Abstract

A novel method is presented for fabricating lensed optical fibers for enhancing the coupling efficiency between high-power IR laser diodes and gradient-index fibers (GIF). SU-8 photoresist is attached to the fiber tip by means of surface tension forces and a cone-shaped micro-lens structure is then formed using an electrostatic pulling method. It is shown that micro-lenses with various radii of curvature can be easily formed by tuning the intensity of the electric field used in the pulling process. Experimental results show that for a laser diode chip with a central wavelength of 1310 nm, a coupling efficiency of 78% can be obtained using a lensed optical fiber with a radius of curvature of 48 μm. By contrast, the coupling efficiency of a traditional flat-end fiber is just 40%. Overall, the fabrication method proposed in this study provides a rapid and low-cost solution for the mass production of high-quality lensed optical fibers.

© 2011 OSA

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  1. T. Ishigure, M. Satoh, O. Takanashi, E. Nihei, T. Nyu, S. Yamazaki, and Y. Koike, “Formation of the refractive index profile in the graded index polymer optical fiber for gigabit data transmission,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15(11), 2095–2100 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  2. C. A. Edwards, H. M. Presby, and C. Dragone, “Ideal Microlenses for Laser to Fiber Coupling,” J. Lightwave Technol. 11(2), 252–257 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  3. M. Saruwatari and K. Nawata, “Semiconductor laser to single-mode fiber coupler,” Appl. Opt. 18(11), 1847–1856 (1979).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. Y. Murakami, J. I. Yamada, J. I. Sakai, and T. Kimura, “Microlens Tipped on a Single-Mode Fiber End for Ingaasp Laser Coupling Improvement,” Electron. Lett. 16(9), 321–322 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  5. H. Ghafoori-Shiraz and T. Asano, “Microlens for coupling a semiconductor laser to a single-mode fiber,” Opt. Lett. 11(8), 537–538 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. L. G. Cohen and M. V. Schneider, “Microlenses for coupling junction lasers to optical fibers,” Appl. Opt. 13(1), 89–94 (1974).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. H. M. Presby and C. A. Edwards, “Near 100-Percent-Efficient Fiber Microlenses,” Electron. Lett. 28(6), 582–584 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  8. H. Yoda and K. Shiraishi, “A new scheme of a lensed fiber employing a wedge-shaped graded-index fiber tip for the coupling between high-power laser diodes and single-mode fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 19(12), 1910–1917 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  9. H. M. Yang, S. Y. Huang, C. W. Lee, T. S. Lay, and W. H. Cheng, “High-coupling tapered hyperbolic fiber microlens and taper asymmetry effect,” J. Lightwave Technol. 22(5), 1395–1401 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  10. T. Alder, A. Stohr, R. Heinzelmann, and D. Jager, “High-efficiency fiber-to-chip coupling using low-loss tapered single-mode fiber,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 12(8), 1016–1018 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  11. B. Hillerich and J. Guttmann, “Deterioration of Taper Lens Performance Due to Taper Asymmetry,” J. Lightwave Technol. 7(1), 99–104 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  12. H. Sakata and A. Imada, “Lensed plastic optical fiber employing concave end filled with high-index resin,” J. Lightwave Technol. 20(4), 638–642 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  13. K. R. Kim, S. L. Chang, and K. Oh, “Refractive microlens on fiber using UV-curable fluorinated acrylate polymer by surface-tension,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 15(8), 1100–1102 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  14. R. E. Smith, C. T. Sullivan, G. A. Vawter, G. R. Hadley, J. R. Wendt, M. B. Snipes, and J. F. Klem, “Reduced coupling loss using a tapered-rib adiabatic-following fiber coupler,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 8(8), 1052–1054 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  15. R. A. Modavis and T. W. Webb, “Anamorphic Microlens for Laser-Diode to Single-Mode Fiber Coupling,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 7(7), 798–800 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  16. C. H. Lin, G. B. Lee, B. W. Chang, and G. L. Chang, “A new fabrication process for ultra-thick microfluidic microstructures utilizing SU-8 photoresist,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 12(5), 590–597 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  17. G. Taylor, “Disintegration of Water Drops in an Electric Field,” Proc. R. Ir. Acad. A, Math. Phys. Sci. 280(1382), 383–397 (1964).
    [CrossRef]
  18. S. M. Kuo, Y. W. Huang, S. M. Yeh, W. H. Cheng, and C. H. Lin, “Liquid crystal modified photonic crystal fiber (LC-PCF) fabricated with an un-cured SU-8 photoresist sealing technique for electrical flux measurement,” Opt. Express 19(19), 18372–18379 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (1)

2004 (1)

2003 (1)

K. R. Kim, S. L. Chang, and K. Oh, “Refractive microlens on fiber using UV-curable fluorinated acrylate polymer by surface-tension,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 15(8), 1100–1102 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

2001 (1)

2000 (1)

T. Alder, A. Stohr, R. Heinzelmann, and D. Jager, “High-efficiency fiber-to-chip coupling using low-loss tapered single-mode fiber,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 12(8), 1016–1018 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

T. Ishigure, M. Satoh, O. Takanashi, E. Nihei, T. Nyu, S. Yamazaki, and Y. Koike, “Formation of the refractive index profile in the graded index polymer optical fiber for gigabit data transmission,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15(11), 2095–2100 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

R. E. Smith, C. T. Sullivan, G. A. Vawter, G. R. Hadley, J. R. Wendt, M. B. Snipes, and J. F. Klem, “Reduced coupling loss using a tapered-rib adiabatic-following fiber coupler,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 8(8), 1052–1054 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

R. A. Modavis and T. W. Webb, “Anamorphic Microlens for Laser-Diode to Single-Mode Fiber Coupling,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 7(7), 798–800 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

C. A. Edwards, H. M. Presby, and C. Dragone, “Ideal Microlenses for Laser to Fiber Coupling,” J. Lightwave Technol. 11(2), 252–257 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

H. M. Presby and C. A. Edwards, “Near 100-Percent-Efficient Fiber Microlenses,” Electron. Lett. 28(6), 582–584 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

B. Hillerich and J. Guttmann, “Deterioration of Taper Lens Performance Due to Taper Asymmetry,” J. Lightwave Technol. 7(1), 99–104 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

1980 (1)

Y. Murakami, J. I. Yamada, J. I. Sakai, and T. Kimura, “Microlens Tipped on a Single-Mode Fiber End for Ingaasp Laser Coupling Improvement,” Electron. Lett. 16(9), 321–322 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1979 (1)

1974 (1)

1964 (1)

G. Taylor, “Disintegration of Water Drops in an Electric Field,” Proc. R. Ir. Acad. A, Math. Phys. Sci. 280(1382), 383–397 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Alder, T.

T. Alder, A. Stohr, R. Heinzelmann, and D. Jager, “High-efficiency fiber-to-chip coupling using low-loss tapered single-mode fiber,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 12(8), 1016–1018 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Asano, T.

Chang, B. W.

C. H. Lin, G. B. Lee, B. W. Chang, and G. L. Chang, “A new fabrication process for ultra-thick microfluidic microstructures utilizing SU-8 photoresist,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 12(5), 590–597 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chang, G. L.

C. H. Lin, G. B. Lee, B. W. Chang, and G. L. Chang, “A new fabrication process for ultra-thick microfluidic microstructures utilizing SU-8 photoresist,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 12(5), 590–597 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chang, S. L.

K. R. Kim, S. L. Chang, and K. Oh, “Refractive microlens on fiber using UV-curable fluorinated acrylate polymer by surface-tension,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 15(8), 1100–1102 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, W. H.

Cohen, L. G.

Dragone, C.

C. A. Edwards, H. M. Presby, and C. Dragone, “Ideal Microlenses for Laser to Fiber Coupling,” J. Lightwave Technol. 11(2), 252–257 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Edwards, C. A.

C. A. Edwards, H. M. Presby, and C. Dragone, “Ideal Microlenses for Laser to Fiber Coupling,” J. Lightwave Technol. 11(2), 252–257 (1993).
[CrossRef]

H. M. Presby and C. A. Edwards, “Near 100-Percent-Efficient Fiber Microlenses,” Electron. Lett. 28(6), 582–584 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Ghafoori-Shiraz, H.

Guttmann, J.

B. Hillerich and J. Guttmann, “Deterioration of Taper Lens Performance Due to Taper Asymmetry,” J. Lightwave Technol. 7(1), 99–104 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Hadley, G. R.

R. E. Smith, C. T. Sullivan, G. A. Vawter, G. R. Hadley, J. R. Wendt, M. B. Snipes, and J. F. Klem, “Reduced coupling loss using a tapered-rib adiabatic-following fiber coupler,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 8(8), 1052–1054 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Heinzelmann, R.

T. Alder, A. Stohr, R. Heinzelmann, and D. Jager, “High-efficiency fiber-to-chip coupling using low-loss tapered single-mode fiber,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 12(8), 1016–1018 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hillerich, B.

B. Hillerich and J. Guttmann, “Deterioration of Taper Lens Performance Due to Taper Asymmetry,” J. Lightwave Technol. 7(1), 99–104 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Huang, S. Y.

Huang, Y. W.

Imada, A.

Ishigure, T.

T. Ishigure, M. Satoh, O. Takanashi, E. Nihei, T. Nyu, S. Yamazaki, and Y. Koike, “Formation of the refractive index profile in the graded index polymer optical fiber for gigabit data transmission,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15(11), 2095–2100 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Jager, D.

T. Alder, A. Stohr, R. Heinzelmann, and D. Jager, “High-efficiency fiber-to-chip coupling using low-loss tapered single-mode fiber,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 12(8), 1016–1018 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kim, K. R.

K. R. Kim, S. L. Chang, and K. Oh, “Refractive microlens on fiber using UV-curable fluorinated acrylate polymer by surface-tension,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 15(8), 1100–1102 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kimura, T.

Y. Murakami, J. I. Yamada, J. I. Sakai, and T. Kimura, “Microlens Tipped on a Single-Mode Fiber End for Ingaasp Laser Coupling Improvement,” Electron. Lett. 16(9), 321–322 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Klem, J. F.

R. E. Smith, C. T. Sullivan, G. A. Vawter, G. R. Hadley, J. R. Wendt, M. B. Snipes, and J. F. Klem, “Reduced coupling loss using a tapered-rib adiabatic-following fiber coupler,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 8(8), 1052–1054 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Koike, Y.

T. Ishigure, M. Satoh, O. Takanashi, E. Nihei, T. Nyu, S. Yamazaki, and Y. Koike, “Formation of the refractive index profile in the graded index polymer optical fiber for gigabit data transmission,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15(11), 2095–2100 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kuo, S. M.

Lay, T. S.

Lee, C. W.

Lee, G. B.

C. H. Lin, G. B. Lee, B. W. Chang, and G. L. Chang, “A new fabrication process for ultra-thick microfluidic microstructures utilizing SU-8 photoresist,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 12(5), 590–597 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C. H.

S. M. Kuo, Y. W. Huang, S. M. Yeh, W. H. Cheng, and C. H. Lin, “Liquid crystal modified photonic crystal fiber (LC-PCF) fabricated with an un-cured SU-8 photoresist sealing technique for electrical flux measurement,” Opt. Express 19(19), 18372–18379 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. H. Lin, G. B. Lee, B. W. Chang, and G. L. Chang, “A new fabrication process for ultra-thick microfluidic microstructures utilizing SU-8 photoresist,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 12(5), 590–597 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Modavis, R. A.

R. A. Modavis and T. W. Webb, “Anamorphic Microlens for Laser-Diode to Single-Mode Fiber Coupling,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 7(7), 798–800 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Murakami, Y.

Y. Murakami, J. I. Yamada, J. I. Sakai, and T. Kimura, “Microlens Tipped on a Single-Mode Fiber End for Ingaasp Laser Coupling Improvement,” Electron. Lett. 16(9), 321–322 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Nawata, K.

Nihei, E.

T. Ishigure, M. Satoh, O. Takanashi, E. Nihei, T. Nyu, S. Yamazaki, and Y. Koike, “Formation of the refractive index profile in the graded index polymer optical fiber for gigabit data transmission,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15(11), 2095–2100 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Nyu, T.

T. Ishigure, M. Satoh, O. Takanashi, E. Nihei, T. Nyu, S. Yamazaki, and Y. Koike, “Formation of the refractive index profile in the graded index polymer optical fiber for gigabit data transmission,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15(11), 2095–2100 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Oh, K.

K. R. Kim, S. L. Chang, and K. Oh, “Refractive microlens on fiber using UV-curable fluorinated acrylate polymer by surface-tension,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 15(8), 1100–1102 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Presby, H. M.

C. A. Edwards, H. M. Presby, and C. Dragone, “Ideal Microlenses for Laser to Fiber Coupling,” J. Lightwave Technol. 11(2), 252–257 (1993).
[CrossRef]

H. M. Presby and C. A. Edwards, “Near 100-Percent-Efficient Fiber Microlenses,” Electron. Lett. 28(6), 582–584 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Sakai, J. I.

Y. Murakami, J. I. Yamada, J. I. Sakai, and T. Kimura, “Microlens Tipped on a Single-Mode Fiber End for Ingaasp Laser Coupling Improvement,” Electron. Lett. 16(9), 321–322 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Sakata, H.

Saruwatari, M.

Satoh, M.

T. Ishigure, M. Satoh, O. Takanashi, E. Nihei, T. Nyu, S. Yamazaki, and Y. Koike, “Formation of the refractive index profile in the graded index polymer optical fiber for gigabit data transmission,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15(11), 2095–2100 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Schneider, M. V.

Shiraishi, K.

Smith, R. E.

R. E. Smith, C. T. Sullivan, G. A. Vawter, G. R. Hadley, J. R. Wendt, M. B. Snipes, and J. F. Klem, “Reduced coupling loss using a tapered-rib adiabatic-following fiber coupler,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 8(8), 1052–1054 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Snipes, M. B.

R. E. Smith, C. T. Sullivan, G. A. Vawter, G. R. Hadley, J. R. Wendt, M. B. Snipes, and J. F. Klem, “Reduced coupling loss using a tapered-rib adiabatic-following fiber coupler,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 8(8), 1052–1054 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Stohr, A.

T. Alder, A. Stohr, R. Heinzelmann, and D. Jager, “High-efficiency fiber-to-chip coupling using low-loss tapered single-mode fiber,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 12(8), 1016–1018 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sullivan, C. T.

R. E. Smith, C. T. Sullivan, G. A. Vawter, G. R. Hadley, J. R. Wendt, M. B. Snipes, and J. F. Klem, “Reduced coupling loss using a tapered-rib adiabatic-following fiber coupler,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 8(8), 1052–1054 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Takanashi, O.

T. Ishigure, M. Satoh, O. Takanashi, E. Nihei, T. Nyu, S. Yamazaki, and Y. Koike, “Formation of the refractive index profile in the graded index polymer optical fiber for gigabit data transmission,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15(11), 2095–2100 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, G.

G. Taylor, “Disintegration of Water Drops in an Electric Field,” Proc. R. Ir. Acad. A, Math. Phys. Sci. 280(1382), 383–397 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Vawter, G. A.

R. E. Smith, C. T. Sullivan, G. A. Vawter, G. R. Hadley, J. R. Wendt, M. B. Snipes, and J. F. Klem, “Reduced coupling loss using a tapered-rib adiabatic-following fiber coupler,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 8(8), 1052–1054 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Webb, T. W.

R. A. Modavis and T. W. Webb, “Anamorphic Microlens for Laser-Diode to Single-Mode Fiber Coupling,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 7(7), 798–800 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Wendt, J. R.

R. E. Smith, C. T. Sullivan, G. A. Vawter, G. R. Hadley, J. R. Wendt, M. B. Snipes, and J. F. Klem, “Reduced coupling loss using a tapered-rib adiabatic-following fiber coupler,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 8(8), 1052–1054 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Yamada, J. I.

Y. Murakami, J. I. Yamada, J. I. Sakai, and T. Kimura, “Microlens Tipped on a Single-Mode Fiber End for Ingaasp Laser Coupling Improvement,” Electron. Lett. 16(9), 321–322 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Yamazaki, S.

T. Ishigure, M. Satoh, O. Takanashi, E. Nihei, T. Nyu, S. Yamazaki, and Y. Koike, “Formation of the refractive index profile in the graded index polymer optical fiber for gigabit data transmission,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15(11), 2095–2100 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Yang, H. M.

Yeh, S. M.

Yoda, H.

Appl. Opt. (2)

Electron. Lett. (2)

Y. Murakami, J. I. Yamada, J. I. Sakai, and T. Kimura, “Microlens Tipped on a Single-Mode Fiber End for Ingaasp Laser Coupling Improvement,” Electron. Lett. 16(9), 321–322 (1980).
[CrossRef]

H. M. Presby and C. A. Edwards, “Near 100-Percent-Efficient Fiber Microlenses,” Electron. Lett. 28(6), 582–584 (1992).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (4)

T. Alder, A. Stohr, R. Heinzelmann, and D. Jager, “High-efficiency fiber-to-chip coupling using low-loss tapered single-mode fiber,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 12(8), 1016–1018 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. R. Kim, S. L. Chang, and K. Oh, “Refractive microlens on fiber using UV-curable fluorinated acrylate polymer by surface-tension,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 15(8), 1100–1102 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. E. Smith, C. T. Sullivan, G. A. Vawter, G. R. Hadley, J. R. Wendt, M. B. Snipes, and J. F. Klem, “Reduced coupling loss using a tapered-rib adiabatic-following fiber coupler,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 8(8), 1052–1054 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Modavis and T. W. Webb, “Anamorphic Microlens for Laser-Diode to Single-Mode Fiber Coupling,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 7(7), 798–800 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (6)

B. Hillerich and J. Guttmann, “Deterioration of Taper Lens Performance Due to Taper Asymmetry,” J. Lightwave Technol. 7(1), 99–104 (1989).
[CrossRef]

H. Yoda and K. Shiraishi, “A new scheme of a lensed fiber employing a wedge-shaped graded-index fiber tip for the coupling between high-power laser diodes and single-mode fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 19(12), 1910–1917 (2001).
[CrossRef]

H. Sakata and A. Imada, “Lensed plastic optical fiber employing concave end filled with high-index resin,” J. Lightwave Technol. 20(4), 638–642 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. M. Yang, S. Y. Huang, C. W. Lee, T. S. Lay, and W. H. Cheng, “High-coupling tapered hyperbolic fiber microlens and taper asymmetry effect,” J. Lightwave Technol. 22(5), 1395–1401 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Ishigure, M. Satoh, O. Takanashi, E. Nihei, T. Nyu, S. Yamazaki, and Y. Koike, “Formation of the refractive index profile in the graded index polymer optical fiber for gigabit data transmission,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15(11), 2095–2100 (1997).
[CrossRef]

C. A. Edwards, H. M. Presby, and C. Dragone, “Ideal Microlenses for Laser to Fiber Coupling,” J. Lightwave Technol. 11(2), 252–257 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Micromech. Microeng. (1)

C. H. Lin, G. B. Lee, B. W. Chang, and G. L. Chang, “A new fabrication process for ultra-thick microfluidic microstructures utilizing SU-8 photoresist,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 12(5), 590–597 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Proc. R. Ir. Acad. A, Math. Phys. Sci. (1)

G. Taylor, “Disintegration of Water Drops in an Electric Field,” Proc. R. Ir. Acad. A, Math. Phys. Sci. 280(1382), 383–397 (1964).
[CrossRef]

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