Abstract

We demonstrate an ultra-low light level optical modulator using a tapered nano fiber embedded in a hot rubidium vapor. The control and signal beams are co-propagating but orthogonally polarized, leading to a degenerate V-system involving coherent superpositions of Zeeman sublevels. The modulation is due primarily to the quantum Zeno effect for the signal beam induced by the control beam. For a control power of 40 nW and a signal power of 100 pW, we observe near 100% modulation. The ultra-low power level needed for the modulation is due to a combination of the Zeno effect and the extreme field localization in the evanescent field around the taper.

© 2011 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  3. A. M. C. Dawes, L. Illing, S. M. Clark, and D. J. Gauthier, “All-optical switching in rubidium vapor,” Science 308, 672–674 (2005).
  4. Q. Xu and M. Lipson, “All-optical logic based on silicon micro-ring resonators,” Opt. Express 15(3), 924–929 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. M. Bajcsy, S. Hofferberth, V. Balic, T. Peyronel, M. Hafezi, A. S. Zibrov, V. Vuletic, and M. D. Lukin, “Efficient all-optical switching using slow light within a hollow fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(20), 203902 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. V. Venkataraman, P. Londero, A. R. Bhagwat, A. D. Slepkov, and A. L. Gaeta, “All-optical modulation of four-wave mixing in an Rb-filled photonic bandgap fiber,” Opt. Lett. 35(13), 2287–2289 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. S. M. Spillane, G. S. Pati, K. Salit, M. Hall, P. Kumar, R. G. Beausoleil, and M. S. Shahriar, “Observation of nonlinear optical interactions of ultralow levels of light in a tapered optical nanofiber embedded in a hot rubidium vapor,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(23), 233602 (2008).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  25. C. Cohen-Tannoudji and S. Reynaud; “Dressed-atom description of resonance fluorescence and absorption spectra of a multi-level atom in an intense laser beam,” J. Phys. B 10(3), 345–363 (1977) (old 16).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2011

D. J. Alton, N. P. Stern, T. Aoki, H. Lee, E. Ostby, K. J. Vahala, and H. J. Kimble, “Strong interactions of single atoms and photons near a dielectric boundary,” Nat. Phys. 7(2), 159–165 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

V. Venkataraman, P. Londero, A. R. Bhagwat, A. D. Slepkov, and A. L. Gaeta, “All-optical modulation of four-wave mixing in an Rb-filled photonic bandgap fiber,” Opt. Lett. 35(13), 2287–2289 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. G. Minogin and S. N. Chormaic, “Manifestation of the van der Waals Surface Interaction in the Spontaneous Emission of Atoms into an Optical Nanofiber,” Laser Phys. 20(1), 32–37 (2010).
[CrossRef]

E. Vetsch, D. Reitz, G. Sagué, R. Schmidt, S. T. Dawkins, and A. Rauschenbeutel, “Optical interface created by laser-cooled atoms trapped in the evanescent field surrounding an optical nanofiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(20), 203603 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Weis, R. Rivière, S. Deléglise, E. Gavartin, O. Arcizet, A. Schliesser, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Optomechanically Induced Transparency,” Science 330(6010), 1520–1523 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Huang, J. B. Altepeter, and P. Kumar, “Interaction-free all-optical switching via the quantum Zeno effect,” Phys. Rev. A 82(6), 063826 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Hendrickson, M. M. Lai, T. B. Pittman, and J. D. Franson, “Observation of two-photon absorption at low power levels using tapered optical fibers in rubidium vapor,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(17), 173602 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

K. P. Nayak, F. L. Le Kien, M. Morinaga, and K. Hakuta, “Antibunching and bunching of photons in resonance fluorescence from a few atoms into guided modes of an optical nanofiber,” Phys. Rev. A 79(2), 021801(R) (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Ward, Y. Wu, V. G. Minogin, and S. N. Chormaic, “Trapping of a microsphere pendulum resonator in an optical potential,” Phys. Rev. A 79(5), 053839 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Bajcsy, S. Hofferberth, V. Balic, T. Peyronel, M. Hafezi, A. S. Zibrov, V. Vuletic, and M. D. Lukin, “Efficient all-optical switching using slow light within a hollow fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(20), 203902 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. M. Hendrickson, T. B. Pittman, and J. D. Franson, “Nonlinear transmission through a tapered fiber in rubidium vapor,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 26(2), 267 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

B. V. Zhdanov and R. J. Knize, “Progress in alkali lasers development,” Proc. SPIE 6874, 68740F, 68740F-12 (2008) (and references therein).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Spillane, G. S. Pati, K. Salit, M. Hall, P. Kumar, R. G. Beausoleil, and M. S. Shahriar, “Observation of nonlinear optical interactions of ultralow levels of light in a tapered optical nanofiber embedded in a hot rubidium vapor,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(23), 233602 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

W. Yang, D. B. Conkey, B. Wu, D. Yin, A. R. Hawkins, and H. Schmidt, “Atomic spectroscopy on a chip,” Nat. Photonics 1(6), 331–335 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Q. Xu and M. Lipson, “All-optical logic based on silicon micro-ring resonators,” Opt. Express 15(3), 924–929 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

T. Allsop, F. Floreani, K. P. Jedrzejewski, P. V. S. Marques, R. Romero, D. J. Webb, and I. Bennion, “Spectral characteristics of tapered LPG device as a sensing element for refractive index and temperature,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24(2), 870–878 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Ghosh, A. R. Bhagwat, C. K. Renshaw, S. Goh, A. L. Gaeta, and B. J. Kirby, “Low-Light-Level Optical Interactions with Rubidium Vapor in a Photonic Band-Gap Fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(2), 023603 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

A. M. C. Dawes, L. Illing, S. M. Clark, and D. J. Gauthier, “All-optical switching in rubidium vapor,” Science 308, 672–674 (2005).

J. Villatoro and D. Monzón-Hernández, “Fast detection of hydrogen with nano fiber tapers coated with ultra thin palladium layers,” Opt. Express 13(13), 5087–5092 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

G. Brambilla, V. Finazzi, and D. J. Richardson, “Ultra-low-loss optical fiber nanotapers,” Opt. Express 12(10), 2258–2263 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. G. Beausoleil, W. J. Munro, D. A. Rodrigues, and T. P. Spiller, “Applications of electromagnetically induced transparency to quantum information processing,” J. Mod. Opt. 51(16-18), 2441–2448 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

S. M. Spillane, T. J. Kippenberg, O. J. Painter, and K. J. Vahala, “Ideality in a fiber-taper-coupled microresonator system for application to cavity quantum electrodynamics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(4), 043902 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000

1998

1990

W. M. Itano, D. J. Heinzen, J. J. Bollinger, and D. J. Wineland, “Quantum Zeno Effect,” Phys. Rev. A 41(5), 2295–2300 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1977

C. Cohen-Tannoudji and S. Reynaud; “Dressed-atom description of resonance fluorescence and absorption spectra of a multi-level atom in an intense laser beam,” J. Phys. B 10(3), 345–363 (1977) (old 16).
[CrossRef]

B. Misra and E. C. G. Sudarshan, “The Zeno’s paradox in quantum theory,” J. Math. Phys. 18(4), 756–763 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Abraham, E. R. I.

Allsop, T.

Altepeter, J. B.

Y. Huang, J. B. Altepeter, and P. Kumar, “Interaction-free all-optical switching via the quantum Zeno effect,” Phys. Rev. A 82(6), 063826 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Alton, D. J.

D. J. Alton, N. P. Stern, T. Aoki, H. Lee, E. Ostby, K. J. Vahala, and H. J. Kimble, “Strong interactions of single atoms and photons near a dielectric boundary,” Nat. Phys. 7(2), 159–165 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Aoki, T.

D. J. Alton, N. P. Stern, T. Aoki, H. Lee, E. Ostby, K. J. Vahala, and H. J. Kimble, “Strong interactions of single atoms and photons near a dielectric boundary,” Nat. Phys. 7(2), 159–165 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Arcizet, O.

S. Weis, R. Rivière, S. Deléglise, E. Gavartin, O. Arcizet, A. Schliesser, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Optomechanically Induced Transparency,” Science 330(6010), 1520–1523 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bajcsy, M.

M. Bajcsy, S. Hofferberth, V. Balic, T. Peyronel, M. Hafezi, A. S. Zibrov, V. Vuletic, and M. D. Lukin, “Efficient all-optical switching using slow light within a hollow fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(20), 203902 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Balic, V.

M. Bajcsy, S. Hofferberth, V. Balic, T. Peyronel, M. Hafezi, A. S. Zibrov, V. Vuletic, and M. D. Lukin, “Efficient all-optical switching using slow light within a hollow fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(20), 203902 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Beausoleil, R. G.

S. M. Spillane, G. S. Pati, K. Salit, M. Hall, P. Kumar, R. G. Beausoleil, and M. S. Shahriar, “Observation of nonlinear optical interactions of ultralow levels of light in a tapered optical nanofiber embedded in a hot rubidium vapor,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(23), 233602 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. G. Beausoleil, W. J. Munro, D. A. Rodrigues, and T. P. Spiller, “Applications of electromagnetically induced transparency to quantum information processing,” J. Mod. Opt. 51(16-18), 2441–2448 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bennion, I.

Bhagwat, A. R.

V. Venkataraman, P. Londero, A. R. Bhagwat, A. D. Slepkov, and A. L. Gaeta, “All-optical modulation of four-wave mixing in an Rb-filled photonic bandgap fiber,” Opt. Lett. 35(13), 2287–2289 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Ghosh, A. R. Bhagwat, C. K. Renshaw, S. Goh, A. L. Gaeta, and B. J. Kirby, “Low-Light-Level Optical Interactions with Rubidium Vapor in a Photonic Band-Gap Fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(2), 023603 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Birks, T. A.

Bollinger, J. J.

W. M. Itano, D. J. Heinzen, J. J. Bollinger, and D. J. Wineland, “Quantum Zeno Effect,” Phys. Rev. A 41(5), 2295–2300 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brambilla, G.

Chormaic, S. N.

V. G. Minogin and S. N. Chormaic, “Manifestation of the van der Waals Surface Interaction in the Spontaneous Emission of Atoms into an Optical Nanofiber,” Laser Phys. 20(1), 32–37 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Ward, Y. Wu, V. G. Minogin, and S. N. Chormaic, “Trapping of a microsphere pendulum resonator in an optical potential,” Phys. Rev. A 79(5), 053839 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Clark, S. M.

A. M. C. Dawes, L. Illing, S. M. Clark, and D. J. Gauthier, “All-optical switching in rubidium vapor,” Science 308, 672–674 (2005).

Cohen-Tannoudji, C.

C. Cohen-Tannoudji and S. Reynaud; “Dressed-atom description of resonance fluorescence and absorption spectra of a multi-level atom in an intense laser beam,” J. Phys. B 10(3), 345–363 (1977) (old 16).
[CrossRef]

Conkey, D. B.

W. Yang, D. B. Conkey, B. Wu, D. Yin, A. R. Hawkins, and H. Schmidt, “Atomic spectroscopy on a chip,” Nat. Photonics 1(6), 331–335 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cornell, E. A.

Dawes, A. M. C.

A. M. C. Dawes, L. Illing, S. M. Clark, and D. J. Gauthier, “All-optical switching in rubidium vapor,” Science 308, 672–674 (2005).

Dawkins, S. T.

E. Vetsch, D. Reitz, G. Sagué, R. Schmidt, S. T. Dawkins, and A. Rauschenbeutel, “Optical interface created by laser-cooled atoms trapped in the evanescent field surrounding an optical nanofiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(20), 203603 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Deléglise, S.

S. Weis, R. Rivière, S. Deléglise, E. Gavartin, O. Arcizet, A. Schliesser, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Optomechanically Induced Transparency,” Science 330(6010), 1520–1523 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Finazzi, V.

Floreani, F.

Franson, J. D.

S. M. Hendrickson, M. M. Lai, T. B. Pittman, and J. D. Franson, “Observation of two-photon absorption at low power levels using tapered optical fibers in rubidium vapor,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(17), 173602 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. M. Hendrickson, T. B. Pittman, and J. D. Franson, “Nonlinear transmission through a tapered fiber in rubidium vapor,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 26(2), 267 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gaeta, A. L.

V. Venkataraman, P. Londero, A. R. Bhagwat, A. D. Slepkov, and A. L. Gaeta, “All-optical modulation of four-wave mixing in an Rb-filled photonic bandgap fiber,” Opt. Lett. 35(13), 2287–2289 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Ghosh, A. R. Bhagwat, C. K. Renshaw, S. Goh, A. L. Gaeta, and B. J. Kirby, “Low-Light-Level Optical Interactions with Rubidium Vapor in a Photonic Band-Gap Fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(2), 023603 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gauthier, D. J.

A. M. C. Dawes, L. Illing, S. M. Clark, and D. J. Gauthier, “All-optical switching in rubidium vapor,” Science 308, 672–674 (2005).

Gavartin, E.

S. Weis, R. Rivière, S. Deléglise, E. Gavartin, O. Arcizet, A. Schliesser, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Optomechanically Induced Transparency,” Science 330(6010), 1520–1523 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ghosh, S.

S. Ghosh, A. R. Bhagwat, C. K. Renshaw, S. Goh, A. L. Gaeta, and B. J. Kirby, “Low-Light-Level Optical Interactions with Rubidium Vapor in a Photonic Band-Gap Fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(2), 023603 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goh, S.

S. Ghosh, A. R. Bhagwat, C. K. Renshaw, S. Goh, A. L. Gaeta, and B. J. Kirby, “Low-Light-Level Optical Interactions with Rubidium Vapor in a Photonic Band-Gap Fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(2), 023603 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hafezi, M.

M. Bajcsy, S. Hofferberth, V. Balic, T. Peyronel, M. Hafezi, A. S. Zibrov, V. Vuletic, and M. D. Lukin, “Efficient all-optical switching using slow light within a hollow fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(20), 203902 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hakuta, K.

K. P. Nayak, F. L. Le Kien, M. Morinaga, and K. Hakuta, “Antibunching and bunching of photons in resonance fluorescence from a few atoms into guided modes of an optical nanofiber,” Phys. Rev. A 79(2), 021801(R) (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hall, M.

S. M. Spillane, G. S. Pati, K. Salit, M. Hall, P. Kumar, R. G. Beausoleil, and M. S. Shahriar, “Observation of nonlinear optical interactions of ultralow levels of light in a tapered optical nanofiber embedded in a hot rubidium vapor,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(23), 233602 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Harris, S. E.

S. E. Harris and Y. Yamamoto, “Photon switching by quantum interference,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81(17), 3611–3614 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hawkins, A. R.

W. Yang, D. B. Conkey, B. Wu, D. Yin, A. R. Hawkins, and H. Schmidt, “Atomic spectroscopy on a chip,” Nat. Photonics 1(6), 331–335 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Heinzen, D. J.

W. M. Itano, D. J. Heinzen, J. J. Bollinger, and D. J. Wineland, “Quantum Zeno Effect,” Phys. Rev. A 41(5), 2295–2300 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hendrickson, S. M.

S. M. Hendrickson, M. M. Lai, T. B. Pittman, and J. D. Franson, “Observation of two-photon absorption at low power levels using tapered optical fibers in rubidium vapor,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(17), 173602 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. M. Hendrickson, T. B. Pittman, and J. D. Franson, “Nonlinear transmission through a tapered fiber in rubidium vapor,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 26(2), 267 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hofferberth, S.

M. Bajcsy, S. Hofferberth, V. Balic, T. Peyronel, M. Hafezi, A. S. Zibrov, V. Vuletic, and M. D. Lukin, “Efficient all-optical switching using slow light within a hollow fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(20), 203902 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, Y.

Y. Huang, J. B. Altepeter, and P. Kumar, “Interaction-free all-optical switching via the quantum Zeno effect,” Phys. Rev. A 82(6), 063826 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Illing, L.

A. M. C. Dawes, L. Illing, S. M. Clark, and D. J. Gauthier, “All-optical switching in rubidium vapor,” Science 308, 672–674 (2005).

Itano, W. M.

W. M. Itano, D. J. Heinzen, J. J. Bollinger, and D. J. Wineland, “Quantum Zeno Effect,” Phys. Rev. A 41(5), 2295–2300 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jedrzejewski, K. P.

Kimble, H. J.

D. J. Alton, N. P. Stern, T. Aoki, H. Lee, E. Ostby, K. J. Vahala, and H. J. Kimble, “Strong interactions of single atoms and photons near a dielectric boundary,” Nat. Phys. 7(2), 159–165 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kippenberg, T. J.

S. Weis, R. Rivière, S. Deléglise, E. Gavartin, O. Arcizet, A. Schliesser, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Optomechanically Induced Transparency,” Science 330(6010), 1520–1523 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. M. Spillane, T. J. Kippenberg, O. J. Painter, and K. J. Vahala, “Ideality in a fiber-taper-coupled microresonator system for application to cavity quantum electrodynamics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(4), 043902 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kirby, B. J.

S. Ghosh, A. R. Bhagwat, C. K. Renshaw, S. Goh, A. L. Gaeta, and B. J. Kirby, “Low-Light-Level Optical Interactions with Rubidium Vapor in a Photonic Band-Gap Fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(2), 023603 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Knize, R. J.

B. V. Zhdanov and R. J. Knize, “Progress in alkali lasers development,” Proc. SPIE 6874, 68740F, 68740F-12 (2008) (and references therein).
[CrossRef]

Kumar, P.

Y. Huang, J. B. Altepeter, and P. Kumar, “Interaction-free all-optical switching via the quantum Zeno effect,” Phys. Rev. A 82(6), 063826 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Spillane, G. S. Pati, K. Salit, M. Hall, P. Kumar, R. G. Beausoleil, and M. S. Shahriar, “Observation of nonlinear optical interactions of ultralow levels of light in a tapered optical nanofiber embedded in a hot rubidium vapor,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(23), 233602 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lai, M. M.

S. M. Hendrickson, M. M. Lai, T. B. Pittman, and J. D. Franson, “Observation of two-photon absorption at low power levels using tapered optical fibers in rubidium vapor,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(17), 173602 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Le Kien, F. L.

K. P. Nayak, F. L. Le Kien, M. Morinaga, and K. Hakuta, “Antibunching and bunching of photons in resonance fluorescence from a few atoms into guided modes of an optical nanofiber,” Phys. Rev. A 79(2), 021801(R) (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lee, H.

D. J. Alton, N. P. Stern, T. Aoki, H. Lee, E. Ostby, K. J. Vahala, and H. J. Kimble, “Strong interactions of single atoms and photons near a dielectric boundary,” Nat. Phys. 7(2), 159–165 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lipson, M.

Londero, P.

Lukin, M. D.

M. Bajcsy, S. Hofferberth, V. Balic, T. Peyronel, M. Hafezi, A. S. Zibrov, V. Vuletic, and M. D. Lukin, “Efficient all-optical switching using slow light within a hollow fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(20), 203902 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marques, P. V. S.

Minogin, V. G.

V. G. Minogin and S. N. Chormaic, “Manifestation of the van der Waals Surface Interaction in the Spontaneous Emission of Atoms into an Optical Nanofiber,” Laser Phys. 20(1), 32–37 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Ward, Y. Wu, V. G. Minogin, and S. N. Chormaic, “Trapping of a microsphere pendulum resonator in an optical potential,” Phys. Rev. A 79(5), 053839 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Misra, B.

B. Misra and E. C. G. Sudarshan, “The Zeno’s paradox in quantum theory,” J. Math. Phys. 18(4), 756–763 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Monzón-Hernández, D.

Morinaga, M.

K. P. Nayak, F. L. Le Kien, M. Morinaga, and K. Hakuta, “Antibunching and bunching of photons in resonance fluorescence from a few atoms into guided modes of an optical nanofiber,” Phys. Rev. A 79(2), 021801(R) (2009).
[CrossRef]

Munro, W. J.

R. G. Beausoleil, W. J. Munro, D. A. Rodrigues, and T. P. Spiller, “Applications of electromagnetically induced transparency to quantum information processing,” J. Mod. Opt. 51(16-18), 2441–2448 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nayak, K. P.

K. P. Nayak, F. L. Le Kien, M. Morinaga, and K. Hakuta, “Antibunching and bunching of photons in resonance fluorescence from a few atoms into guided modes of an optical nanofiber,” Phys. Rev. A 79(2), 021801(R) (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ostby, E.

D. J. Alton, N. P. Stern, T. Aoki, H. Lee, E. Ostby, K. J. Vahala, and H. J. Kimble, “Strong interactions of single atoms and photons near a dielectric boundary,” Nat. Phys. 7(2), 159–165 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Painter, O. J.

S. M. Spillane, T. J. Kippenberg, O. J. Painter, and K. J. Vahala, “Ideality in a fiber-taper-coupled microresonator system for application to cavity quantum electrodynamics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(4), 043902 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pati, G. S.

S. M. Spillane, G. S. Pati, K. Salit, M. Hall, P. Kumar, R. G. Beausoleil, and M. S. Shahriar, “Observation of nonlinear optical interactions of ultralow levels of light in a tapered optical nanofiber embedded in a hot rubidium vapor,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(23), 233602 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Peyronel, T.

M. Bajcsy, S. Hofferberth, V. Balic, T. Peyronel, M. Hafezi, A. S. Zibrov, V. Vuletic, and M. D. Lukin, “Efficient all-optical switching using slow light within a hollow fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(20), 203902 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pittman, T. B.

S. M. Hendrickson, M. M. Lai, T. B. Pittman, and J. D. Franson, “Observation of two-photon absorption at low power levels using tapered optical fibers in rubidium vapor,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(17), 173602 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. M. Hendrickson, T. B. Pittman, and J. D. Franson, “Nonlinear transmission through a tapered fiber in rubidium vapor,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 26(2), 267 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rauschenbeutel, A.

E. Vetsch, D. Reitz, G. Sagué, R. Schmidt, S. T. Dawkins, and A. Rauschenbeutel, “Optical interface created by laser-cooled atoms trapped in the evanescent field surrounding an optical nanofiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(20), 203603 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reitz, D.

E. Vetsch, D. Reitz, G. Sagué, R. Schmidt, S. T. Dawkins, and A. Rauschenbeutel, “Optical interface created by laser-cooled atoms trapped in the evanescent field surrounding an optical nanofiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(20), 203603 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Renshaw, C. K.

S. Ghosh, A. R. Bhagwat, C. K. Renshaw, S. Goh, A. L. Gaeta, and B. J. Kirby, “Low-Light-Level Optical Interactions with Rubidium Vapor in a Photonic Band-Gap Fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(2), 023603 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reynaud, S.

C. Cohen-Tannoudji and S. Reynaud; “Dressed-atom description of resonance fluorescence and absorption spectra of a multi-level atom in an intense laser beam,” J. Phys. B 10(3), 345–363 (1977) (old 16).
[CrossRef]

Richardson, D. J.

Rivière, R.

S. Weis, R. Rivière, S. Deléglise, E. Gavartin, O. Arcizet, A. Schliesser, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Optomechanically Induced Transparency,” Science 330(6010), 1520–1523 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rodrigues, D. A.

R. G. Beausoleil, W. J. Munro, D. A. Rodrigues, and T. P. Spiller, “Applications of electromagnetically induced transparency to quantum information processing,” J. Mod. Opt. 51(16-18), 2441–2448 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Romero, R.

Russell, P. St. J.

Sagué, G.

E. Vetsch, D. Reitz, G. Sagué, R. Schmidt, S. T. Dawkins, and A. Rauschenbeutel, “Optical interface created by laser-cooled atoms trapped in the evanescent field surrounding an optical nanofiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(20), 203603 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Salit, K.

S. M. Spillane, G. S. Pati, K. Salit, M. Hall, P. Kumar, R. G. Beausoleil, and M. S. Shahriar, “Observation of nonlinear optical interactions of ultralow levels of light in a tapered optical nanofiber embedded in a hot rubidium vapor,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(23), 233602 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schliesser, A.

S. Weis, R. Rivière, S. Deléglise, E. Gavartin, O. Arcizet, A. Schliesser, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Optomechanically Induced Transparency,” Science 330(6010), 1520–1523 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schmidt, H.

W. Yang, D. B. Conkey, B. Wu, D. Yin, A. R. Hawkins, and H. Schmidt, “Atomic spectroscopy on a chip,” Nat. Photonics 1(6), 331–335 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, R.

E. Vetsch, D. Reitz, G. Sagué, R. Schmidt, S. T. Dawkins, and A. Rauschenbeutel, “Optical interface created by laser-cooled atoms trapped in the evanescent field surrounding an optical nanofiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(20), 203603 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shahriar, M. S.

S. M. Spillane, G. S. Pati, K. Salit, M. Hall, P. Kumar, R. G. Beausoleil, and M. S. Shahriar, “Observation of nonlinear optical interactions of ultralow levels of light in a tapered optical nanofiber embedded in a hot rubidium vapor,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(23), 233602 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Slepkov, A. D.

Spillane, S. M.

S. M. Spillane, G. S. Pati, K. Salit, M. Hall, P. Kumar, R. G. Beausoleil, and M. S. Shahriar, “Observation of nonlinear optical interactions of ultralow levels of light in a tapered optical nanofiber embedded in a hot rubidium vapor,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(23), 233602 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. M. Spillane, T. J. Kippenberg, O. J. Painter, and K. J. Vahala, “Ideality in a fiber-taper-coupled microresonator system for application to cavity quantum electrodynamics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(4), 043902 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Spiller, T. P.

R. G. Beausoleil, W. J. Munro, D. A. Rodrigues, and T. P. Spiller, “Applications of electromagnetically induced transparency to quantum information processing,” J. Mod. Opt. 51(16-18), 2441–2448 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Stern, N. P.

D. J. Alton, N. P. Stern, T. Aoki, H. Lee, E. Ostby, K. J. Vahala, and H. J. Kimble, “Strong interactions of single atoms and photons near a dielectric boundary,” Nat. Phys. 7(2), 159–165 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sudarshan, E. C. G.

B. Misra and E. C. G. Sudarshan, “The Zeno’s paradox in quantum theory,” J. Math. Phys. 18(4), 756–763 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Vahala, K. J.

D. J. Alton, N. P. Stern, T. Aoki, H. Lee, E. Ostby, K. J. Vahala, and H. J. Kimble, “Strong interactions of single atoms and photons near a dielectric boundary,” Nat. Phys. 7(2), 159–165 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Spillane, T. J. Kippenberg, O. J. Painter, and K. J. Vahala, “Ideality in a fiber-taper-coupled microresonator system for application to cavity quantum electrodynamics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(4), 043902 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Venkataraman, V.

Vetsch, E.

E. Vetsch, D. Reitz, G. Sagué, R. Schmidt, S. T. Dawkins, and A. Rauschenbeutel, “Optical interface created by laser-cooled atoms trapped in the evanescent field surrounding an optical nanofiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(20), 203603 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Villatoro, J.

Vuletic, V.

M. Bajcsy, S. Hofferberth, V. Balic, T. Peyronel, M. Hafezi, A. S. Zibrov, V. Vuletic, and M. D. Lukin, “Efficient all-optical switching using slow light within a hollow fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(20), 203902 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wadsworth, W. J.

Ward, J. M.

J. M. Ward, Y. Wu, V. G. Minogin, and S. N. Chormaic, “Trapping of a microsphere pendulum resonator in an optical potential,” Phys. Rev. A 79(5), 053839 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Webb, D. J.

Weis, S.

S. Weis, R. Rivière, S. Deléglise, E. Gavartin, O. Arcizet, A. Schliesser, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Optomechanically Induced Transparency,” Science 330(6010), 1520–1523 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wineland, D. J.

W. M. Itano, D. J. Heinzen, J. J. Bollinger, and D. J. Wineland, “Quantum Zeno Effect,” Phys. Rev. A 41(5), 2295–2300 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, B.

W. Yang, D. B. Conkey, B. Wu, D. Yin, A. R. Hawkins, and H. Schmidt, “Atomic spectroscopy on a chip,” Nat. Photonics 1(6), 331–335 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wu, Y.

J. M. Ward, Y. Wu, V. G. Minogin, and S. N. Chormaic, “Trapping of a microsphere pendulum resonator in an optical potential,” Phys. Rev. A 79(5), 053839 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Xu, Q.

Yamamoto, Y.

S. E. Harris and Y. Yamamoto, “Photon switching by quantum interference,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81(17), 3611–3614 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Yang, W.

W. Yang, D. B. Conkey, B. Wu, D. Yin, A. R. Hawkins, and H. Schmidt, “Atomic spectroscopy on a chip,” Nat. Photonics 1(6), 331–335 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yin, D.

W. Yang, D. B. Conkey, B. Wu, D. Yin, A. R. Hawkins, and H. Schmidt, “Atomic spectroscopy on a chip,” Nat. Photonics 1(6), 331–335 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhdanov, B. V.

B. V. Zhdanov and R. J. Knize, “Progress in alkali lasers development,” Proc. SPIE 6874, 68740F, 68740F-12 (2008) (and references therein).
[CrossRef]

Zibrov, A. S.

M. Bajcsy, S. Hofferberth, V. Balic, T. Peyronel, M. Hafezi, A. S. Zibrov, V. Vuletic, and M. D. Lukin, “Efficient all-optical switching using slow light within a hollow fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(20), 203902 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt.

J. Lightwave Technol.

J. Math. Phys.

B. Misra and E. C. G. Sudarshan, “The Zeno’s paradox in quantum theory,” J. Math. Phys. 18(4), 756–763 (1977).
[CrossRef]

J. Mod. Opt.

R. G. Beausoleil, W. J. Munro, D. A. Rodrigues, and T. P. Spiller, “Applications of electromagnetically induced transparency to quantum information processing,” J. Mod. Opt. 51(16-18), 2441–2448 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

J. Phys. B

C. Cohen-Tannoudji and S. Reynaud; “Dressed-atom description of resonance fluorescence and absorption spectra of a multi-level atom in an intense laser beam,” J. Phys. B 10(3), 345–363 (1977) (old 16).
[CrossRef]

Laser Phys.

V. G. Minogin and S. N. Chormaic, “Manifestation of the van der Waals Surface Interaction in the Spontaneous Emission of Atoms into an Optical Nanofiber,” Laser Phys. 20(1), 32–37 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics

W. Yang, D. B. Conkey, B. Wu, D. Yin, A. R. Hawkins, and H. Schmidt, “Atomic spectroscopy on a chip,” Nat. Photonics 1(6), 331–335 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Phys.

D. J. Alton, N. P. Stern, T. Aoki, H. Lee, E. Ostby, K. J. Vahala, and H. J. Kimble, “Strong interactions of single atoms and photons near a dielectric boundary,” Nat. Phys. 7(2), 159–165 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. A

W. M. Itano, D. J. Heinzen, J. J. Bollinger, and D. J. Wineland, “Quantum Zeno Effect,” Phys. Rev. A 41(5), 2295–2300 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Huang, J. B. Altepeter, and P. Kumar, “Interaction-free all-optical switching via the quantum Zeno effect,” Phys. Rev. A 82(6), 063826 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Ward, Y. Wu, V. G. Minogin, and S. N. Chormaic, “Trapping of a microsphere pendulum resonator in an optical potential,” Phys. Rev. A 79(5), 053839 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. P. Nayak, F. L. Le Kien, M. Morinaga, and K. Hakuta, “Antibunching and bunching of photons in resonance fluorescence from a few atoms into guided modes of an optical nanofiber,” Phys. Rev. A 79(2), 021801(R) (2009).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

S. E. Harris and Y. Yamamoto, “Photon switching by quantum interference,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81(17), 3611–3614 (1998).
[CrossRef]

E. Vetsch, D. Reitz, G. Sagué, R. Schmidt, S. T. Dawkins, and A. Rauschenbeutel, “Optical interface created by laser-cooled atoms trapped in the evanescent field surrounding an optical nanofiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(20), 203603 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Bajcsy, S. Hofferberth, V. Balic, T. Peyronel, M. Hafezi, A. S. Zibrov, V. Vuletic, and M. D. Lukin, “Efficient all-optical switching using slow light within a hollow fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(20), 203902 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. M. Spillane, G. S. Pati, K. Salit, M. Hall, P. Kumar, R. G. Beausoleil, and M. S. Shahriar, “Observation of nonlinear optical interactions of ultralow levels of light in a tapered optical nanofiber embedded in a hot rubidium vapor,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(23), 233602 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Ghosh, A. R. Bhagwat, C. K. Renshaw, S. Goh, A. L. Gaeta, and B. J. Kirby, “Low-Light-Level Optical Interactions with Rubidium Vapor in a Photonic Band-Gap Fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(2), 023603 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. M. Hendrickson, M. M. Lai, T. B. Pittman, and J. D. Franson, “Observation of two-photon absorption at low power levels using tapered optical fibers in rubidium vapor,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(17), 173602 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. M. Spillane, T. J. Kippenberg, O. J. Painter, and K. J. Vahala, “Ideality in a fiber-taper-coupled microresonator system for application to cavity quantum electrodynamics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(4), 043902 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE

B. V. Zhdanov and R. J. Knize, “Progress in alkali lasers development,” Proc. SPIE 6874, 68740F, 68740F-12 (2008) (and references therein).
[CrossRef]

Science

A. M. C. Dawes, L. Illing, S. M. Clark, and D. J. Gauthier, “All-optical switching in rubidium vapor,” Science 308, 672–674 (2005).

S. Weis, R. Rivière, S. Deléglise, E. Gavartin, O. Arcizet, A. Schliesser, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Optomechanically Induced Transparency,” Science 330(6010), 1520–1523 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

The quantum Zeno effect for atomic transitions. The state |1> is weakly coupled to|2>, but this evolution is continuously suppressed by the presence of a pump laser coupling |1> to |3>

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic of the tapered Nano fiber set-up

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Experimental setup for demonstrating optical modulation. Both AOMs are operated at the same frequency (80 MHz). The pump and the probe are each linearly polarized, orthogonal to each other.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Absorption spectrum of the probe in the absence (red) and presence (blue) of the pump.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Schematic illustration of the process that produces the QZE when the atoms are excited by cross-linearly polarized pump and probe beams.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Low-frequency modulation results for a duty cycle of 70% (on-state), for four different frequencies. At 10 kHz, the signal is limited by the APD bandwidth.

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