Abstract

The relation between the near–field and far–field properties of plasmonic nanostructures that exhibit Fano resonances is investigated in detail. We show that specific features visible in the asymmetric lineshape far–field response of such structures originate from particular polarization distributions in their near–field. In particular we extract the central frequency and width of plasmonic Fano resonances and show that they cannot be directly found from far–field spectra. We also address the effect of the modes coupling onto the frequency, width, asymmetry and modulation depth of the Fano resonance. The methodology described in this article should be useful to analyze and design a broad variety of Fano plasmonic systems with tailored near–field and far–field spectral properties.

© 2011 OSA

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  1. U. Fano, “Effects of configuration interaction on intensities and phase shifts,” Citations Classics 27, 219 (1977).
  2. U. Fano, “Effects of configuration interaction on intensities and phase shifts,” Phys. Rev. 124, 1866 (1961).
    [CrossRef]
  3. B. Luk’yanchuk, N. I. Zheludev, S. A. Maier, N. J. Halas, P. Nordlander, H. Giessen, and C. T. Chong, “The Fano resonance in plasmonic nanostructures and metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 9, 707–715 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. E. Miroshnichenko, S. Flach, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Fano resonances in nanoscale structures,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 82, 2257–2298 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  5. E. Prodan, C. Radloff, N. Halas, and P. Nordlander, “A hybridization model for the plasmon response of complex nanostructures,” Science 302, 419–422 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. A. Christ, Y. Ekinci, H. H. Solak, N. A. Gippius, S. G. Tikhodeev, and O. J. F. Martin, “Controlling the Fano interference in a plasmonic lattice,” Phys. Rev. B 76, 201405 (2007).
  7. N. A. Mirin, K. Bao, and P. Nordlander, “Fano Resonances in Plasmonic Nanoparticle Aggregates,” J. Phys. Chem. A 113, 4028–4034 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. N. Liu, L. Langguth, T. Weiss, J. Kaestel, M. Fleischhauer, T. Pfau, and H. Giessen, “Plasmonic analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency at the drude damping limit,” Nat. Mater. 8, 758–762 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. J. A. Fan, C. Wu, K. Bao, J. Bao, R. Bardhan, N. J. Halas, V. N. Manoharan, P. Nordlander, G. Shvets, and F. Capasso, “Self-assembled plasmonic nanoparticle clusters,” Science 328, 1135–1138 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. K. Bao, N. A. Mirin, and P. Nordlander, “Fano resonances in planar silver nanosphere clusters,” Appl. Phys. A, Mater. Sci. Process. 100, 333–339 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  11. Y. Sonnefraud, N. Verellen, H. Sobhani, G. A. E. Vandenbosch, V. V. Moshchalkov, P. Van Dorpe, P. Nordlander, and S. A. Maier, “Experimental realization of subradiant, superradiant, and fano resonances in ring/disk plasmonic nanocavities,” ACS Nano 4, 1664–1670 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. Z.-J. Yang, Z.-S. Zhang, L.-H. Zhang, Q.-Q. Li, Z.-H. Hao, and Q.-Q. Wang, “Fano resonances in dipole-quadrupole plasmon coupling nanorod dimers,” Opt. Lett. 36, 1542–1544 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. B. Gallinet and O. J. F. Martin, “Ab initio theory of Fano resonances in plasmonic nanostructures and metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. B 83, 235427 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  14. A. Christ, O. J. F. Martin, Y. Ekinci, N. A. Gippius, and S. G. Tikhodeev, “Symmetry breaking in a plasmonic metamaterial at optical wavelength,” Nano Lett. 8, 2171–2175 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. N. Verellen, P. Van Dorpe, D. Vercruysse, G. A. E. Vandenbosch, and V. V. Moshchalkov, “Dark and bright localized surface plasmons in nanocrosses,” Opt. Express 19, 11034–11051 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. S. Zhang, D. A. Genov, Y. Wang, M. Liu, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon-induced transparency in metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 047401 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. N. Verellen, Y. Sonnefraud, H. Sobhani, F. Hao, V. V. Moshchalkov, P. Van Dorpe, P. Nordlander, and S. A. Maier, “Fano resonances in individual coherent plasmonic nanocavities,” Nano Lett. 9, 1663–1667 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. B. Gallinet and O. J. F. Martin, “Scattering on plasmonic nanostructures arrays modeled with a surface integral formulation,” Photon. Nanostruct. 8, 278–284 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  19. B. Gallinet, A. M. Kern, and O. J. F. Martin, “Accurate and versatile modeling of electromagnetic scattering on periodic nanostructures with a surface integral approach,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 27, 2261–2271 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  20. A. M. Kern and O. J. F. Martin, “Surface integral formulation for 3D simulations of plasmonic and high permittivity nanostructures,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 26, 732–740 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  21. A. M. Kern and O. J. F. Martin, “Excitation and reemission of molecules near realistic plasmonic nanostructures,” Nano Lett. 11, 482–487 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. D. J. Bergman and M. I. Stockman, “Surface Plasmon Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation: Quantum Generation of Coherent Surface Plasmons in Nanosystems,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 027402 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. N. I. Zheludev, S. L. Prosvirnin, N. Papasimakis, and V. A. Fedotov, “Lasing spaser,” Nat. Photonics 2, 351–354 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  24. P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical-constants of noble-metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370 (1972).
    [CrossRef]

2011

A. M. Kern and O. J. F. Martin, “Excitation and reemission of molecules near realistic plasmonic nanostructures,” Nano Lett. 11, 482–487 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Gallinet and O. J. F. Martin, “Ab initio theory of Fano resonances in plasmonic nanostructures and metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. B 83, 235427 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Z.-J. Yang, Z.-S. Zhang, L.-H. Zhang, Q.-Q. Li, Z.-H. Hao, and Q.-Q. Wang, “Fano resonances in dipole-quadrupole plasmon coupling nanorod dimers,” Opt. Lett. 36, 1542–1544 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Verellen, P. Van Dorpe, D. Vercruysse, G. A. E. Vandenbosch, and V. V. Moshchalkov, “Dark and bright localized surface plasmons in nanocrosses,” Opt. Express 19, 11034–11051 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010

B. Gallinet, A. M. Kern, and O. J. F. Martin, “Accurate and versatile modeling of electromagnetic scattering on periodic nanostructures with a surface integral approach,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 27, 2261–2271 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. Gallinet and O. J. F. Martin, “Scattering on plasmonic nanostructures arrays modeled with a surface integral formulation,” Photon. Nanostruct. 8, 278–284 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. Luk’yanchuk, N. I. Zheludev, S. A. Maier, N. J. Halas, P. Nordlander, H. Giessen, and C. T. Chong, “The Fano resonance in plasmonic nanostructures and metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 9, 707–715 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. E. Miroshnichenko, S. Flach, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Fano resonances in nanoscale structures,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 82, 2257–2298 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Fan, C. Wu, K. Bao, J. Bao, R. Bardhan, N. J. Halas, V. N. Manoharan, P. Nordlander, G. Shvets, and F. Capasso, “Self-assembled plasmonic nanoparticle clusters,” Science 328, 1135–1138 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Bao, N. A. Mirin, and P. Nordlander, “Fano resonances in planar silver nanosphere clusters,” Appl. Phys. A, Mater. Sci. Process. 100, 333–339 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Sonnefraud, N. Verellen, H. Sobhani, G. A. E. Vandenbosch, V. V. Moshchalkov, P. Van Dorpe, P. Nordlander, and S. A. Maier, “Experimental realization of subradiant, superradiant, and fano resonances in ring/disk plasmonic nanocavities,” ACS Nano 4, 1664–1670 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

N. Verellen, Y. Sonnefraud, H. Sobhani, F. Hao, V. V. Moshchalkov, P. Van Dorpe, P. Nordlander, and S. A. Maier, “Fano resonances in individual coherent plasmonic nanocavities,” Nano Lett. 9, 1663–1667 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. A. Mirin, K. Bao, and P. Nordlander, “Fano Resonances in Plasmonic Nanoparticle Aggregates,” J. Phys. Chem. A 113, 4028–4034 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Liu, L. Langguth, T. Weiss, J. Kaestel, M. Fleischhauer, T. Pfau, and H. Giessen, “Plasmonic analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency at the drude damping limit,” Nat. Mater. 8, 758–762 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. M. Kern and O. J. F. Martin, “Surface integral formulation for 3D simulations of plasmonic and high permittivity nanostructures,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 26, 732–740 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

A. Christ, O. J. F. Martin, Y. Ekinci, N. A. Gippius, and S. G. Tikhodeev, “Symmetry breaking in a plasmonic metamaterial at optical wavelength,” Nano Lett. 8, 2171–2175 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. I. Zheludev, S. L. Prosvirnin, N. Papasimakis, and V. A. Fedotov, “Lasing spaser,” Nat. Photonics 2, 351–354 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Zhang, D. A. Genov, Y. Wang, M. Liu, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon-induced transparency in metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 047401 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

E. Prodan, C. Radloff, N. Halas, and P. Nordlander, “A hybridization model for the plasmon response of complex nanostructures,” Science 302, 419–422 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Bergman and M. I. Stockman, “Surface Plasmon Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation: Quantum Generation of Coherent Surface Plasmons in Nanosystems,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 027402 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1977

U. Fano, “Effects of configuration interaction on intensities and phase shifts,” Citations Classics 27, 219 (1977).

1972

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical-constants of noble-metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1961

U. Fano, “Effects of configuration interaction on intensities and phase shifts,” Phys. Rev. 124, 1866 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Bao, J.

J. A. Fan, C. Wu, K. Bao, J. Bao, R. Bardhan, N. J. Halas, V. N. Manoharan, P. Nordlander, G. Shvets, and F. Capasso, “Self-assembled plasmonic nanoparticle clusters,” Science 328, 1135–1138 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bao, K.

J. A. Fan, C. Wu, K. Bao, J. Bao, R. Bardhan, N. J. Halas, V. N. Manoharan, P. Nordlander, G. Shvets, and F. Capasso, “Self-assembled plasmonic nanoparticle clusters,” Science 328, 1135–1138 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Bao, N. A. Mirin, and P. Nordlander, “Fano resonances in planar silver nanosphere clusters,” Appl. Phys. A, Mater. Sci. Process. 100, 333–339 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. A. Mirin, K. Bao, and P. Nordlander, “Fano Resonances in Plasmonic Nanoparticle Aggregates,” J. Phys. Chem. A 113, 4028–4034 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bardhan, R.

J. A. Fan, C. Wu, K. Bao, J. Bao, R. Bardhan, N. J. Halas, V. N. Manoharan, P. Nordlander, G. Shvets, and F. Capasso, “Self-assembled plasmonic nanoparticle clusters,” Science 328, 1135–1138 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bergman, D. J.

D. J. Bergman and M. I. Stockman, “Surface Plasmon Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation: Quantum Generation of Coherent Surface Plasmons in Nanosystems,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 027402 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Capasso, F.

J. A. Fan, C. Wu, K. Bao, J. Bao, R. Bardhan, N. J. Halas, V. N. Manoharan, P. Nordlander, G. Shvets, and F. Capasso, “Self-assembled plasmonic nanoparticle clusters,” Science 328, 1135–1138 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chong, C. T.

B. Luk’yanchuk, N. I. Zheludev, S. A. Maier, N. J. Halas, P. Nordlander, H. Giessen, and C. T. Chong, “The Fano resonance in plasmonic nanostructures and metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 9, 707–715 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Christ, A.

A. Christ, Y. Ekinci, H. H. Solak, N. A. Gippius, S. G. Tikhodeev, and O. J. F. Martin, “Controlling the Fano interference in a plasmonic lattice,” Phys. Rev. B 76, 201405 (2007).

A. Christ, O. J. F. Martin, Y. Ekinci, N. A. Gippius, and S. G. Tikhodeev, “Symmetry breaking in a plasmonic metamaterial at optical wavelength,” Nano Lett. 8, 2171–2175 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Christy, R. W.

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical-constants of noble-metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Ekinci, Y.

A. Christ, Y. Ekinci, H. H. Solak, N. A. Gippius, S. G. Tikhodeev, and O. J. F. Martin, “Controlling the Fano interference in a plasmonic lattice,” Phys. Rev. B 76, 201405 (2007).

A. Christ, O. J. F. Martin, Y. Ekinci, N. A. Gippius, and S. G. Tikhodeev, “Symmetry breaking in a plasmonic metamaterial at optical wavelength,” Nano Lett. 8, 2171–2175 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fan, J. A.

J. A. Fan, C. Wu, K. Bao, J. Bao, R. Bardhan, N. J. Halas, V. N. Manoharan, P. Nordlander, G. Shvets, and F. Capasso, “Self-assembled plasmonic nanoparticle clusters,” Science 328, 1135–1138 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fano, U.

U. Fano, “Effects of configuration interaction on intensities and phase shifts,” Citations Classics 27, 219 (1977).

U. Fano, “Effects of configuration interaction on intensities and phase shifts,” Phys. Rev. 124, 1866 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Fedotov, V. A.

N. I. Zheludev, S. L. Prosvirnin, N. Papasimakis, and V. A. Fedotov, “Lasing spaser,” Nat. Photonics 2, 351–354 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Flach, S.

A. E. Miroshnichenko, S. Flach, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Fano resonances in nanoscale structures,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 82, 2257–2298 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Fleischhauer, M.

N. Liu, L. Langguth, T. Weiss, J. Kaestel, M. Fleischhauer, T. Pfau, and H. Giessen, “Plasmonic analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency at the drude damping limit,” Nat. Mater. 8, 758–762 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gallinet, B.

B. Gallinet and O. J. F. Martin, “Ab initio theory of Fano resonances in plasmonic nanostructures and metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. B 83, 235427 (2011).
[CrossRef]

B. Gallinet and O. J. F. Martin, “Scattering on plasmonic nanostructures arrays modeled with a surface integral formulation,” Photon. Nanostruct. 8, 278–284 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. Gallinet, A. M. Kern, and O. J. F. Martin, “Accurate and versatile modeling of electromagnetic scattering on periodic nanostructures with a surface integral approach,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 27, 2261–2271 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Genov, D. A.

S. Zhang, D. A. Genov, Y. Wang, M. Liu, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon-induced transparency in metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 047401 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Giessen, H.

B. Luk’yanchuk, N. I. Zheludev, S. A. Maier, N. J. Halas, P. Nordlander, H. Giessen, and C. T. Chong, “The Fano resonance in plasmonic nanostructures and metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 9, 707–715 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. Liu, L. Langguth, T. Weiss, J. Kaestel, M. Fleischhauer, T. Pfau, and H. Giessen, “Plasmonic analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency at the drude damping limit,” Nat. Mater. 8, 758–762 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gippius, N. A.

A. Christ, Y. Ekinci, H. H. Solak, N. A. Gippius, S. G. Tikhodeev, and O. J. F. Martin, “Controlling the Fano interference in a plasmonic lattice,” Phys. Rev. B 76, 201405 (2007).

A. Christ, O. J. F. Martin, Y. Ekinci, N. A. Gippius, and S. G. Tikhodeev, “Symmetry breaking in a plasmonic metamaterial at optical wavelength,” Nano Lett. 8, 2171–2175 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Halas, N.

E. Prodan, C. Radloff, N. Halas, and P. Nordlander, “A hybridization model for the plasmon response of complex nanostructures,” Science 302, 419–422 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Halas, N. J.

B. Luk’yanchuk, N. I. Zheludev, S. A. Maier, N. J. Halas, P. Nordlander, H. Giessen, and C. T. Chong, “The Fano resonance in plasmonic nanostructures and metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 9, 707–715 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Fan, C. Wu, K. Bao, J. Bao, R. Bardhan, N. J. Halas, V. N. Manoharan, P. Nordlander, G. Shvets, and F. Capasso, “Self-assembled plasmonic nanoparticle clusters,” Science 328, 1135–1138 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hao, F.

N. Verellen, Y. Sonnefraud, H. Sobhani, F. Hao, V. V. Moshchalkov, P. Van Dorpe, P. Nordlander, and S. A. Maier, “Fano resonances in individual coherent plasmonic nanocavities,” Nano Lett. 9, 1663–1667 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hao, Z.-H.

Johnson, P. B.

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical-constants of noble-metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Kaestel, J.

N. Liu, L. Langguth, T. Weiss, J. Kaestel, M. Fleischhauer, T. Pfau, and H. Giessen, “Plasmonic analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency at the drude damping limit,” Nat. Mater. 8, 758–762 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kern, A. M.

Kivshar, Y. S.

A. E. Miroshnichenko, S. Flach, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Fano resonances in nanoscale structures,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 82, 2257–2298 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Langguth, L.

N. Liu, L. Langguth, T. Weiss, J. Kaestel, M. Fleischhauer, T. Pfau, and H. Giessen, “Plasmonic analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency at the drude damping limit,” Nat. Mater. 8, 758–762 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, Q.-Q.

Liu, M.

S. Zhang, D. A. Genov, Y. Wang, M. Liu, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon-induced transparency in metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 047401 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, N.

N. Liu, L. Langguth, T. Weiss, J. Kaestel, M. Fleischhauer, T. Pfau, and H. Giessen, “Plasmonic analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency at the drude damping limit,” Nat. Mater. 8, 758–762 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Luk’yanchuk, B.

B. Luk’yanchuk, N. I. Zheludev, S. A. Maier, N. J. Halas, P. Nordlander, H. Giessen, and C. T. Chong, “The Fano resonance in plasmonic nanostructures and metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 9, 707–715 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Maier, S. A.

B. Luk’yanchuk, N. I. Zheludev, S. A. Maier, N. J. Halas, P. Nordlander, H. Giessen, and C. T. Chong, “The Fano resonance in plasmonic nanostructures and metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 9, 707–715 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Sonnefraud, N. Verellen, H. Sobhani, G. A. E. Vandenbosch, V. V. Moshchalkov, P. Van Dorpe, P. Nordlander, and S. A. Maier, “Experimental realization of subradiant, superradiant, and fano resonances in ring/disk plasmonic nanocavities,” ACS Nano 4, 1664–1670 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Verellen, Y. Sonnefraud, H. Sobhani, F. Hao, V. V. Moshchalkov, P. Van Dorpe, P. Nordlander, and S. A. Maier, “Fano resonances in individual coherent plasmonic nanocavities,” Nano Lett. 9, 1663–1667 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Manoharan, V. N.

J. A. Fan, C. Wu, K. Bao, J. Bao, R. Bardhan, N. J. Halas, V. N. Manoharan, P. Nordlander, G. Shvets, and F. Capasso, “Self-assembled plasmonic nanoparticle clusters,” Science 328, 1135–1138 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Martin, O. J. F.

A. Christ, Y. Ekinci, H. H. Solak, N. A. Gippius, S. G. Tikhodeev, and O. J. F. Martin, “Controlling the Fano interference in a plasmonic lattice,” Phys. Rev. B 76, 201405 (2007).

A. M. Kern and O. J. F. Martin, “Excitation and reemission of molecules near realistic plasmonic nanostructures,” Nano Lett. 11, 482–487 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Gallinet and O. J. F. Martin, “Ab initio theory of Fano resonances in plasmonic nanostructures and metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. B 83, 235427 (2011).
[CrossRef]

B. Gallinet and O. J. F. Martin, “Scattering on plasmonic nanostructures arrays modeled with a surface integral formulation,” Photon. Nanostruct. 8, 278–284 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. Gallinet, A. M. Kern, and O. J. F. Martin, “Accurate and versatile modeling of electromagnetic scattering on periodic nanostructures with a surface integral approach,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 27, 2261–2271 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Kern and O. J. F. Martin, “Surface integral formulation for 3D simulations of plasmonic and high permittivity nanostructures,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 26, 732–740 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Christ, O. J. F. Martin, Y. Ekinci, N. A. Gippius, and S. G. Tikhodeev, “Symmetry breaking in a plasmonic metamaterial at optical wavelength,” Nano Lett. 8, 2171–2175 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mirin, N. A.

K. Bao, N. A. Mirin, and P. Nordlander, “Fano resonances in planar silver nanosphere clusters,” Appl. Phys. A, Mater. Sci. Process. 100, 333–339 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. A. Mirin, K. Bao, and P. Nordlander, “Fano Resonances in Plasmonic Nanoparticle Aggregates,” J. Phys. Chem. A 113, 4028–4034 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miroshnichenko, A. E.

A. E. Miroshnichenko, S. Flach, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Fano resonances in nanoscale structures,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 82, 2257–2298 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Moshchalkov, V. V.

N. Verellen, P. Van Dorpe, D. Vercruysse, G. A. E. Vandenbosch, and V. V. Moshchalkov, “Dark and bright localized surface plasmons in nanocrosses,” Opt. Express 19, 11034–11051 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Sonnefraud, N. Verellen, H. Sobhani, G. A. E. Vandenbosch, V. V. Moshchalkov, P. Van Dorpe, P. Nordlander, and S. A. Maier, “Experimental realization of subradiant, superradiant, and fano resonances in ring/disk plasmonic nanocavities,” ACS Nano 4, 1664–1670 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Verellen, Y. Sonnefraud, H. Sobhani, F. Hao, V. V. Moshchalkov, P. Van Dorpe, P. Nordlander, and S. A. Maier, “Fano resonances in individual coherent plasmonic nanocavities,” Nano Lett. 9, 1663–1667 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nordlander, P.

J. A. Fan, C. Wu, K. Bao, J. Bao, R. Bardhan, N. J. Halas, V. N. Manoharan, P. Nordlander, G. Shvets, and F. Capasso, “Self-assembled plasmonic nanoparticle clusters,” Science 328, 1135–1138 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Sonnefraud, N. Verellen, H. Sobhani, G. A. E. Vandenbosch, V. V. Moshchalkov, P. Van Dorpe, P. Nordlander, and S. A. Maier, “Experimental realization of subradiant, superradiant, and fano resonances in ring/disk plasmonic nanocavities,” ACS Nano 4, 1664–1670 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Luk’yanchuk, N. I. Zheludev, S. A. Maier, N. J. Halas, P. Nordlander, H. Giessen, and C. T. Chong, “The Fano resonance in plasmonic nanostructures and metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 9, 707–715 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. Bao, N. A. Mirin, and P. Nordlander, “Fano resonances in planar silver nanosphere clusters,” Appl. Phys. A, Mater. Sci. Process. 100, 333–339 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. A. Mirin, K. Bao, and P. Nordlander, “Fano Resonances in Plasmonic Nanoparticle Aggregates,” J. Phys. Chem. A 113, 4028–4034 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Verellen, Y. Sonnefraud, H. Sobhani, F. Hao, V. V. Moshchalkov, P. Van Dorpe, P. Nordlander, and S. A. Maier, “Fano resonances in individual coherent plasmonic nanocavities,” Nano Lett. 9, 1663–1667 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Prodan, C. Radloff, N. Halas, and P. Nordlander, “A hybridization model for the plasmon response of complex nanostructures,” Science 302, 419–422 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Papasimakis, N.

N. I. Zheludev, S. L. Prosvirnin, N. Papasimakis, and V. A. Fedotov, “Lasing spaser,” Nat. Photonics 2, 351–354 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pfau, T.

N. Liu, L. Langguth, T. Weiss, J. Kaestel, M. Fleischhauer, T. Pfau, and H. Giessen, “Plasmonic analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency at the drude damping limit,” Nat. Mater. 8, 758–762 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Prodan, E.

E. Prodan, C. Radloff, N. Halas, and P. Nordlander, “A hybridization model for the plasmon response of complex nanostructures,” Science 302, 419–422 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Prosvirnin, S. L.

N. I. Zheludev, S. L. Prosvirnin, N. Papasimakis, and V. A. Fedotov, “Lasing spaser,” Nat. Photonics 2, 351–354 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Radloff, C.

E. Prodan, C. Radloff, N. Halas, and P. Nordlander, “A hybridization model for the plasmon response of complex nanostructures,” Science 302, 419–422 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shvets, G.

J. A. Fan, C. Wu, K. Bao, J. Bao, R. Bardhan, N. J. Halas, V. N. Manoharan, P. Nordlander, G. Shvets, and F. Capasso, “Self-assembled plasmonic nanoparticle clusters,” Science 328, 1135–1138 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sobhani, H.

Y. Sonnefraud, N. Verellen, H. Sobhani, G. A. E. Vandenbosch, V. V. Moshchalkov, P. Van Dorpe, P. Nordlander, and S. A. Maier, “Experimental realization of subradiant, superradiant, and fano resonances in ring/disk plasmonic nanocavities,” ACS Nano 4, 1664–1670 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Verellen, Y. Sonnefraud, H. Sobhani, F. Hao, V. V. Moshchalkov, P. Van Dorpe, P. Nordlander, and S. A. Maier, “Fano resonances in individual coherent plasmonic nanocavities,” Nano Lett. 9, 1663–1667 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Solak, H. H.

A. Christ, Y. Ekinci, H. H. Solak, N. A. Gippius, S. G. Tikhodeev, and O. J. F. Martin, “Controlling the Fano interference in a plasmonic lattice,” Phys. Rev. B 76, 201405 (2007).

Sonnefraud, Y.

Y. Sonnefraud, N. Verellen, H. Sobhani, G. A. E. Vandenbosch, V. V. Moshchalkov, P. Van Dorpe, P. Nordlander, and S. A. Maier, “Experimental realization of subradiant, superradiant, and fano resonances in ring/disk plasmonic nanocavities,” ACS Nano 4, 1664–1670 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Verellen, Y. Sonnefraud, H. Sobhani, F. Hao, V. V. Moshchalkov, P. Van Dorpe, P. Nordlander, and S. A. Maier, “Fano resonances in individual coherent plasmonic nanocavities,” Nano Lett. 9, 1663–1667 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stockman, M. I.

D. J. Bergman and M. I. Stockman, “Surface Plasmon Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation: Quantum Generation of Coherent Surface Plasmons in Nanosystems,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 027402 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tikhodeev, S. G.

A. Christ, Y. Ekinci, H. H. Solak, N. A. Gippius, S. G. Tikhodeev, and O. J. F. Martin, “Controlling the Fano interference in a plasmonic lattice,” Phys. Rev. B 76, 201405 (2007).

A. Christ, O. J. F. Martin, Y. Ekinci, N. A. Gippius, and S. G. Tikhodeev, “Symmetry breaking in a plasmonic metamaterial at optical wavelength,” Nano Lett. 8, 2171–2175 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Van Dorpe, P.

N. Verellen, P. Van Dorpe, D. Vercruysse, G. A. E. Vandenbosch, and V. V. Moshchalkov, “Dark and bright localized surface plasmons in nanocrosses,” Opt. Express 19, 11034–11051 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Sonnefraud, N. Verellen, H. Sobhani, G. A. E. Vandenbosch, V. V. Moshchalkov, P. Van Dorpe, P. Nordlander, and S. A. Maier, “Experimental realization of subradiant, superradiant, and fano resonances in ring/disk plasmonic nanocavities,” ACS Nano 4, 1664–1670 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Verellen, Y. Sonnefraud, H. Sobhani, F. Hao, V. V. Moshchalkov, P. Van Dorpe, P. Nordlander, and S. A. Maier, “Fano resonances in individual coherent plasmonic nanocavities,” Nano Lett. 9, 1663–1667 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vandenbosch, G. A. E.

N. Verellen, P. Van Dorpe, D. Vercruysse, G. A. E. Vandenbosch, and V. V. Moshchalkov, “Dark and bright localized surface plasmons in nanocrosses,” Opt. Express 19, 11034–11051 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Sonnefraud, N. Verellen, H. Sobhani, G. A. E. Vandenbosch, V. V. Moshchalkov, P. Van Dorpe, P. Nordlander, and S. A. Maier, “Experimental realization of subradiant, superradiant, and fano resonances in ring/disk plasmonic nanocavities,” ACS Nano 4, 1664–1670 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vercruysse, D.

Verellen, N.

N. Verellen, P. Van Dorpe, D. Vercruysse, G. A. E. Vandenbosch, and V. V. Moshchalkov, “Dark and bright localized surface plasmons in nanocrosses,” Opt. Express 19, 11034–11051 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Sonnefraud, N. Verellen, H. Sobhani, G. A. E. Vandenbosch, V. V. Moshchalkov, P. Van Dorpe, P. Nordlander, and S. A. Maier, “Experimental realization of subradiant, superradiant, and fano resonances in ring/disk plasmonic nanocavities,” ACS Nano 4, 1664–1670 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Verellen, Y. Sonnefraud, H. Sobhani, F. Hao, V. V. Moshchalkov, P. Van Dorpe, P. Nordlander, and S. A. Maier, “Fano resonances in individual coherent plasmonic nanocavities,” Nano Lett. 9, 1663–1667 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, Q.-Q.

Wang, Y.

S. Zhang, D. A. Genov, Y. Wang, M. Liu, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon-induced transparency in metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 047401 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weiss, T.

N. Liu, L. Langguth, T. Weiss, J. Kaestel, M. Fleischhauer, T. Pfau, and H. Giessen, “Plasmonic analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency at the drude damping limit,” Nat. Mater. 8, 758–762 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, C.

J. A. Fan, C. Wu, K. Bao, J. Bao, R. Bardhan, N. J. Halas, V. N. Manoharan, P. Nordlander, G. Shvets, and F. Capasso, “Self-assembled plasmonic nanoparticle clusters,” Science 328, 1135–1138 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, Z.-J.

Zhang, L.-H.

Zhang, S.

S. Zhang, D. A. Genov, Y. Wang, M. Liu, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon-induced transparency in metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 047401 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, X.

S. Zhang, D. A. Genov, Y. Wang, M. Liu, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon-induced transparency in metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 047401 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, Z.-S.

Zheludev, N. I.

B. Luk’yanchuk, N. I. Zheludev, S. A. Maier, N. J. Halas, P. Nordlander, H. Giessen, and C. T. Chong, “The Fano resonance in plasmonic nanostructures and metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 9, 707–715 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. I. Zheludev, S. L. Prosvirnin, N. Papasimakis, and V. A. Fedotov, “Lasing spaser,” Nat. Photonics 2, 351–354 (2008).
[CrossRef]

ACS Nano

Y. Sonnefraud, N. Verellen, H. Sobhani, G. A. E. Vandenbosch, V. V. Moshchalkov, P. Van Dorpe, P. Nordlander, and S. A. Maier, “Experimental realization of subradiant, superradiant, and fano resonances in ring/disk plasmonic nanocavities,” ACS Nano 4, 1664–1670 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. A, Mater. Sci. Process.

K. Bao, N. A. Mirin, and P. Nordlander, “Fano resonances in planar silver nanosphere clusters,” Appl. Phys. A, Mater. Sci. Process. 100, 333–339 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Citations Classics

U. Fano, “Effects of configuration interaction on intensities and phase shifts,” Citations Classics 27, 219 (1977).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

J. Phys. Chem. A

N. A. Mirin, K. Bao, and P. Nordlander, “Fano Resonances in Plasmonic Nanoparticle Aggregates,” J. Phys. Chem. A 113, 4028–4034 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nano Lett.

N. Verellen, Y. Sonnefraud, H. Sobhani, F. Hao, V. V. Moshchalkov, P. Van Dorpe, P. Nordlander, and S. A. Maier, “Fano resonances in individual coherent plasmonic nanocavities,” Nano Lett. 9, 1663–1667 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. M. Kern and O. J. F. Martin, “Excitation and reemission of molecules near realistic plasmonic nanostructures,” Nano Lett. 11, 482–487 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Christ, O. J. F. Martin, Y. Ekinci, N. A. Gippius, and S. G. Tikhodeev, “Symmetry breaking in a plasmonic metamaterial at optical wavelength,” Nano Lett. 8, 2171–2175 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Mater.

N. Liu, L. Langguth, T. Weiss, J. Kaestel, M. Fleischhauer, T. Pfau, and H. Giessen, “Plasmonic analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency at the drude damping limit,” Nat. Mater. 8, 758–762 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Luk’yanchuk, N. I. Zheludev, S. A. Maier, N. J. Halas, P. Nordlander, H. Giessen, and C. T. Chong, “The Fano resonance in plasmonic nanostructures and metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 9, 707–715 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics

N. I. Zheludev, S. L. Prosvirnin, N. Papasimakis, and V. A. Fedotov, “Lasing spaser,” Nat. Photonics 2, 351–354 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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Opt. Lett.

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B. Gallinet and O. J. F. Martin, “Scattering on plasmonic nanostructures arrays modeled with a surface integral formulation,” Photon. Nanostruct. 8, 278–284 (2010).
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U. Fano, “Effects of configuration interaction on intensities and phase shifts,” Phys. Rev. 124, 1866 (1961).
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Phys. Rev. B

A. Christ, Y. Ekinci, H. H. Solak, N. A. Gippius, S. G. Tikhodeev, and O. J. F. Martin, “Controlling the Fano interference in a plasmonic lattice,” Phys. Rev. B 76, 201405 (2007).

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical-constants of noble-metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370 (1972).
[CrossRef]

B. Gallinet and O. J. F. Martin, “Ab initio theory of Fano resonances in plasmonic nanostructures and metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. B 83, 235427 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

D. J. Bergman and M. I. Stockman, “Surface Plasmon Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation: Quantum Generation of Coherent Surface Plasmons in Nanosystems,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 027402 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Zhang, D. A. Genov, Y. Wang, M. Liu, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon-induced transparency in metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 047401 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rev. Mod. Phys.

A. E. Miroshnichenko, S. Flach, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Fano resonances in nanoscale structures,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 82, 2257–2298 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Science

E. Prodan, C. Radloff, N. Halas, and P. Nordlander, “A hybridization model for the plasmon response of complex nanostructures,” Science 302, 419–422 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Fan, C. Wu, K. Bao, J. Bao, R. Bardhan, N. J. Halas, V. N. Manoharan, P. Nordlander, G. Shvets, and F. Capasso, “Self-assembled plasmonic nanoparticle clusters,” Science 328, 1135–1138 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Supplementary Material (4)

» Media 1: MOV (4381 KB)     
» Media 2: MOV (3373 KB)     
» Media 3: MOV (4446 KB)     
» Media 4: MOV (157 KB)     

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Figures (5)

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Back Scattered Light Intensity (BSLI) of a single dolmen nanostructure with the geometry and illumination conditions of Fig. 1. (b) Reflectance of an array of dolmen nanostructures with the geometry and illumination conditions of Fig. 1, placed in a two dimensional array of period 800 nm. Black dashed line: numerical simulations; thick red solid line: fit with Eq. (3); thin blue solid line: bright mode resonance extracted from the fit [Eq. (1)].

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

( Media 1) Fano resonance in a array of dolmen–type gold nanostructures. (a) Sketch of the structure, dimensions: w = 40 nm, l0 = 160 nm, t = 80 nm, g = 30 nm and l = L = 300 nm. (b) Reflectance at normal incidence for an x–polarized electric field propagating in the −z–direction, as a function of the illumination energy. Black dashed line: numerical simulations; thick red solid line: fit with Eq. (3); thin blue solid line: bright mode resonance extracted from the fit [Eq. (1)]. (c) Maximum intensity enhancement as a function of the illumination energy. (d) Normalized intensity enhancement in a plane through the center of the structure (z = 0, colorscale: black → 0 and white → 1). (e) Normalized amplitude of the z–component of the instantaneous electric field 5 nm above the structure (colorscale: blue → −1 and red → 1). (f) Normalized intensity enhancement in a x = 200 nm plane (colorscale: black → 0 and white → 1).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

( Media 2) Fano–like resonance in a metallic double grating. Each nanowire is infinite in y–direction and has a 100 nm length (x–direction) and a 15 nm thickness (z–direction). The wires are made of gold (data from Johnson and Christie [24]) and embedded in a silica matrix (refractive index 1.46). Their vertical spacing is 30 nm and are placed in a one–dimensional lattice with period 200 nm. The system is illuminated at normal incidence with a field propagating in the −z–direction, with the magnetic field polarized along the y–direction. (a) Reflectance as a function of the illumination energy. Black dashed line: numerical simulations; thick red solid line: fit with Eq. (3); thin blue solid line: bright mode resonance extracted from the fit [Eq. (1)]. (b) Maximum intensity enhancement as a function of the illumination energy. (c) Normalized intensity enhancement in the cross section plane (colorscale: black → 0 and white → 1).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

( Media 3) Fano resonance in a dolmen gold nanostructure. (a) Sketch of the structure, dimensions: w = 40 nm, l0 = 160 nm, t = 80 nm, g = 45 nm, l = 200 nm, and L = 300 nm. (b) Reflectance at normal incidence for an x–polarized electric field propagating in the −z–direction, as a function of the illumination energy. Black dashed line: numerical simulations; thick red solid line: fit with Eq. (3); thin blue solid line: bright mode resonance extracted from the fit [Eq. (1)]. (c) Maximum intensity enhancement as a function of the illumination energy. (d) Normalized intensity enhancement in a plane through the center of the structure (z = 0, colorscale: black → 0 and white → 1). (e) Normalized amplitude of the z–component of the instantaneous electric field 5 nm above the structure (colorscale: blue → −1 and red → 1). (f) Normalized intensity enhancement in a x = 200 nm plane (colorscale: black → 0 and white → 1).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

( Media 4) Influence of modes coupling on the resonance line shape for dolmen gold nanostructures with dimensions w = 40 nm, l0 = 160 nm, t = 80 nm, and l = L = 300 nm. The coupling is changed by tuning the gap size g from 15 nm to 60 nm in steps of 5 nm. (a) Reflectance at normal incidence for an x–polarized electric field propagating in the −z–direction, as a function of the illumination energy. The red dot indicates the Fano resonance frequency position. (b) Normalized intensity enhancement in a plane through the center of the structure at the Fano resonance frequency (z = 0, colorscale: black → 0 and white → 1).

Equations (3)

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R b ( ω ) = a 2 ( ω 2 ω s 2 ( W s + ω s ) 2 ω s 2 ) 2 + 1 ,
σ ( ω ) = ( ω 2 ω a 2 ( W a + ω a ) 2 ω a 2 + q ) 2 + b ( ω 2 ω a 2 ( W a + ω a ) 2 ω a 2 ) 2 + 1 .
R ( ω ) = R b ( ω ) σ ( ω ) .

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