. J. Codella, B. A. Korevaar, O. Sulima, J. Rand, A. Davuluru, and U. Rapol, “Strong broadband optical absorption in silicon nanowire films,” J. Nanophotonics 1(1), 013552 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chen, G.

L. Hu and G. Chen, “Analysis of optical absorption in silicon nanowire arrays for photovoltaic applications,” Nano Lett. 7(11), 3249–3252 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Codella, P. J.

L. Tsakalakos, J. Balch, J. Fronheiser, M. Y. Shih, S. F. LeBoeuf, M. Pietrzykowski, P. J. Codella, B. A. Korevaar, O. Sulima, J. Rand, A. Davuluru, and U. Rapol, “Strong broadband optical absorption in silicon nanowire films,” J. Nanophotonics 1(1), 013552 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Davuluru, A.

L. Tsakalakos, J. Balch, J. Fronheiser, M. Y. Shih, S. F. LeBoeuf, M. Pietrzykowski, P. J. Codella, B. A. Korevaar, O. Sulima, J. Rand, A. Davuluru, and U. Rapol, “Strong broadband optical absorption in silicon nanowire films,” J. Nanophotonics 1(1), 013552 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fang, Y.

B. Tian, X. Zheng, T. J. Kempa, Y. Fang, N. Yu, G. Yu, J. Huang, and C. M. Lieber, “Coaxial silicon nanowires as solar cells and nanoelectronic power sources,” Nature 449(7164), 885–889 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fronheiser, J.

L. Tsakalakos, J. Balch, J. Fronheiser, M. Y. Shih, S. F. LeBoeuf, M. Pietrzykowski, P. J. Codella, B. A. Korevaar, O. Sulima, J. Rand, A. Davuluru, and U. Rapol, “Strong broadband optical absorption in silicon nanowire films,” J. Nanophotonics 1(1), 013552 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Tsakalakos, J. Balch, J. Fronheiser, B. A. Korevaar, O. Sulima, and J. Rand, “Silicon nanowire solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(23), 233117 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Green, M. A.

J. Zhao and M. A. Green, “Optimized antireflection coatings for high-efficiency silicon solar cells,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 38(8), 1925–1934 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Guo, L.

L. Guo, “Recent progress in nanoimprint technology and its applications,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 37(11), R123–R141 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hu, L.

L. Hu and G. Chen, “Analysis of optical absorption in silicon nanowire arrays for photovoltaic applications,” Nano Lett. 7(11), 3249–3252 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, J.

B. Tian, X. Zheng, T. J. Kempa, Y. Fang, N. Yu, G. Yu, J. Huang, and C. M. Lieber, “Coaxial silicon nanowires as solar cells and nanoelectronic power sources,” Nature 449(7164), 885–889 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kempa, T. J.

B. Tian, X. Zheng, T. J. Kempa, Y. Fang, N. Yu, G. Yu, J. Huang, and C. M. Lieber, “Coaxial silicon nanowires as solar cells and nanoelectronic power sources,” Nature 449(7164), 885–889 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Korevaar, B. A.

L. Tsakalakos, J. Balch, J. Fronheiser, M. Y. Shih, S. F. LeBoeuf, M. Pietrzykowski, P. J. Codella, B. A. Korevaar, O. Sulima, J. Rand, A. Davuluru, and U. Rapol, “Strong broadband optical absorption in silicon nanowire films,” J. Nanophotonics 1(1), 013552 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Tsakalakos, J. Balch, J. Fronheiser, B. A. Korevaar, O. Sulima, and J. Rand, “Silicon nanowire solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(23), 233117 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kwong, D. L.

S. M. Wong, H. Y. Yu, J. S. Li, G. Zhang, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Design high-efficiency Si nanopillar-array-textured thin-film solar cell,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 31(4), 335–337 (2010).
[CrossRef]

LeBoeuf, S. F.

L. Tsakalakos, J. Balch, J. Fronheiser, M. Y. Shih, S. F. LeBoeuf, M. Pietrzykowski, P. J. Codella, B. A. Korevaar, O. Sulima, J. Rand, A. Davuluru, and U. Rapol, “Strong broadband optical absorption in silicon nanowire films,” J. Nanophotonics 1(1), 013552 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. T.

K. Peng, Y. Xu, Y. Wu, Y. Yan, S. T. Lee, and J. Zhu, “Aligned single-crystalline Si nanowire arrays for photovoltaic applications,” Small 1(11), 1062–1067 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, J. S.

S. M. Wong, H. Y. Yu, J. S. Li, G. Zhang, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Design high-efficiency Si nanopillar-array-textured thin-film solar cell,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 31(4), 335–337 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lieber, C. M.

B. Tian, X. Zheng, T. J. Kempa, Y. Fang, N. Yu, G. Yu, J. Huang, and C. M. Lieber, “Coaxial silicon nanowires as solar cells and nanoelectronic power sources,” Nature 449(7164), 885–889 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lo, G. Q.

S. M. Wong, H. Y. Yu, J. S. Li, G. Zhang, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Design high-efficiency Si nanopillar-array-textured thin-film solar cell,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 31(4), 335–337 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lujan, R.

R. A. Street, P. Qi, R. Lujan, and W. S. Wong, “Reflectivity of disordered silicon nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(16), 163109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Meier, D.

D. Schroder and D. Meier, “Solar cell contact resistance—a review,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 31(5), 637–647 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Peng, K.

K. Peng, Y. Xu, Y. Wu, Y. Yan, S. T. Lee, and J. Zhu, “Aligned single-crystalline Si nanowire arrays for photovoltaic applications,” Small 1(11), 1062–1067 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pietrzykowski, M.

L. Tsakalakos, J. Balch, J. Fronheiser, M. Y. Shih, S. F. LeBoeuf, M. Pietrzykowski, P. J. Codella, B. A. Korevaar, O. Sulima, J. Rand, A. Davuluru, and U. Rapol, “Strong broadband optical absorption in silicon nanowire films,” J. Nanophotonics 1(1), 013552 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Qi, P.

R. A. Street, P. Qi, R. Lujan, and W. S. Wong, “Reflectivity of disordered silicon nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(16), 163109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Rand, J.

L. Tsakalakos, J. Balch, J. Fronheiser, B. A. Korevaar, O. Sulima, and J. Rand, “Silicon nanowire solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(23), 233117 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Tsakalakos, J. Balch, J. Fronheiser, M. Y. Shih, S. F. LeBoeuf, M. Pietrzykowski, P. J. Codella, B. A. Korevaar, O. Sulima, J. Rand, A. Davuluru, and U. Rapol, “Strong broadband optical absorption in silicon nanowire films,” J. Nanophotonics 1(1), 013552 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rapol, U.

L. Tsakalakos, J. Balch, J. Fronheiser, M. Y. Shih, S. F. LeBoeuf, M. Pietrzykowski, P. J. Codella, B. A. Korevaar, O. Sulima, J. Rand, A. Davuluru, and U. Rapol, “Strong broadband optical absorption in silicon nanowire films,” J. Nanophotonics 1(1), 013552 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Richards, B. S.

B. S. Richards, “Single-material TiO2 double-layer antireflection coatings,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 79(3), 369–390 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Schroder, D.

D. Schroder and D. Meier, “Solar cell contact resistance—a review,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 31(5), 637–647 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Shih, M. Y.

L. Tsakalakos, J. Balch, J. Fronheiser, M. Y. Shih, S. F. LeBoeuf, M. Pietrzykowski, P. J. Codella, B. A. Korevaar, O. Sulima, J. Rand, A. Davuluru, and U. Rapol, “Strong broadband optical absorption in silicon nanowire films,” J. Nanophotonics 1(1), 013552 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Street, R. A.

R. A. Street, P. Qi, R. Lujan, and W. S. Wong, “Reflectivity of disordered silicon nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(16), 163109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sulima, O.

L. Tsakalakos, J. Balch, J. Fronheiser, B. A. Korevaar, O. Sulima, and J. Rand, “Silicon nanowire solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(23), 233117 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Tsakalakos, J. Balch, J. Fronheiser, M. Y. Shih, S. F. LeBoeuf, M. Pietrzykowski, P. J. Codella, B. A. Korevaar, O. Sulima, J. Rand, A. Davuluru, and U. Rapol, “Strong broadband optical absorption in silicon nanowire films,” J. Nanophotonics 1(1), 013552 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tian, B.

B. Tian, X. Zheng, T. J. Kempa, Y. Fang, N. Yu, G. Yu, J. Huang, and C. M. Lieber, “Coaxial silicon nanowires as solar cells and nanoelectronic power sources,” Nature 449(7164), 885–889 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tsakalakos, L.

L. Tsakalakos, J. Balch, J. Fronheiser, M. Y. Shih, S. F. LeBoeuf, M. Pietrzykowski, P. J. Codella, B. A. Korevaar, O. Sulima, J. Rand, A. Davuluru, and U. Rapol, “Strong broadband optical absorption in silicon nanowire films,” J. Nanophotonics 1(1), 013552 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Tsakalakos, J. Balch, J. Fronheiser, B. A. Korevaar, O. Sulima, and J. Rand, “Silicon nanowire solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(23), 233117 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wong, S. M.

S. M. Wong, H. Y. Yu, J. S. Li, G. Zhang, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Design high-efficiency Si nanopillar-array-textured thin-film solar cell,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 31(4), 335–337 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wong, W. S.

R. A. Street, P. Qi, R. Lujan, and W. S. Wong, “Reflectivity of disordered silicon nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(16), 163109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wu, Y.

K. Peng, Y. Xu, Y. Wu, Y. Yan, S. T. Lee, and J. Zhu, “Aligned single-crystalline Si nanowire arrays for photovoltaic applications,” Small 1(11), 1062–1067 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xu, Y.

K. Peng, Y. Xu, Y. Wu, Y. Yan, S. T. Lee, and J. Zhu, “Aligned single-crystalline Si nanowire arrays for photovoltaic applications,” Small 1(11), 1062–1067 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yan, Y.

K. Peng, Y. Xu, Y. Wu, Y. Yan, S. T. Lee, and J. Zhu, “Aligned single-crystalline Si nanowire arrays for photovoltaic applications,” Small 1(11), 1062–1067 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yu, G.

B. Tian, X. Zheng, T. J. Kempa, Y. Fang, N. Yu, G. Yu, J. Huang, and C. M. Lieber, “Coaxial silicon nanowires as solar cells and nanoelectronic power sources,” Nature 449(7164), 885–889 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yu, H. Y.

S. M. Wong, H. Y. Yu, J. S. Li, G. Zhang, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Design high-efficiency Si nanopillar-array-textured thin-film solar cell,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 31(4), 335–337 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yu, N.

B. Tian, X. Zheng, T. J. Kempa, Y. Fang, N. Yu, G. Yu, J. Huang, and C. M. Lieber, “Coaxial silicon nanowires as solar cells and nanoelectronic power sources,” Nature 449(7164), 885–889 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, G.

S. M. Wong, H. Y. Yu, J. S. Li, G. Zhang, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Design high-efficiency Si nanopillar-array-textured thin-film solar cell,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 31(4), 335–337 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, J.

J. Zhao and M. A. Green, “Optimized antireflection coatings for high-efficiency silicon solar cells,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 38(8), 1925–1934 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Zheng, X.

B. Tian, X. Zheng, T. J. Kempa, Y. Fang, N. Yu, G. Yu, J. Huang, and C. M. Lieber, “Coaxial silicon nanowires as solar cells and nanoelectronic power sources,” Nature 449(7164), 885–889 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhu, J.

K. Peng, Y. Xu, Y. Wu, Y. Yan, S. T. Lee, and J. Zhu, “Aligned single-crystalline Si nanowire arrays for photovoltaic applications,” Small 1(11), 1062–1067 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

R. A. Street, P. Qi, R. Lujan, and W. S. Wong, “Reflectivity of disordered silicon nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(16), 163109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Tsakalakos, J. Balch, J. Fronheiser, B. A. Korevaar, O. Sulima, and J. Rand, “Silicon nanowire solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(23), 233117 (2007).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Electron Device Lett.

S. M. Wong, H. Y. Yu, J. S. Li, G. Zhang, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Design high-efficiency Si nanopillar-array-textured thin-film solar cell,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 31(4), 335–337 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev.

J. Zhao and M. A. Green, “Optimized antireflection coatings for high-efficiency silicon solar cells,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 38(8), 1925–1934 (1991).
[CrossRef]

D. Schroder and D. Meier, “Solar cell contact resistance—a review,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 31(5), 637–647 (1984).
[CrossRef]

J. Nanophotonics

L. Tsakalakos, J. Balch, J. Fronheiser, M. Y. Shih, S. F. LeBoeuf, M. Pietrzykowski, P. J. Codella, B. A. Korevaar, O. Sulima, J. Rand, A. Davuluru, and U. Rapol, “Strong broadband optical absorption in silicon nanowire films,” J. Nanophotonics 1(1), 013552 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.

L. Guo, “Recent progress in nanoimprint technology and its applications,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 37(11), R123–R141 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett.

L. Hu and G. Chen, “Analysis of optical absorption in silicon nanowire arrays for photovoltaic applications,” Nano Lett. 7(11), 3249–3252 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature

B. Tian, X. Zheng, T. J. Kempa, Y. Fang, N. Yu, G. Yu, J. Huang, and C. M. Lieber, “Coaxial silicon nanowires as solar cells and nanoelectronic power sources,” Nature 449(7164), 885–889 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Small

K. Peng, Y. Xu, Y. Wu, Y. Yan, S. T. Lee, and J. Zhu, “Aligned single-crystalline Si nanowire arrays for photovoltaic applications,” Small 1(11), 1062–1067 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells

B. S. Richards, “Single-material TiO2 double-layer antireflection coatings,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 79(3), 369–390 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Other

M. Born, E. Wolf, and A. Bhatia, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, Oxford, 1975).

J. S. Li, H. Y. Yu, S. M. Wong, G. Zhang, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Surface nanostructure optimization for solar energy harvesting in Si thin film based solar cells,” in 2009 IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting (IEDM) (IEEE, 2009), pp. 1–4.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) 3D schematic of the Si nanowire/nanowall solar cell featuring buried pn junction, and back surface field. (b) SEM image of Si nanowire array. (c) SEM image of Si nanowall array. The NWires/NWalls align well with each other leading to effective light trapping. nanowall array. (d) TEM image of Si nanowires showing nanowire length of 1.3 µm and diameter of 100 nm. (e) HRTEM image of Si Nanowire cross-section, showing smooth Si nanowire side wall after RIE. Single-crystalline lattice is also visible.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Reflectance spectra of Si planar surface, nanowires and nanowalls. The solar power spectrum under AM1.5 condition is also shown.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) External quantum efficiency (EQE) and (b) internal quantum efficiency (IQE) of the solar cell samples.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

IV characteristics of solar cells under standard AM1.5 illumination for planar, nanowire, nanowall solar cells. Jsc(nanowall) > Jsc(nanowire) > Jsc(planar) is due to stronger light trapping and absorption.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Multiple intensity IV characteristics of the planar surface, nanowire and nanowall solar cell. The illuminations are of arbitrary intensities.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Summary of fabricated Si solar cells with planar, nanowire-textured and nanowall-textured surface

Equations (1)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Absorption%=1- λmin λ Si R(λ) N ph (λ)d(λ) λmin λmax N ph (λ)d(λ) - λ Si λmax N ph (λ)d(λ) λmin λmax N ph (λ)d(λ)

Metrics