Abstract

We experimentally and numerically demonstrate a planar metamaterial consisting of two asymmetrically positioned π-structures in a single unit that exhibits plasmonic analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT). Through the coupling of the constituent nanorod elements, the proposed structure enables fine spectral tuning of the EIT-like behavior and controlling the location of near field enhancement. Originated from the asymmetric cascaded π-structures, we introduce a more compact system which possesses the EIT-like characteristics and as well as much smaller mode volumes. Due to these properties, the proposed metamaterials can be utilized for a wide range of applications including bio-chemical sensors, optical filters and modulators and enhancement of non-linear processes.

© 2011 OSA

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  1. K. J. Boller, A. Imamolu, and S. E. Harris, “Observation of electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 66(20), 2593–2596 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. M. Fleischhauer, A. Imamoglu, and J. P. Marangos, “Electromagnetically induced transparency: Optics in coherent media,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 77(2), 633–673 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  3. L. V. Hau, S. E. Harris, Z. Dutton, and C. H. Behroozi, “Light speed reduction to 17 ms−1 in an ultracold atomic gas,” Nature 397(6720), 594–598 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  4. G. Shvets and J. S. Wurtele, “Transparency of magnetized plasma at the cyclotron frequency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89(11), 115003 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. C. Liu, Z. Dutton, C. H. Behroozi, and L. V. Hau, “Observation of coherent optical information storage in an atomic medium using halted light pulses,” Nature 409(6819), 490–493 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. M. D. Lukin and A. Imamoglu, “Controlling photons using electromagnetically induced transparency,” Nature 413(6853), 273–276 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. P. Tassin, L. Zhang, T. Koschny, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Low-loss metamaterials based on classical electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(5), 053901 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. R. Singh, C. Rockstuhl, F. Lederer, and W. L. Zhang, “Coupling between a dark and a bright eigenmode in a terahertz metamaterial,” Phys. Rev. B 79(8), 085111 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  9. C. L. G. Alzar, M. A. G. Martinez, and P. Nussenzveig, “Classical analog of electromagnetically induced transparency,” Am. J. Phys. 70(1), 37–41 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. Zhang, S. Xiao, C. Jeppesen, A. Kristensen, and N. A. Mortensen, “Electromagnetically induced transparency in metamaterials at near-infrared frequency,” Opt. Express 18(16), 17187–17192 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. N. Papasimakis, V. A. Fedotov, N. I. Zheludev, and S. L. Prosvirnin, “Metamaterial analog of electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(25), 253903 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. S.-Y. Chiam, R. Singh, C. Rockstuhl, F. Lederer, W. Zhang, and A. A. Bettiol, “Analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency in a terahertz metamaterial,” Phys. Rev. B 80(15), 153103 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  13. N. Verellen, Y. Sonnefraud, H. Sobhani, F. Hao, V. V. Moshchalkov, P. Van Dorpe, P. Nordlander, and S. A. Maier, “Fano resonances in individual coherent plasmonic nanocavities,” Nano Lett. 9(4), 1663–1667 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. S. Zhang, D. A. Genov, Y. Wang, M. Liu, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon-induced transparency in metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(4), 047401 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. A. Artar, A. A. Yanik, and H. Altug, “Multispectral plasmon induced transparency in coupled meta-atoms,” Nano Lett. 11(4), 1685–1689 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. A. B. Evlyukhin, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, A. Pors, M. G. Nielsen, I. P. Radko, M. Willatzen, and O. Albrektsen, “Detuned electrical dipoles for plasmonic sensing,” Nano Lett. 10(11), 4571–4577 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. S. I. Bozhevolnyi, A. B. Evlyukhin, A. Pors, M. G. Nielsen, M. Willatzen, and O. Albrektsen, “Optical transparency by detuned electrical dipoles,” N. J. Phys. 13(2), 023034 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  18. S. A. Maier, “Plasmonics: The benefits of darkness,” Nat. Mater. 8(9), 699–700 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. N. Liu, L. Langguth, T. Weiss, J. Kästel, M. Fleischhauer, T. Pfau, and H. Giessen, “Plasmonic analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency at the Drude damping limit,” Nat. Mater. 8(9), 758–762 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. A. Artar, A. A. Yanik, and H. Altug, “Directional double fano resonances in plasmonic hetero-oligomers,” Nano Lett. 11(9), 3694–3700 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. N. Liu, T. Weiss, M. Mesch, L. Langguth, U. Eigenthaler, M. Hirscher, C. Sönnichsen, and H. Giessen, “Planar metamaterial analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency for plasmonic sensing,” Nano Lett. 10(4), 1103–1107 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. Z.-G. Dong, H. Liu, J.-X. Cao, T. Liu, S.-M. Wang, S.-N. Zhu, and X. Zang, “Enhanced sensing performance by the plasmonic analog of electromagnetically induced transparency in active metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(11), 114101 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  23. The numerical simulations are carried out using a Finite-Difference-Time-Domain package, Lumerical FDTD Solutions.
  24. E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids (Academic, 1985).
  25. A. Bouhelier, M. Beversluis, A. Hartschuh, and L. Novotny, “Near-field second-harmonic generation induced by local field enhancement,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(1), 013903 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. P. Genevet, J.-P. Tetienne, E. Gatzogiannis, R. Blanchard, M. A. Kats, M. O. Scully, and F. Capasso, “Large Enhancement of Nonlinear Optical Phenomena by Plasmonic Nanocavity Gratings,” Nano Lett. 10(12), 4880–4883 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  27. C. M. Soukoulis and M. Wegener, “Past achievements and future challenges in the development of three-dimensional photonic metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 5, 523–530 (2011).
  28. T. J. Kippenberg, S. M. Spillane, and K. J. Vahala, “Demonstration of ultra-high-Q small mode volume toroid microcavities on a chip,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(25), 6113–6115 (2004).
    [CrossRef]

2011 (4)

A. Artar, A. A. Yanik, and H. Altug, “Multispectral plasmon induced transparency in coupled meta-atoms,” Nano Lett. 11(4), 1685–1689 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Artar, A. A. Yanik, and H. Altug, “Directional double fano resonances in plasmonic hetero-oligomers,” Nano Lett. 11(9), 3694–3700 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, A. B. Evlyukhin, A. Pors, M. G. Nielsen, M. Willatzen, and O. Albrektsen, “Optical transparency by detuned electrical dipoles,” N. J. Phys. 13(2), 023034 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. M. Soukoulis and M. Wegener, “Past achievements and future challenges in the development of three-dimensional photonic metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 5, 523–530 (2011).

2010 (5)

P. Genevet, J.-P. Tetienne, E. Gatzogiannis, R. Blanchard, M. A. Kats, M. O. Scully, and F. Capasso, “Large Enhancement of Nonlinear Optical Phenomena by Plasmonic Nanocavity Gratings,” Nano Lett. 10(12), 4880–4883 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. Liu, T. Weiss, M. Mesch, L. Langguth, U. Eigenthaler, M. Hirscher, C. Sönnichsen, and H. Giessen, “Planar metamaterial analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency for plasmonic sensing,” Nano Lett. 10(4), 1103–1107 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z.-G. Dong, H. Liu, J.-X. Cao, T. Liu, S.-M. Wang, S.-N. Zhu, and X. Zang, “Enhanced sensing performance by the plasmonic analog of electromagnetically induced transparency in active metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(11), 114101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. B. Evlyukhin, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, A. Pors, M. G. Nielsen, I. P. Radko, M. Willatzen, and O. Albrektsen, “Detuned electrical dipoles for plasmonic sensing,” Nano Lett. 10(11), 4571–4577 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Zhang, S. Xiao, C. Jeppesen, A. Kristensen, and N. A. Mortensen, “Electromagnetically induced transparency in metamaterials at near-infrared frequency,” Opt. Express 18(16), 17187–17192 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (6)

P. Tassin, L. Zhang, T. Koschny, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Low-loss metamaterials based on classical electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(5), 053901 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Singh, C. Rockstuhl, F. Lederer, and W. L. Zhang, “Coupling between a dark and a bright eigenmode in a terahertz metamaterial,” Phys. Rev. B 79(8), 085111 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S.-Y. Chiam, R. Singh, C. Rockstuhl, F. Lederer, W. Zhang, and A. A. Bettiol, “Analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency in a terahertz metamaterial,” Phys. Rev. B 80(15), 153103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. Verellen, Y. Sonnefraud, H. Sobhani, F. Hao, V. V. Moshchalkov, P. Van Dorpe, P. Nordlander, and S. A. Maier, “Fano resonances in individual coherent plasmonic nanocavities,” Nano Lett. 9(4), 1663–1667 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Maier, “Plasmonics: The benefits of darkness,” Nat. Mater. 8(9), 699–700 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Liu, L. Langguth, T. Weiss, J. Kästel, M. Fleischhauer, T. Pfau, and H. Giessen, “Plasmonic analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency at the Drude damping limit,” Nat. Mater. 8(9), 758–762 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (2)

S. Zhang, D. A. Genov, Y. Wang, M. Liu, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon-induced transparency in metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(4), 047401 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Papasimakis, V. A. Fedotov, N. I. Zheludev, and S. L. Prosvirnin, “Metamaterial analog of electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(25), 253903 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

M. Fleischhauer, A. Imamoglu, and J. P. Marangos, “Electromagnetically induced transparency: Optics in coherent media,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 77(2), 633–673 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

T. J. Kippenberg, S. M. Spillane, and K. J. Vahala, “Demonstration of ultra-high-Q small mode volume toroid microcavities on a chip,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(25), 6113–6115 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

A. Bouhelier, M. Beversluis, A. Hartschuh, and L. Novotny, “Near-field second-harmonic generation induced by local field enhancement,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(1), 013903 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (2)

G. Shvets and J. S. Wurtele, “Transparency of magnetized plasma at the cyclotron frequency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89(11), 115003 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. L. G. Alzar, M. A. G. Martinez, and P. Nussenzveig, “Classical analog of electromagnetically induced transparency,” Am. J. Phys. 70(1), 37–41 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

C. Liu, Z. Dutton, C. H. Behroozi, and L. V. Hau, “Observation of coherent optical information storage in an atomic medium using halted light pulses,” Nature 409(6819), 490–493 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. D. Lukin and A. Imamoglu, “Controlling photons using electromagnetically induced transparency,” Nature 413(6853), 273–276 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

L. V. Hau, S. E. Harris, Z. Dutton, and C. H. Behroozi, “Light speed reduction to 17 ms−1 in an ultracold atomic gas,” Nature 397(6720), 594–598 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

K. J. Boller, A. Imamolu, and S. E. Harris, “Observation of electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 66(20), 2593–2596 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Albrektsen, O.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, A. B. Evlyukhin, A. Pors, M. G. Nielsen, M. Willatzen, and O. Albrektsen, “Optical transparency by detuned electrical dipoles,” N. J. Phys. 13(2), 023034 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. B. Evlyukhin, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, A. Pors, M. G. Nielsen, I. P. Radko, M. Willatzen, and O. Albrektsen, “Detuned electrical dipoles for plasmonic sensing,” Nano Lett. 10(11), 4571–4577 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Altug, H.

A. Artar, A. A. Yanik, and H. Altug, “Multispectral plasmon induced transparency in coupled meta-atoms,” Nano Lett. 11(4), 1685–1689 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Artar, A. A. Yanik, and H. Altug, “Directional double fano resonances in plasmonic hetero-oligomers,” Nano Lett. 11(9), 3694–3700 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alzar, C. L. G.

C. L. G. Alzar, M. A. G. Martinez, and P. Nussenzveig, “Classical analog of electromagnetically induced transparency,” Am. J. Phys. 70(1), 37–41 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Artar, A.

A. Artar, A. A. Yanik, and H. Altug, “Directional double fano resonances in plasmonic hetero-oligomers,” Nano Lett. 11(9), 3694–3700 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Artar, A. A. Yanik, and H. Altug, “Multispectral plasmon induced transparency in coupled meta-atoms,” Nano Lett. 11(4), 1685–1689 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Behroozi, C. H.

C. Liu, Z. Dutton, C. H. Behroozi, and L. V. Hau, “Observation of coherent optical information storage in an atomic medium using halted light pulses,” Nature 409(6819), 490–493 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. V. Hau, S. E. Harris, Z. Dutton, and C. H. Behroozi, “Light speed reduction to 17 ms−1 in an ultracold atomic gas,” Nature 397(6720), 594–598 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bettiol, A. A.

S.-Y. Chiam, R. Singh, C. Rockstuhl, F. Lederer, W. Zhang, and A. A. Bettiol, “Analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency in a terahertz metamaterial,” Phys. Rev. B 80(15), 153103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Beversluis, M.

A. Bouhelier, M. Beversluis, A. Hartschuh, and L. Novotny, “Near-field second-harmonic generation induced by local field enhancement,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(1), 013903 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Blanchard, R.

P. Genevet, J.-P. Tetienne, E. Gatzogiannis, R. Blanchard, M. A. Kats, M. O. Scully, and F. Capasso, “Large Enhancement of Nonlinear Optical Phenomena by Plasmonic Nanocavity Gratings,” Nano Lett. 10(12), 4880–4883 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Boller, K. J.

K. J. Boller, A. Imamolu, and S. E. Harris, “Observation of electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 66(20), 2593–2596 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bouhelier, A.

A. Bouhelier, M. Beversluis, A. Hartschuh, and L. Novotny, “Near-field second-harmonic generation induced by local field enhancement,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(1), 013903 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bozhevolnyi, S. I.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, A. B. Evlyukhin, A. Pors, M. G. Nielsen, M. Willatzen, and O. Albrektsen, “Optical transparency by detuned electrical dipoles,” N. J. Phys. 13(2), 023034 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. B. Evlyukhin, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, A. Pors, M. G. Nielsen, I. P. Radko, M. Willatzen, and O. Albrektsen, “Detuned electrical dipoles for plasmonic sensing,” Nano Lett. 10(11), 4571–4577 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cao, J.-X.

Z.-G. Dong, H. Liu, J.-X. Cao, T. Liu, S.-M. Wang, S.-N. Zhu, and X. Zang, “Enhanced sensing performance by the plasmonic analog of electromagnetically induced transparency in active metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(11), 114101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Capasso, F.

P. Genevet, J.-P. Tetienne, E. Gatzogiannis, R. Blanchard, M. A. Kats, M. O. Scully, and F. Capasso, “Large Enhancement of Nonlinear Optical Phenomena by Plasmonic Nanocavity Gratings,” Nano Lett. 10(12), 4880–4883 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chiam, S.-Y.

S.-Y. Chiam, R. Singh, C. Rockstuhl, F. Lederer, W. Zhang, and A. A. Bettiol, “Analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency in a terahertz metamaterial,” Phys. Rev. B 80(15), 153103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dong, Z.-G.

Z.-G. Dong, H. Liu, J.-X. Cao, T. Liu, S.-M. Wang, S.-N. Zhu, and X. Zang, “Enhanced sensing performance by the plasmonic analog of electromagnetically induced transparency in active metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(11), 114101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Dutton, Z.

C. Liu, Z. Dutton, C. H. Behroozi, and L. V. Hau, “Observation of coherent optical information storage in an atomic medium using halted light pulses,” Nature 409(6819), 490–493 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. V. Hau, S. E. Harris, Z. Dutton, and C. H. Behroozi, “Light speed reduction to 17 ms−1 in an ultracold atomic gas,” Nature 397(6720), 594–598 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Economou, E. N.

P. Tassin, L. Zhang, T. Koschny, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Low-loss metamaterials based on classical electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(5), 053901 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eigenthaler, U.

N. Liu, T. Weiss, M. Mesch, L. Langguth, U. Eigenthaler, M. Hirscher, C. Sönnichsen, and H. Giessen, “Planar metamaterial analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency for plasmonic sensing,” Nano Lett. 10(4), 1103–1107 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Evlyukhin, A. B.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, A. B. Evlyukhin, A. Pors, M. G. Nielsen, M. Willatzen, and O. Albrektsen, “Optical transparency by detuned electrical dipoles,” N. J. Phys. 13(2), 023034 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. B. Evlyukhin, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, A. Pors, M. G. Nielsen, I. P. Radko, M. Willatzen, and O. Albrektsen, “Detuned electrical dipoles for plasmonic sensing,” Nano Lett. 10(11), 4571–4577 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fedotov, V. A.

N. Papasimakis, V. A. Fedotov, N. I. Zheludev, and S. L. Prosvirnin, “Metamaterial analog of electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(25), 253903 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fleischhauer, M.

N. Liu, L. Langguth, T. Weiss, J. Kästel, M. Fleischhauer, T. Pfau, and H. Giessen, “Plasmonic analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency at the Drude damping limit,” Nat. Mater. 8(9), 758–762 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Fleischhauer, A. Imamoglu, and J. P. Marangos, “Electromagnetically induced transparency: Optics in coherent media,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 77(2), 633–673 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gatzogiannis, E.

P. Genevet, J.-P. Tetienne, E. Gatzogiannis, R. Blanchard, M. A. Kats, M. O. Scully, and F. Capasso, “Large Enhancement of Nonlinear Optical Phenomena by Plasmonic Nanocavity Gratings,” Nano Lett. 10(12), 4880–4883 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Genevet, P.

P. Genevet, J.-P. Tetienne, E. Gatzogiannis, R. Blanchard, M. A. Kats, M. O. Scully, and F. Capasso, “Large Enhancement of Nonlinear Optical Phenomena by Plasmonic Nanocavity Gratings,” Nano Lett. 10(12), 4880–4883 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Genov, D. A.

S. Zhang, D. A. Genov, Y. Wang, M. Liu, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon-induced transparency in metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(4), 047401 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Giessen, H.

N. Liu, T. Weiss, M. Mesch, L. Langguth, U. Eigenthaler, M. Hirscher, C. Sönnichsen, and H. Giessen, “Planar metamaterial analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency for plasmonic sensing,” Nano Lett. 10(4), 1103–1107 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Liu, L. Langguth, T. Weiss, J. Kästel, M. Fleischhauer, T. Pfau, and H. Giessen, “Plasmonic analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency at the Drude damping limit,” Nat. Mater. 8(9), 758–762 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hao, F.

N. Verellen, Y. Sonnefraud, H. Sobhani, F. Hao, V. V. Moshchalkov, P. Van Dorpe, P. Nordlander, and S. A. Maier, “Fano resonances in individual coherent plasmonic nanocavities,” Nano Lett. 9(4), 1663–1667 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Harris, S. E.

L. V. Hau, S. E. Harris, Z. Dutton, and C. H. Behroozi, “Light speed reduction to 17 ms−1 in an ultracold atomic gas,” Nature 397(6720), 594–598 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. J. Boller, A. Imamolu, and S. E. Harris, “Observation of electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 66(20), 2593–2596 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hartschuh, A.

A. Bouhelier, M. Beversluis, A. Hartschuh, and L. Novotny, “Near-field second-harmonic generation induced by local field enhancement,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(1), 013903 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hau, L. V.

C. Liu, Z. Dutton, C. H. Behroozi, and L. V. Hau, “Observation of coherent optical information storage in an atomic medium using halted light pulses,” Nature 409(6819), 490–493 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. V. Hau, S. E. Harris, Z. Dutton, and C. H. Behroozi, “Light speed reduction to 17 ms−1 in an ultracold atomic gas,” Nature 397(6720), 594–598 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hirscher, M.

N. Liu, T. Weiss, M. Mesch, L. Langguth, U. Eigenthaler, M. Hirscher, C. Sönnichsen, and H. Giessen, “Planar metamaterial analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency for plasmonic sensing,” Nano Lett. 10(4), 1103–1107 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Imamoglu, A.

M. Fleischhauer, A. Imamoglu, and J. P. Marangos, “Electromagnetically induced transparency: Optics in coherent media,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 77(2), 633–673 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Lukin and A. Imamoglu, “Controlling photons using electromagnetically induced transparency,” Nature 413(6853), 273–276 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Imamolu, A.

K. J. Boller, A. Imamolu, and S. E. Harris, “Observation of electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 66(20), 2593–2596 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jeppesen, C.

Kästel, J.

N. Liu, L. Langguth, T. Weiss, J. Kästel, M. Fleischhauer, T. Pfau, and H. Giessen, “Plasmonic analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency at the Drude damping limit,” Nat. Mater. 8(9), 758–762 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kats, M. A.

P. Genevet, J.-P. Tetienne, E. Gatzogiannis, R. Blanchard, M. A. Kats, M. O. Scully, and F. Capasso, “Large Enhancement of Nonlinear Optical Phenomena by Plasmonic Nanocavity Gratings,” Nano Lett. 10(12), 4880–4883 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kippenberg, T. J.

T. J. Kippenberg, S. M. Spillane, and K. J. Vahala, “Demonstration of ultra-high-Q small mode volume toroid microcavities on a chip,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(25), 6113–6115 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Koschny, T.

P. Tassin, L. Zhang, T. Koschny, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Low-loss metamaterials based on classical electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(5), 053901 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kristensen, A.

Langguth, L.

N. Liu, T. Weiss, M. Mesch, L. Langguth, U. Eigenthaler, M. Hirscher, C. Sönnichsen, and H. Giessen, “Planar metamaterial analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency for plasmonic sensing,” Nano Lett. 10(4), 1103–1107 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Liu, L. Langguth, T. Weiss, J. Kästel, M. Fleischhauer, T. Pfau, and H. Giessen, “Plasmonic analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency at the Drude damping limit,” Nat. Mater. 8(9), 758–762 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lederer, F.

S.-Y. Chiam, R. Singh, C. Rockstuhl, F. Lederer, W. Zhang, and A. A. Bettiol, “Analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency in a terahertz metamaterial,” Phys. Rev. B 80(15), 153103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Singh, C. Rockstuhl, F. Lederer, and W. L. Zhang, “Coupling between a dark and a bright eigenmode in a terahertz metamaterial,” Phys. Rev. B 79(8), 085111 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Liu, C.

C. Liu, Z. Dutton, C. H. Behroozi, and L. V. Hau, “Observation of coherent optical information storage in an atomic medium using halted light pulses,” Nature 409(6819), 490–493 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, H.

Z.-G. Dong, H. Liu, J.-X. Cao, T. Liu, S.-M. Wang, S.-N. Zhu, and X. Zang, “Enhanced sensing performance by the plasmonic analog of electromagnetically induced transparency in active metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(11), 114101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Liu, M.

S. Zhang, D. A. Genov, Y. Wang, M. Liu, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon-induced transparency in metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(4), 047401 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, N.

N. Liu, T. Weiss, M. Mesch, L. Langguth, U. Eigenthaler, M. Hirscher, C. Sönnichsen, and H. Giessen, “Planar metamaterial analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency for plasmonic sensing,” Nano Lett. 10(4), 1103–1107 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Liu, L. Langguth, T. Weiss, J. Kästel, M. Fleischhauer, T. Pfau, and H. Giessen, “Plasmonic analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency at the Drude damping limit,” Nat. Mater. 8(9), 758–762 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, T.

Z.-G. Dong, H. Liu, J.-X. Cao, T. Liu, S.-M. Wang, S.-N. Zhu, and X. Zang, “Enhanced sensing performance by the plasmonic analog of electromagnetically induced transparency in active metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(11), 114101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lukin, M. D.

M. D. Lukin and A. Imamoglu, “Controlling photons using electromagnetically induced transparency,” Nature 413(6853), 273–276 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maier, S. A.

S. A. Maier, “Plasmonics: The benefits of darkness,” Nat. Mater. 8(9), 699–700 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Verellen, Y. Sonnefraud, H. Sobhani, F. Hao, V. V. Moshchalkov, P. Van Dorpe, P. Nordlander, and S. A. Maier, “Fano resonances in individual coherent plasmonic nanocavities,” Nano Lett. 9(4), 1663–1667 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marangos, J. P.

M. Fleischhauer, A. Imamoglu, and J. P. Marangos, “Electromagnetically induced transparency: Optics in coherent media,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 77(2), 633–673 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Martinez, M. A. G.

C. L. G. Alzar, M. A. G. Martinez, and P. Nussenzveig, “Classical analog of electromagnetically induced transparency,” Am. J. Phys. 70(1), 37–41 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Mesch, M.

N. Liu, T. Weiss, M. Mesch, L. Langguth, U. Eigenthaler, M. Hirscher, C. Sönnichsen, and H. Giessen, “Planar metamaterial analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency for plasmonic sensing,” Nano Lett. 10(4), 1103–1107 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mortensen, N. A.

Moshchalkov, V. V.

N. Verellen, Y. Sonnefraud, H. Sobhani, F. Hao, V. V. Moshchalkov, P. Van Dorpe, P. Nordlander, and S. A. Maier, “Fano resonances in individual coherent plasmonic nanocavities,” Nano Lett. 9(4), 1663–1667 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nielsen, M. G.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, A. B. Evlyukhin, A. Pors, M. G. Nielsen, M. Willatzen, and O. Albrektsen, “Optical transparency by detuned electrical dipoles,” N. J. Phys. 13(2), 023034 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. B. Evlyukhin, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, A. Pors, M. G. Nielsen, I. P. Radko, M. Willatzen, and O. Albrektsen, “Detuned electrical dipoles for plasmonic sensing,” Nano Lett. 10(11), 4571–4577 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nordlander, P.

N. Verellen, Y. Sonnefraud, H. Sobhani, F. Hao, V. V. Moshchalkov, P. Van Dorpe, P. Nordlander, and S. A. Maier, “Fano resonances in individual coherent plasmonic nanocavities,” Nano Lett. 9(4), 1663–1667 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Novotny, L.

A. Bouhelier, M. Beversluis, A. Hartschuh, and L. Novotny, “Near-field second-harmonic generation induced by local field enhancement,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(1), 013903 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nussenzveig, P.

C. L. G. Alzar, M. A. G. Martinez, and P. Nussenzveig, “Classical analog of electromagnetically induced transparency,” Am. J. Phys. 70(1), 37–41 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Papasimakis, N.

N. Papasimakis, V. A. Fedotov, N. I. Zheludev, and S. L. Prosvirnin, “Metamaterial analog of electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(25), 253903 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pfau, T.

N. Liu, L. Langguth, T. Weiss, J. Kästel, M. Fleischhauer, T. Pfau, and H. Giessen, “Plasmonic analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency at the Drude damping limit,” Nat. Mater. 8(9), 758–762 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pors, A.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, A. B. Evlyukhin, A. Pors, M. G. Nielsen, M. Willatzen, and O. Albrektsen, “Optical transparency by detuned electrical dipoles,” N. J. Phys. 13(2), 023034 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. B. Evlyukhin, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, A. Pors, M. G. Nielsen, I. P. Radko, M. Willatzen, and O. Albrektsen, “Detuned electrical dipoles for plasmonic sensing,” Nano Lett. 10(11), 4571–4577 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Prosvirnin, S. L.

N. Papasimakis, V. A. Fedotov, N. I. Zheludev, and S. L. Prosvirnin, “Metamaterial analog of electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(25), 253903 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Radko, I. P.

A. B. Evlyukhin, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, A. Pors, M. G. Nielsen, I. P. Radko, M. Willatzen, and O. Albrektsen, “Detuned electrical dipoles for plasmonic sensing,” Nano Lett. 10(11), 4571–4577 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rockstuhl, C.

S.-Y. Chiam, R. Singh, C. Rockstuhl, F. Lederer, W. Zhang, and A. A. Bettiol, “Analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency in a terahertz metamaterial,” Phys. Rev. B 80(15), 153103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Singh, C. Rockstuhl, F. Lederer, and W. L. Zhang, “Coupling between a dark and a bright eigenmode in a terahertz metamaterial,” Phys. Rev. B 79(8), 085111 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Scully, M. O.

P. Genevet, J.-P. Tetienne, E. Gatzogiannis, R. Blanchard, M. A. Kats, M. O. Scully, and F. Capasso, “Large Enhancement of Nonlinear Optical Phenomena by Plasmonic Nanocavity Gratings,” Nano Lett. 10(12), 4880–4883 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Shvets, G.

G. Shvets and J. S. Wurtele, “Transparency of magnetized plasma at the cyclotron frequency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89(11), 115003 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Singh, R.

R. Singh, C. Rockstuhl, F. Lederer, and W. L. Zhang, “Coupling between a dark and a bright eigenmode in a terahertz metamaterial,” Phys. Rev. B 79(8), 085111 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S.-Y. Chiam, R. Singh, C. Rockstuhl, F. Lederer, W. Zhang, and A. A. Bettiol, “Analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency in a terahertz metamaterial,” Phys. Rev. B 80(15), 153103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sobhani, H.

N. Verellen, Y. Sonnefraud, H. Sobhani, F. Hao, V. V. Moshchalkov, P. Van Dorpe, P. Nordlander, and S. A. Maier, “Fano resonances in individual coherent plasmonic nanocavities,” Nano Lett. 9(4), 1663–1667 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sonnefraud, Y.

N. Verellen, Y. Sonnefraud, H. Sobhani, F. Hao, V. V. Moshchalkov, P. Van Dorpe, P. Nordlander, and S. A. Maier, “Fano resonances in individual coherent plasmonic nanocavities,” Nano Lett. 9(4), 1663–1667 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sönnichsen, C.

N. Liu, T. Weiss, M. Mesch, L. Langguth, U. Eigenthaler, M. Hirscher, C. Sönnichsen, and H. Giessen, “Planar metamaterial analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency for plasmonic sensing,” Nano Lett. 10(4), 1103–1107 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Soukoulis, C. M.

C. M. Soukoulis and M. Wegener, “Past achievements and future challenges in the development of three-dimensional photonic metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 5, 523–530 (2011).

P. Tassin, L. Zhang, T. Koschny, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Low-loss metamaterials based on classical electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(5), 053901 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Spillane, S. M.

T. J. Kippenberg, S. M. Spillane, and K. J. Vahala, “Demonstration of ultra-high-Q small mode volume toroid microcavities on a chip,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(25), 6113–6115 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tassin, P.

P. Tassin, L. Zhang, T. Koschny, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Low-loss metamaterials based on classical electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(5), 053901 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tetienne, J.-P.

P. Genevet, J.-P. Tetienne, E. Gatzogiannis, R. Blanchard, M. A. Kats, M. O. Scully, and F. Capasso, “Large Enhancement of Nonlinear Optical Phenomena by Plasmonic Nanocavity Gratings,” Nano Lett. 10(12), 4880–4883 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Vahala, K. J.

T. J. Kippenberg, S. M. Spillane, and K. J. Vahala, “Demonstration of ultra-high-Q small mode volume toroid microcavities on a chip,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(25), 6113–6115 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Van Dorpe, P.

N. Verellen, Y. Sonnefraud, H. Sobhani, F. Hao, V. V. Moshchalkov, P. Van Dorpe, P. Nordlander, and S. A. Maier, “Fano resonances in individual coherent plasmonic nanocavities,” Nano Lett. 9(4), 1663–1667 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Verellen, N.

N. Verellen, Y. Sonnefraud, H. Sobhani, F. Hao, V. V. Moshchalkov, P. Van Dorpe, P. Nordlander, and S. A. Maier, “Fano resonances in individual coherent plasmonic nanocavities,” Nano Lett. 9(4), 1663–1667 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, S.-M.

Z.-G. Dong, H. Liu, J.-X. Cao, T. Liu, S.-M. Wang, S.-N. Zhu, and X. Zang, “Enhanced sensing performance by the plasmonic analog of electromagnetically induced transparency in active metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(11), 114101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y.

S. Zhang, D. A. Genov, Y. Wang, M. Liu, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon-induced transparency in metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(4), 047401 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wegener, M.

C. M. Soukoulis and M. Wegener, “Past achievements and future challenges in the development of three-dimensional photonic metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 5, 523–530 (2011).

Weiss, T.

N. Liu, T. Weiss, M. Mesch, L. Langguth, U. Eigenthaler, M. Hirscher, C. Sönnichsen, and H. Giessen, “Planar metamaterial analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency for plasmonic sensing,” Nano Lett. 10(4), 1103–1107 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Liu, L. Langguth, T. Weiss, J. Kästel, M. Fleischhauer, T. Pfau, and H. Giessen, “Plasmonic analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency at the Drude damping limit,” Nat. Mater. 8(9), 758–762 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Willatzen, M.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, A. B. Evlyukhin, A. Pors, M. G. Nielsen, M. Willatzen, and O. Albrektsen, “Optical transparency by detuned electrical dipoles,” N. J. Phys. 13(2), 023034 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. B. Evlyukhin, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, A. Pors, M. G. Nielsen, I. P. Radko, M. Willatzen, and O. Albrektsen, “Detuned electrical dipoles for plasmonic sensing,” Nano Lett. 10(11), 4571–4577 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wurtele, J. S.

G. Shvets and J. S. Wurtele, “Transparency of magnetized plasma at the cyclotron frequency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89(11), 115003 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xiao, S.

Yanik, A. A.

A. Artar, A. A. Yanik, and H. Altug, “Directional double fano resonances in plasmonic hetero-oligomers,” Nano Lett. 11(9), 3694–3700 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Artar, A. A. Yanik, and H. Altug, “Multispectral plasmon induced transparency in coupled meta-atoms,” Nano Lett. 11(4), 1685–1689 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zang, X.

Z.-G. Dong, H. Liu, J.-X. Cao, T. Liu, S.-M. Wang, S.-N. Zhu, and X. Zang, “Enhanced sensing performance by the plasmonic analog of electromagnetically induced transparency in active metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(11), 114101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J.

Zhang, L.

P. Tassin, L. Zhang, T. Koschny, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Low-loss metamaterials based on classical electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(5), 053901 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, S.

S. Zhang, D. A. Genov, Y. Wang, M. Liu, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon-induced transparency in metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(4), 047401 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, W.

S.-Y. Chiam, R. Singh, C. Rockstuhl, F. Lederer, W. Zhang, and A. A. Bettiol, “Analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency in a terahertz metamaterial,” Phys. Rev. B 80(15), 153103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, W. L.

R. Singh, C. Rockstuhl, F. Lederer, and W. L. Zhang, “Coupling between a dark and a bright eigenmode in a terahertz metamaterial,” Phys. Rev. B 79(8), 085111 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X.

S. Zhang, D. A. Genov, Y. Wang, M. Liu, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon-induced transparency in metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(4), 047401 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zheludev, N. I.

N. Papasimakis, V. A. Fedotov, N. I. Zheludev, and S. L. Prosvirnin, “Metamaterial analog of electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(25), 253903 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhu, S.-N.

Z.-G. Dong, H. Liu, J.-X. Cao, T. Liu, S.-M. Wang, S.-N. Zhu, and X. Zang, “Enhanced sensing performance by the plasmonic analog of electromagnetically induced transparency in active metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(11), 114101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Am. J. Phys. (1)

C. L. G. Alzar, M. A. G. Martinez, and P. Nussenzveig, “Classical analog of electromagnetically induced transparency,” Am. J. Phys. 70(1), 37–41 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

Z.-G. Dong, H. Liu, J.-X. Cao, T. Liu, S.-M. Wang, S.-N. Zhu, and X. Zang, “Enhanced sensing performance by the plasmonic analog of electromagnetically induced transparency in active metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(11), 114101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Kippenberg, S. M. Spillane, and K. J. Vahala, “Demonstration of ultra-high-Q small mode volume toroid microcavities on a chip,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(25), 6113–6115 (2004).
[CrossRef]

N. J. Phys. (1)

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, A. B. Evlyukhin, A. Pors, M. G. Nielsen, M. Willatzen, and O. Albrektsen, “Optical transparency by detuned electrical dipoles,” N. J. Phys. 13(2), 023034 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett. (6)

A. Artar, A. A. Yanik, and H. Altug, “Multispectral plasmon induced transparency in coupled meta-atoms,” Nano Lett. 11(4), 1685–1689 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. B. Evlyukhin, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, A. Pors, M. G. Nielsen, I. P. Radko, M. Willatzen, and O. Albrektsen, “Detuned electrical dipoles for plasmonic sensing,” Nano Lett. 10(11), 4571–4577 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Verellen, Y. Sonnefraud, H. Sobhani, F. Hao, V. V. Moshchalkov, P. Van Dorpe, P. Nordlander, and S. A. Maier, “Fano resonances in individual coherent plasmonic nanocavities,” Nano Lett. 9(4), 1663–1667 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Genevet, J.-P. Tetienne, E. Gatzogiannis, R. Blanchard, M. A. Kats, M. O. Scully, and F. Capasso, “Large Enhancement of Nonlinear Optical Phenomena by Plasmonic Nanocavity Gratings,” Nano Lett. 10(12), 4880–4883 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Artar, A. A. Yanik, and H. Altug, “Directional double fano resonances in plasmonic hetero-oligomers,” Nano Lett. 11(9), 3694–3700 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Liu, T. Weiss, M. Mesch, L. Langguth, U. Eigenthaler, M. Hirscher, C. Sönnichsen, and H. Giessen, “Planar metamaterial analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency for plasmonic sensing,” Nano Lett. 10(4), 1103–1107 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Mater. (2)

S. A. Maier, “Plasmonics: The benefits of darkness,” Nat. Mater. 8(9), 699–700 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Liu, L. Langguth, T. Weiss, J. Kästel, M. Fleischhauer, T. Pfau, and H. Giessen, “Plasmonic analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency at the Drude damping limit,” Nat. Mater. 8(9), 758–762 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (1)

C. M. Soukoulis and M. Wegener, “Past achievements and future challenges in the development of three-dimensional photonic metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 5, 523–530 (2011).

Nature (3)

C. Liu, Z. Dutton, C. H. Behroozi, and L. V. Hau, “Observation of coherent optical information storage in an atomic medium using halted light pulses,” Nature 409(6819), 490–493 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. D. Lukin and A. Imamoglu, “Controlling photons using electromagnetically induced transparency,” Nature 413(6853), 273–276 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. V. Hau, S. E. Harris, Z. Dutton, and C. H. Behroozi, “Light speed reduction to 17 ms−1 in an ultracold atomic gas,” Nature 397(6720), 594–598 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Phys. Rev. B (2)

R. Singh, C. Rockstuhl, F. Lederer, and W. L. Zhang, “Coupling between a dark and a bright eigenmode in a terahertz metamaterial,” Phys. Rev. B 79(8), 085111 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S.-Y. Chiam, R. Singh, C. Rockstuhl, F. Lederer, W. Zhang, and A. A. Bettiol, “Analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency in a terahertz metamaterial,” Phys. Rev. B 80(15), 153103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (6)

S. Zhang, D. A. Genov, Y. Wang, M. Liu, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon-induced transparency in metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(4), 047401 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Papasimakis, V. A. Fedotov, N. I. Zheludev, and S. L. Prosvirnin, “Metamaterial analog of electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(25), 253903 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Tassin, L. Zhang, T. Koschny, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Low-loss metamaterials based on classical electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(5), 053901 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Shvets and J. S. Wurtele, “Transparency of magnetized plasma at the cyclotron frequency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89(11), 115003 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. J. Boller, A. Imamolu, and S. E. Harris, “Observation of electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 66(20), 2593–2596 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Bouhelier, M. Beversluis, A. Hartschuh, and L. Novotny, “Near-field second-harmonic generation induced by local field enhancement,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(1), 013903 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rev. Mod. Phys. (1)

M. Fleischhauer, A. Imamoglu, and J. P. Marangos, “Electromagnetically induced transparency: Optics in coherent media,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 77(2), 633–673 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

The numerical simulations are carried out using a Finite-Difference-Time-Domain package, Lumerical FDTD Solutions.

E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids (Academic, 1985).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Geometry of the cascaded π-structure composed of asymmetrically positioned identical π-structures. (b) Scanning electron microscope (SEM) image of the fabricated structure with the corresponding parameters: W = 100 nm, L = 400 nm, s = 200 nm, d = 100 nm, h = 50nm and t = 30 nm.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Numerical reflection data for (a) the cascaded structure where the individual π-shaped structures are symmetrically placed and (b) the cascaded structure where the individual π-shaped structures are asymmetrically placed. The distance between constituent elements are 100 nm (red curve) and 700 nm (black curve). (c) Numerical reflection data for the single π-shaped structure. In figures, the charge and total magnetic field distributions are determined at the corresponding resonance dip (For cascaded structures, the distributions are determined for d = 100 nm case). The corresponding parameters are W = 100 nm, L = 400 nm, s = 200 nm, h = 50 nm and t = 30 nm. (d) Quadrupolar excitation ( P ) is compared for the cascaded and single π-shaped structures. (e) For a cascaded structure, numeration of the dipole and quadrupolar antennas and the corresponding rod elements of each antenna are shown. In addition, Rmn, the displacement vector is illustrated.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Experimental reflection data for the double π-shaped structure with different Δd values. In figure inset, the shifting procedure for the upper dipolar antenna is illustrated. (b) SEM image of the double π-structures with shifting amounts of 200 and 500 nm. (c) Total magnetic field distribution, |H|2, at the calculated EIT-like resonance dip for the double π-structures with different ‘Δd’ values (For Δd = 500 nm, the field distribution is calculated at the reflection peak). The corresponding parameters are: W = 100 nm, L = 400 nm, s = 200 nm, d = 100 nm, h = 50 nm and t = 30 nm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Numerical and experimental reflection data for the double π-shaped structures with different d values. In figure inset, SEM image of the fabricated structure with d = 0 is shown. (b) Total magnetic field, |H|2, and (c) charge distribution at the calculated EIT-like resonance dip for the double π-structure composed of two merged π-shaped structures (d = 0). The corresponding parameters are: W = 100 nm, L = 400 nm, s = 200 nm, h = 50 nm and t = 30 nm.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Numerical and experimental reflection data for the compact double π-structure with the corresponding parameters: W = 100 nm, L = 400 nm, s = 200 nm, h = 50 nm and t = 30 nm. (b) Schematic view of the compact π-structure. (c) SEM image of the fabricated compact π-structure. (d) Charge and (e) total magnetic field distribution, |H|2, at the calculated EIT-like resonance dip for the compact π-structure.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Numerical and experimental reflection data for the compact double π-shaped structure with middle metal strips of different widths. In figure inset, the middle rod adjustment is illustrated. (b) SEM image of the structure without the middle rod (a = 0) is shown. (c) Total magnetic field distribution, |H|2, at the calculated EIT-like resonance dip for the compact π-structure with different ‘a’ values (For a = 0, the field distribution is calculated at the reflection peak). The corresponding parameters are: W = 100 nm, L = 400 nm, s = 300 - a, h = 50 nm and t = 30 nm.

Equations (6)

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P Q1 = α Q1 (( κ 11 + κ 12 ) P D1 +( κ 21 + κ 22 ) P D2 )
P Q2 = α Q2 (( κ 13 + κ 14 ) P D1 +( κ 23 + κ 24 ) P D2 )
κ nm = p n p m r nm 3 3 ( p n R nm )( p m R nm ) r nm 5
V= ε|E(r) | 2 dV max[ε|E(r) | 2 ]
V(compactπ) V(singleπ) 0.494
V(a=50 nm) V(a=100 nm) 0.63

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