Abstract

A review of nanoplasmonics is given. This includes fundamentals, nanolocalization of optical energy and hot spots, ultrafast nanoplasmonics and control of the spatiotemporal nanolocalization of optical fields, and quantum nanoplasmonics (spaser and gain-assisted plasmonics). This article reviews both fundamental theoretical ideas in nanoplasmonics and selected experimental developments. It is designed both for specialists in the field and general physics readership.

© 2011 OSA

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N. I. Zheludev and V. I. Emelyanov, “Phase matched second harmonic generation from nanostructured metal surfaces,” J. Opt. A 6, 26–28 (2004).
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M. I. Stockman, “Nanofocusing of optical energy in tapered plasmonic waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 137404–1–4 (2004).
[PubMed]

I. A. Larkin, M. I. Stockman, M. Achermann, and V. I. Klimov, “Dipolar emitters at nanoscale proximity of metal surfaces: Giant enhancement of relaxation in microscopic theory,” Phys. Rev. B 69, 121403(R)–1–4 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Zentgraf, A. Christ, J. Kuhl, and H. Giessen, “Tailoring the ultrafast dephasing of quasiparticles in metallic photonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 243901–1–4 (2004).
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N. A. Nguyen, B. K. Dey, M. Shapiro, and P. Brumer, “Coherent control in nanolithography: Rydberg atoms,” J. Phys. Chem. A 108, 7878–7888 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Brixner, G. Krampert, T. Pfeifer, R. Selle, G. Gerber, M. Wollenhaupt, O. Graefe, C. Horn, D. Liese, and T. Baumert, “Quantum control by ultrafast polarization shaping,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 208301–1–4 (2004).
[PubMed]

M. I. Stockman, D. J. Bergman, and T. Kobayashi, “Coherent control of nanoscale localization of ultrafast optical excitation in nanosystems,” Phys. Rev. B 69, 054202–1–10 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (11)

C. Hendrich, J. Bosbach, F. Stietz, F. Hubenthal, T. Vartanyan, and F. Trager, “Chemical interface damping of surface plasmon excitation in metal nanoparticles: A study by persistent spectral hole burning,” Appl. Phys. B 76, 869–875 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Yildiz, J. N. Forkey, S. A. McKinney, T. Ha, Y. E. Goldman, and P. R. Selvin, “Myosin v walks hand-overhand: Single fluorophore imaging with 1.5-nm localization,” Science 300, 2061–2065 (2003).
[PubMed]

D. J. Bergman and M. I. Stockman, “Surface plasmon amplification by stimulated emission of radiation: Quantum generation of coherent surface plasmons in nanosystems,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 027402–1–4 (2003).
[PubMed]

L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Theory of highly directional emission from a single subwavelength aperture surrounded by surface corrugations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 167401–1–4 (2003).
[PubMed]

F. V. Ignatovich and L. Novotny, “Experimental study of nanoparticle detection by optical gradient forces,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 5231–5235 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Bouhelier, M. Beversluis, A. Hartschuh, and L. Novotny, “Near-field second-harmonic generation induced by local field enhancement,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 13903–1–4 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, J. Beermann, and V. Coello, “Direct observation of localized second-harmonic enhancement in random metal nanostructures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 197403–1–4 (2003).
[PubMed]

L. R. Hirsch, R. J. Stafford, J. A. Bankson, S. R. Sershen, B. Rivera, R. E. Price, J. D. Hazle, N. J. Halas, and J. L. West, “Nanoshell-mediated near-infrared thermal therapy of tumors under magnetic resonance guidance,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 100, 13549–13554 (2003).
[PubMed]

T. Feurer, J. C. Vaughan, and K. A. Nelson, “Spatiotemporal coherent control of lattice vibrational waves,” Science 299, 374–377 (2003).
[PubMed]

A. Derode, A. Tourin, J. de Rosny, M. Tanter, S. Yon, and M. Fink, “Taking advantage of multiple scattering to communicate with time-reversal antennas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 014301–1–4 (2003).
[PubMed]

J. B. Pendry, “Perfect cylindrical lenses,” Opt. Express 11, 755–760 (2003).
[PubMed]

2002 (8)

M. Bauer, O. Schmidt, C. Wiemann, R. Porath, M. Scharte, O. Andreyev, G. Schonhense, and M. Aeschlimann, “Time-resolved two photon photoemission electron microscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 74, 223–227 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. Brixner, G. Krampert, P. Niklaus, and G. Gerber, “Generation and characterization of polarization-shaped femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 74, S133–S144 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, E. Devaux, R. A. Linke, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Beaming light from a subwavelength aperture,” Science 297, 820–822 (2002).
[PubMed]

J. Bosbach, C. Hendrich, F. Stietz, T. Vartanyan, and F. Trager, “Ultrafast dephasing of surface plasmon excitation in silver nanoparticles: Influence of particle size, shape, and chemical surrounding,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 257404–1–4 (2002).
[PubMed]

N. Dudovich, D. Oron, and Y. Silberberg, “Single-pulse coherently controlled nonlinear Raman spectroscopy and microscopy,” Nature 418, 512–514 (2002).
[PubMed]

J. M. Geremia and H. Rabitz, “Optimal identification of Hamiltonian information by closed-loop laser control of quantum systems,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 263902–1–4 (2002).
[PubMed]

M. I. Stockman, S. V. Faleev, and D. J. Bergman, “Coherent control of femtosecond energy localization in nanosystems,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 067402–1–4 (2002).
[PubMed]

S. L. Westcott and N. J. Halas, “Electron relaxation dynamics in semicontinuous metal films on nanoparticle surfaces,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 356, 207–213 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

M. I. Stockman, S. V. Faleev, and D. J. Bergman, “Localization versus delocalization of surface plasmons in nanosystems: Can one state have both characteristics?” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 167401–1–4 (2001).
[PubMed]

T. Brixner and G. Gerber, “Femtosecond polarization pulse shaping,” Opt. Lett. 26, 557–559 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (8)

A. J. Babajanyan, N. L. Margaryan, and K. V. Nerkararyan, “Superfocusing of surface polaritons in the conical structure,” J. Appl. Phys. 87, 3785–3788 (2000).
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H. Xu, J. Aizpurua, M. Kall, and P. Apell, “Electromagnetic contributions to single-molecule sensitivity in surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” Phys. Rev. E 62, 4318–4324 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. I. Stockman, “Giant attosecond fluctuations of local optical fields in disordered nanostructured media,” Phys. Rev. B 62, 10494–10497 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. K. Sarychev, V. A. Shubin, and V. M. Shalaev, “Anderson localization of surface plasmons and Kerr nonlinearity in semicontinuous metal films,” Physica B 279, 87–89 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Pendry, “Negative refraction makes a perfect lens,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3966–3969 (2000).
[PubMed]

H. Rabitz, R. de Vivie-Riedle, M. Motzkus, and K. Kompa, “Chemistry - whither the future of controlling quantum phenomena?” Science 288, 824–828 (2000).
[PubMed]

R. Bartels, S. Backus, E. Zeek, L. Misoguti, G. Vdovin, I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Shaped-pulse optimization of coherent emission of high-harmonic soft x-rays,” Nature 406, 164–166 (2000).
[PubMed]

J. Lehmann, M. Merschdorf, W. Pfeiffer, A. Thon, S. Voll, and G. Gerber, “Surface plasmon dynamics in silver nanoparticles studied by femtosecond time-resolved photoemission,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2921–2924 (2000).
[PubMed]

1999 (9)

T. C. Weinacht, J. Ahn, and P. H. Bucksbaum, “Controlling the shape of a quantum wavefunction,” Nature 397, 233–235 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. K. Sarychev, V. A. Shubin, and V. M. Shalaev, “Anderson localization of surface plasmons and nonlinear optics of metal-dielectric composites,” Phys. Rev. B 60, 16389–16408 (1999).
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S. Gresillon, L. Aigouy, A. C. Boccara, J. C. Rivoal, X. Quelin, C. Desmarest, P. Gadenne, V. A. Shubin, A. K. Sarychev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Experimental observation of localized optical excitations in random metal-dielectric films,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4520–4523 (1999).
[CrossRef]

L. Gunnarsson, S. Petronis, B. Kasemo, H. Xu, J. Bjerneld, and M. Kall, “Optimizing nanofabricated substrates for surface enhanced Raman scattering,” Nanostruct. Mater. 12, 783–788 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. X. Xu, E. J. Bjerneld, M. Kall, and L. Borjesson, “Spectroscopy of single hemoglobin molecules by surface enhanced Raman scattering,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 4357–4360 (1999).
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S. J. Oldenburg, G. D. Hale, J. B. Jackson, and N. J. Halas, “Light scattering from dipole and quadrupole nanoshell antennas,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1063–1065 (1999).
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A. V. Zayats, I. I. Smolyaninov, and C. C. Davis, “Observation of localized plasmonic excitations in thin metal films with near-field second-harmonic microscopy,” Opt. Commun. 169, 93–96 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Z. Gryczynski, O. O. Abugo, and J. R. Lakowicz, “Polarization sensing of fluorophores in tissues for drug compliance monitoring,” Anal. Biochem. 273, 204–211 (1999).
[PubMed]

M. I. Stockman, K. B. Kurlayev, and T. F. George, “Linear and nonlinear optical susceptibilities of Maxwell Garnett composites: Dipolar spectral theory,” Phys. Rev. B 60, 17071–17083 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (7)

D. Schumacher, C. Rea, D. Heitmann, and K. Scharnberg, “Surface plasmons and Sommerfeld-Zenneck waves on corrugated surfaces: Application to High-Tc superconductors,” Surf. Sci. 408, 203–211 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature 391, 667–669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. A. Markel, V. Coello, W. Kim, and V. M. Shalaev, “Direct observation of localized dipolar excitations on rough nanostructured surfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 58, 11441–1448 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Assion, T. Baumert, M. Bergt, T. Brixner, B. Kiefer, V. Seyfried, M. Strehle, and G. Gerber, “Control of chemical reactions by feedback-optimized phase-shaped femtosecond laser pulses,” Science 282, 919–922 (1998).
[PubMed]

T. Klar, M. Perner, S. Grosse, G. von Plessen, W. Spirkl, and J. Feldman, “Surface-plasmon resonances in single metallic nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 4249–4252 (1998).
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D. A. Parshin and H. R. Schober, “Multifractal structure of eigenstates in the Anderson model with long-range off-diagonal disorder,” Phys. Rev. B 57, 10232–10235 (1998).
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A. L. Burin, Y. Kagan, L. A. Maksimov, and I. Y. Polischuk, “Dephasing rate in dielectric glasses at ultralow temperatures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 2945–2948 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (4)

M. I. Stockman, “Chaos and spatial correlations for dipolar eigenproblem,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 4562–4565 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. I. Stockman, “Inhomogeneous eigenmode localization, chaos, and correlations in large disordered clusters,” Phys. Rev. E 56, 6494–6507 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. I. Stockman, “Chaos and spatial correlations for dipolar eigenproblems,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 4562–4565 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. I. Stockman, “Inhomogeneous eigenmode localization, chaos, and correlations in large disordered clusters,” Phys. Rev. E 56, 6494–6507 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (3)

M. I. Stockman, L. N. Pandey, and T. F. George, “Inhomogeneous localization of polar eigenmodes in fractals,” Phys. Rev. B 53, 2183–2186 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. I. Stockman, L. N. Pandey, and T. F. George, “Inhomogeneous localization of polar eigenmodes in fractals,” Phys. Rev. B 53, 2183–2186 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. Kramer, F. Keilmann, B. Knoll, and R. Guckenberger, “The coaxial tip as a nano-antenna for scanning near-field microwave transmission microscopy,” Micron 27, 413–417 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (3)

M. I. Stockman, L. N. Pandey, L. S. Muratov, and T. F. George, “Photon scanning-tunneling-microscopy images of optical-excitations of fractal metal colloid clusters - Comment,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 2450–2450 (1995).
[PubMed]

F. J. Dunmore, D. Z. Liu, H. D. Drew, S. Dassarma, Q. Li, and D. B. Fenner, “Observation of below-gap plasmon excitations in superconducting YBa2Cu3O7 films,” Phys. Rev. B 52, R731–R734 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. I. Stockman, L. N. Pandey, L. S. Muratov, and T. F. George, “Optical-absorption and localization of eigen-modes in disordered clusters,” Phys. Rev. B 51, 185–195 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (3)

D. P. Tsai, J. Kovacs, Z. Wang, M. Moskovits, V. M. Shalaev, J. S. Suh, and R. Botet, “Photon scanning tunneling microscopy images of optical excitations of fractal metal colloid clusters,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 4149–4152 (1994).
[PubMed]

V. M. Shalaev, R. Botet, D. P. Tsai, J. Kovacs, and M. Moskovits, “Fractals - localization of dipole excitations and giant optical polarizabilities,” Physica A 207, 197–207 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. I. Stockman, L. N. Pandey, L. S. Muratov, and T. F. George, “Giant fluctuations of local optical fields in fractal clusters,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 2486–2489 (1994).
[PubMed]

1993 (1)

V. M. Shalaev, R. Botet, and A. V. Butenko, “Localization of collective dipole excitations on fractals,” Phys. Rev. B 48, 6662–6664 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (4)

P. Brumer and M. Shapiro, “Laser control of molecular processes,” Ann. Rev. Phys. Chem. 43, 257–282 (1992).
[CrossRef]

R. S. Judson and H. Rabitz, “Teaching lasers to control molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 1500 (1992).
[PubMed]

M. I. Stockman, V. M. Shalaev, M. Moskovits, R. Botet, and T. F. George, “Enhanced Raman scattering by fractal clusters: Scale invariant theory,” Phys. Rev. B 46, 2821–2830 (1992).
[CrossRef]

V. M. Shalaev, M. I. Stockman, and R. Botet, “Resonant excitations and nonlinear optics of fractals,” Physica A 185, 181–186 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

V. A. Markel, L. S. Muratov, M. I. Stockman, and T. F. George, “Theory and numerical simulation of optical properties of fractal clusters,” Phys. Rev. B 43, 8183 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

L. S. Levitov, “Delocalization of vibrational modes caused by electric dipole interaction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 547–550 (1990).
[PubMed]

1989 (1)

G. Kurizki, M. Shapiro, and P. Brumer, “Phase-coherent control of photocurrent directionality in semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B 39, 3435–3437 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988 (3)

A. V. Butenko, V. M. Shalaev, and M. I. Stockman, “Giant impurity nonlinearities in optics of fractal clusters,” Sov. Phys. JETP 67, 60–69 (1988).

A. V. Karpov, A. K. Popov, S. G. Rautian, V. P. Safonov, V. V. Slabko, V. M. Shalaev, and M. I. Stockman, “Observation of a wavelength- and polarization-selective photomodification of silver clusters,” JETP Lett. 48, 571–573 (1988).

S. G. Rautian, V. P. Safonov, P. A. Chubakov, V. M. Shalaev, and M. I. Stockman, “Surface-enhanced parametric scattering of light by silver clusters,” JETP Lett. 47, 243–246 (1988).

1987 (1)

V. M. Shalaev and M. I. Stockman, “Optical properties of fractal clusters (susceptibility, surface enhanced Raman scattering by impurities),” Sov. Phys. JETP 65, 287–294 (1987).

1985 (2)

D. J. Tannor and S. A. Rice, “Control of selectivity of chemical reaction via control of wave packet evolution,” J. Chem. Phys. 83, 5013–5018 (1985).
[CrossRef]

M. Moskovits, “Surface-enhanced spectroscopy,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 57, 783–826 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

D. A. Weitz and M. Oliveria, “Fractal structures formed by kinetic aggregation of aqueous gold colloids,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 52, 1433–1436 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

M. Kolb, R. Botet, and J. Julienne, “Scaling of kinetically growing clusters,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 51, 1123–1126 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

B. B. Dasgupta and R. Fuchs, “Polarizability of a small sphere including nonlocal effects,” Phys. Rev. B 24, 554 –561 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

D. J. Bergman and D. Stroud, “Theory of resonances in the electromagnetic scattering by macroscopic bodies,” Phys. Rev. B 22, 3527–3539 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1972 (1)

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical constants of noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370–4379 (1972).
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1968 (1)

E. Kretschmann and H. Raether, “Radiative decay of nonradiative surface plasmons excited by light,” Z. Naturforsch. A 23, 2135–2136 (1968).

1966 (1)

N. Swanson and C. J. Powell, “Inelastic scattering cross sections for 20-kev electrons in Al, Be, and polystyrene,” Phys. Rev. 145, 195 (1966).
[CrossRef]

1957 (1)

R. H. Ritchie, “Plasma losses by fast electrons in thin films,” Phys. Rev. 106, 874–881 (1957).
[CrossRef]

1955 (1)

A. W. Blackstock, R. H. Ritchie, and R. D. Birkhoff, “Mean free path for discrete electron energy losses in metallic foils,” Phys. Rev. 100, 1078 (1955).
[CrossRef]

1935 (1)

U. Fano, “On the absorption spectrum of noble gases at the arc spectrum limit,” Nuovo Cimento 12, 154–161 (1935).
[CrossRef]

1929 (1)

F. Bloch, “Über die Quantenmechanik der Elektronen in Kristallgittern,” Z. Phys. A 52, 555–600 (1929).

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M. Aeschlimann, M. Bauer, D. Bayer, T. Brixner, F. J. G. d. Abajo, W. Pfeiffer, M. Rohmer, C. Spindler, and F. Steeb, “Adaptive subwavelength control of nano-optical fields,” Nature 446, 301–304 (2007).
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Abugo, O. O.

Z. Gryczynski, O. O. Abugo, and J. R. Lakowicz, “Polarization sensing of fluorophores in tissues for drug compliance monitoring,” Anal. Biochem. 273, 204–211 (1999).
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F. De Angelis, F. Gentile, F. M. G. Das, M. Moretti, P. Candeloro, M. L. Coluccio, G. Cojoc, A. Accardo, C. Liberale, R. P. Zaccaria, G. Perozziello, L. Tirinato, A. Toma, G. Cuda, R. Cingolani, and E. Di Fabrizio, “Breaking the diffusion limit with super-hydrophobic delivery of molecules to plasmonic nanofocusing SERS structures,” Nat. Photonics p. doi: (2011).
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Achermann, M.

I. A. Larkin, M. I. Stockman, M. Achermann, and V. I. Klimov, “Dipolar emitters at nanoscale proximity of metal surfaces: Giant enhancement of relaxation in microscopic theory,” Phys. Rev. B 69, 121403(R)–1–4 (2004).
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Adegoke, J.

M. A. Noginov, G. Zhu, M. Bahoura, J. Adegoke, C. Small, B. A. Ritzo, V. P. Drachev, and V. M. Shalaev, “The effect of gain and absorption on surface plasmons in metal nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. B 86, 455–460 (2007).
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Adegoke, J. A.

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M. Aeschlimann, M. Bauer, D. Bayer, T. Brixner, F. J. G. d. Abajo, W. Pfeiffer, M. Rohmer, C. Spindler, and F. Steeb, “Adaptive subwavelength control of nano-optical fields,” Nature 446, 301–304 (2007).
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M. Bauer, C. Wiemann, J. Lange, D. Bayer, M. Rohmer, and M. Aeschlimann, “Phase propagation of localized surface plasmons probed by time-resolved photoemission electron microscopy,” Appl. Phys. A 88, 473–480 (2007).
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M. Bauer, O. Schmidt, C. Wiemann, R. Porath, M. Scharte, O. Andreyev, G. Schonhense, and M. Aeschlimann, “Time-resolved two photon photoemission electron microscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 74, 223–227 (2002).
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M. Aeschlimann, M. Bauer, D. Bayer, T. Brixner, S. Cunovic, F. Dimler, A. Fischer, W. Pfeiffer, M. Rohmer, C. Schneider, F. Steeb, C. Struber, and D. V. Voronine, “Spatiotemporal control of nanooptical excitations,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA107, 5329–5333 (2010).
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S. Zherebtsov, T. Fennel, J. Plenge, E. Antonsson, I. Znakovskaya, A. Wirth, O. Herrwerth, F. Suessmann, C. Peltz, I. Ahmad, S. A. Trushin, V. Pervak, S. Karsch, M. J. J. Vrakking, B. Langer, C. Graf, M. I. Stockman, F. Krausz, E. Ruehl, and M. F. Kling, “Controlled near-field enhanced electron acceleration from dielectric nanospheres with intense few-cycle laser fields,” Nat. Phys. 7, 656–662 (2011).
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T. C. Weinacht, J. Ahn, and P. H. Bucksbaum, “Controlling the shape of a quantum wavefunction,” Nature 397, 233–235 (1999).
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S. Gresillon, L. Aigouy, A. C. Boccara, J. C. Rivoal, X. Quelin, C. Desmarest, P. Gadenne, V. A. Shubin, A. K. Sarychev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Experimental observation of localized optical excitations in random metal-dielectric films,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4520–4523 (1999).
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A. Reyes-Coronado, R. G. Barrera, P. E. Batson, P. M. Echenique, A. Rivacoba, and J. Aizpurua, “Electromagnetic forces on plasmonic nanoparticles induced by fast electron beams,” Phys. Rev. B 82, 235429–1–19 (2010).
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G. W. Bryant, F. J. G. de Abajo, and J. Aizpurua, “Mapping the plasmon resonances of metallic nanoantennas,” Nano Lett. 8, 631–636 (2008).
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H. Xu, J. Aizpurua, M. Kall, and P. Apell, “Electromagnetic contributions to single-molecule sensitivity in surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” Phys. Rev. E 62, 4318–4324 (2000).
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A. V. Akimov, A. Mukherjee, C. L. Yu, D. E. Chang, A. S. Zibrov, P. R. Hemmer, H. Park, and M. D. Lukin, “Generation of single optical plasmons in metallic nanowires coupled to quantum dots,” Nature 450, 402–406 (2007).
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Albrecht, M.

C. Ropers, C. C. Neacsu, T. Elsaesser, M. Albrecht, M. B. Raschke, and C. Lienau, “Grating-coupling of surface plasmons onto metallic tips: A nano-confined light source,” Nano Lett. 7, 2784–2788 (2007).
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N. Liu, M. L. Tang, M. Hentschel, H. Giessen, and A. P. Alivisatos, “Nanoantenna-enhanced gas sensing in a single tailored nanofocus,” Nat. Mater. 10, 631–636 (2011).
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M. Hentschel, M. Saliba, R. Vogelgesang, H. Giessen, A. P. Alivisatos, and N. Liu, “Transition from isolated to collective modes in plasmonic oligomers,” Nano Lett. 10, 2721–2726 (2010).
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M. Ambati, S. H. Nam, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Observation of stimulated emission of surface plasmon polaritons,” Nano Lett. 8, 3998–4001 (2008).
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M. I. Stockman, D. J. Bergman, C. Anceau, S. Brasselet, and J. Zyss, “Enhanced second-harmonic generation by metal surfaces with nanoscale roughness: Nanoscale dephasing, depolarization, and correlations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 057402–1–4 (2004).
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F. De Angelis, G. Das, P. Candeloro, M. Patrini, M. Galli, A. Bek, M. Lazzarino, I. Maksymov, C. Liberale, L. C. Andreani, and E. Di Fabrizio, “Nanoscale chemical mapping using three-dimensional adiabatic compression of surface plasmon polaritons,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5, 67–72 (2009).
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F. De Angelis, M. Patrini, G. Das, I. Maksymov, M. Galli, L. Businaro, L. C. Andreani, and E. Di Fabrizio, “A hybrid plasmonic-photonic nanodevice for label-free detection of a few molecules,” Nano Lett. 8, 2321–2327 (2008).
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M. Bauer, O. Schmidt, C. Wiemann, R. Porath, M. Scharte, O. Andreyev, G. Schonhense, and M. Aeschlimann, “Time-resolved two photon photoemission electron microscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 74, 223–227 (2002).
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I. D. Leon and P. Berini, “Amplification of long-range surface plasmons by a dipolar gain medium,” Nat. Photonics 4, 382–387 (2010).
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M. I. Stockman, “Spasers explained,” Nat. Photonics 2, 327–329 (2008).
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V. M. Shalaev, “Optical negative-index metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 1, 41–48 (2007).
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M. I. Stockman, M. F. Kling, U. Kleineberg, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond nanoplasmonic field microscope,” Nat. Photonics 1, 539–544 (2007).
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P. Berini, A. Akbari, and R. N. Tait, “Surface plasmon waveguide Schottky detector,” Opt. Express 18, 8505–8514 (2010).
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W.-D. Li, F. Ding, J. Hu, and S. Y. Chou, “Three-dimensional cavity nanoantenna coupled plasmonic nanodots for ultrahigh and uniform surface-enhanced Raman scattering over large area,” Opt. Express 19, 3925–3936 (2011).
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M. I. Stockman, “Giant attosecond fluctuations of local optical fields in disordered nanostructured media,” Phys. Rev. B 62, 10494–10497 (2000).
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M. I. Stockman, K. B. Kurlayev, and T. F. George, “Linear and nonlinear optical susceptibilities of Maxwell Garnett composites: Dipolar spectral theory,” Phys. Rev. B 60, 17071–17083 (1999).
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F. J. Dunmore, D. Z. Liu, H. D. Drew, S. Dassarma, Q. Li, and D. B. Fenner, “Observation of below-gap plasmon excitations in superconducting YBa2Cu3O7 films,” Phys. Rev. B 52, R731–R734 (1995).
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X. Li and M. I. Stockman, “Highly efficient spatiotemporal coherent control in nanoplasmonics on a nanometer-femtosecond scale by time reversal,” Phys. Rev. B 77, 195109–1–10 (2008).
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Phys. Rev. B