Abstract

We propose square and rectangular pipe waveguides for low-loss THz waveguiding and polarization control. Different from common circular-symmetric THz fibers and waveguides, the proposed rectangular pipe waveguides successfully remove the transmission degeneracy of two orthogonal polarizations and possess polarization sensitivity to the guided THz waves. By measuring the attenuation spectra, we find that the polarization sensitivity depends on the structure of the pipe waveguides. With butt coupling method, it is easy to combine circular pipe waveguides and the rectangular ones.

© 2011 OSA

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  1. G. Gallot, S. P. Jamison, R. W. McGowan, and D. Grischkowsky, “Terahertz waveguides,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17(5), 851–863 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  2. R. Mendis and D. Grischkowsky, “Plastic ribbon THz waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 88(7), 4449–4451 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  3. K. Wang and D. M. Mittleman, “Metal wires for terahertz wave guiding,” Nature 432(7015), 376–379 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. T.-I. Jeon, J. Zhang, and D. Grischkowsky, “THz Sommerfeld wave propagation on a single metal wire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(16), 161904 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  5. L.-J. Chen, H.-W. Chen, T.-F. Kao, J.-Y. Lu, and C.-K. Sun, “Low-loss subwavelength plastic fiber for terahertz waveguiding,” Opt. Lett. 31(3), 308–310 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. H.-W. Chen, Y.-T. Li, C.-L. Pan, J.-L. Kuo, J.-Y. Lu, L.-J. Chen, and C.-K. Sun, “Investigation on spectral loss characteristics of subwavelength terahertz fibers,” Opt. Lett. 32(9), 1017–1019 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. A. Hassani, A. Dupuis, and M. Skorobogatiy, “Porous polymer fibers for low-loss Terahertz guiding,” Opt. Express 16(9), 6340–6351 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?uri=OE-16-9-6340 .
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. S. Atakaramians, S. Afshar V, B. M. Fischer, D. Abbott, and T. M. Monro, “Porous fibers: a novel approach to low loss THz waveguides,” Opt. Express 16(12), 8845–8854 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?uri=oe-16-12-8845 .
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  10. J. A. Harrington, R. George, P. Pedersen, and E. Mueller, “Hollow polycarbonate waveguides with inner Cu coatings for delivery of terahertz radiation,” Opt. Express 12(21), 5263–5268 (2004), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-12-21-5263 .
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. B. Bowden, J. A. Harrington, and O. Mitrofanov, “Silver/polystyrene-coated hollow glass waveguides for the transmission of terahertz radiation,” Opt. Lett. 32(20), 2945–2947 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. B. Bowden, J. A. Harrington, and O. Mitrofanov, “Low-loss modes in hollow metallic terahertz waveguides with dielectric coatings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(18), 181104 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  13. C.-H. Lai, Y.-C. Hsueh, H.-W. Chen, Y.-J. Huang, H.-C. Chang, and C.-K. Sun, “Low-index terahertz pipe waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 34(21), 3457–3459 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. C.-H. Lai, B. You, J.-Y. Lu, T.-A. Liu, J.-L. Peng, C.-K. Sun, and H.-C. Chang, “Modal characteristics of antiresonant reflecting pipe waveguides for terahertz waveguiding,” Opt. Express 18(1), 309–322 (2010), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?uri=oe-18-1-309 .
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. O. Mitrofanov and J. A. Harrington, “Dielectric-lined cylindrical metallic THz waveguides: mode structure and dispersion,” Opt. Express 18(3), 1898–1903 (2010), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-18-3-1898 .
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. J.-T. Lu, Y.-C. Hsueh, Y.-R. Huang, Y.-J. Hwang, and C.-K. Sun, “Bending loss of terahertz pipe waveguides,” Opt. Express 18(25), 26332–26338 (2010), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-18-25-26332 .
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. M. S. Vitiello, J.-H. Xu, M. Kumar, F. Beltram, A. Tredicucci, O. Mitrofanov, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “High efficiency coupling of Terahertz micro-ring quantum cascade lasers to the low-loss optical modes of hollow metallic waveguides,” Opt. Express 19(2), 1122–1130 (2011), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-19-2-1122 .
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  22. M. Naftaly and R. E. Miles, “Terahertz Time-Domain spectroscopy for Material Characterization,” Proc. IEEE 95(8), 1658–1665 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  23. J. W. Lamb, “Miscellaneous data on materials for millimetre and submillimetre optics,” Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 17(12), 1997–2034 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  24. A. Sengupta, A. Bandyopadhyay, B. F. Bowden, J. A. Harrington, and J. F. Federici, “Characterisation of olefin copolymers using terahertz spectroscopy,” Electron. Lett. 42(25), 1477–1479 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  25. R. G. Hunsperger, Integrated Optics (Springer, 2002), Chap. 3.

2011 (2)

2010 (3)

2009 (2)

M. Mbonye, R. Mendis, and D. M. Mittleman, “A terahertz two-wire waveguide with low bending loss,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(23), 233506 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C.-H. Lai, Y.-C. Hsueh, H.-W. Chen, Y.-J. Huang, H.-C. Chang, and C.-K. Sun, “Low-index terahertz pipe waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 34(21), 3457–3459 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (3)

2007 (3)

2006 (2)

A. Sengupta, A. Bandyopadhyay, B. F. Bowden, J. A. Harrington, and J. F. Federici, “Characterisation of olefin copolymers using terahertz spectroscopy,” Electron. Lett. 42(25), 1477–1479 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L.-J. Chen, H.-W. Chen, T.-F. Kao, J.-Y. Lu, and C.-K. Sun, “Low-loss subwavelength plastic fiber for terahertz waveguiding,” Opt. Lett. 31(3), 308–310 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

T.-I. Jeon, J. Zhang, and D. Grischkowsky, “THz Sommerfeld wave propagation on a single metal wire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(16), 161904 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

2000 (2)

G. Gallot, S. P. Jamison, R. W. McGowan, and D. Grischkowsky, “Terahertz waveguides,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17(5), 851–863 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. Mendis and D. Grischkowsky, “Plastic ribbon THz waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 88(7), 4449–4451 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

J. W. Lamb, “Miscellaneous data on materials for millimetre and submillimetre optics,” Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 17(12), 1997–2034 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

1986 (1)

M. A. Duguay, Y. Kokubun, T. L. Koch, and L. Pfeiffer, “Antiresonant reflecting optical waveguides in SiO2–Si multilayer structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 49(1), 13–15 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1976 (1)

Abbott, D.

Afshar V, S.

Atakaramians, S.

Auguste, J.-L.

Bandyopadhyay, A.

A. Sengupta, A. Bandyopadhyay, B. F. Bowden, J. A. Harrington, and J. F. Federici, “Characterisation of olefin copolymers using terahertz spectroscopy,” Electron. Lett. 42(25), 1477–1479 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Beere, H. E.

Beltram, F.

Blondy, J.-M.

Bowden, B.

B. Bowden, J. A. Harrington, and O. Mitrofanov, “Low-loss modes in hollow metallic terahertz waveguides with dielectric coatings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(18), 181104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. Bowden, J. A. Harrington, and O. Mitrofanov, “Silver/polystyrene-coated hollow glass waveguides for the transmission of terahertz radiation,” Opt. Lett. 32(20), 2945–2947 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bowden, B. F.

A. Sengupta, A. Bandyopadhyay, B. F. Bowden, J. A. Harrington, and J. F. Federici, “Characterisation of olefin copolymers using terahertz spectroscopy,” Electron. Lett. 42(25), 1477–1479 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chang, H.-C.

Chen, H.-W.

Chen, L.-J.

Duguay, M. A.

M. A. Duguay, Y. Kokubun, T. L. Koch, and L. Pfeiffer, “Antiresonant reflecting optical waveguides in SiO2–Si multilayer structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 49(1), 13–15 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Dupuis, A.

Federici, J. F.

A. Sengupta, A. Bandyopadhyay, B. F. Bowden, J. A. Harrington, and J. F. Federici, “Characterisation of olefin copolymers using terahertz spectroscopy,” Electron. Lett. 42(25), 1477–1479 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Férachou, D.

Fischer, B. M.

Gallot, G.

George, R.

Grischkowsky, D.

T.-I. Jeon, J. Zhang, and D. Grischkowsky, “THz Sommerfeld wave propagation on a single metal wire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(16), 161904 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. Mendis and D. Grischkowsky, “Plastic ribbon THz waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 88(7), 4449–4451 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. Gallot, S. P. Jamison, R. W. McGowan, and D. Grischkowsky, “Terahertz waveguides,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17(5), 851–863 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Harrington, J. A.

Hassani, A.

Hsueh, Y.-C.

Huang, Y.-J.

Huang, Y.-R.

Humbert, G.

Hwang, Y.-J.

Ishikawa, H.

Jamison, S. P.

Jeon, T.-I.

T.-I. Jeon, J. Zhang, and D. Grischkowsky, “THz Sommerfeld wave propagation on a single metal wire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(16), 161904 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kao, T.-F.

Koch, T. L.

M. A. Duguay, Y. Kokubun, T. L. Koch, and L. Pfeiffer, “Antiresonant reflecting optical waveguides in SiO2–Si multilayer structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 49(1), 13–15 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Kokubun, Y.

M. A. Duguay, Y. Kokubun, T. L. Koch, and L. Pfeiffer, “Antiresonant reflecting optical waveguides in SiO2–Si multilayer structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 49(1), 13–15 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Kumar, M.

Kuo, J.-L.

Laakmann, K. D.

Lai, C.-H.

Lamb, J. W.

J. W. Lamb, “Miscellaneous data on materials for millimetre and submillimetre optics,” Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 17(12), 1997–2034 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y.-T.

Liu, T.-A.

Lu, J.-T.

Lu, J.-Y.

Machida, H.

Matsuura, Y.

Mbonye, M.

M. Mbonye, R. Mendis, and D. M. Mittleman, “A terahertz two-wire waveguide with low bending loss,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(23), 233506 (2009).
[CrossRef]

McGowan, R. W.

Mendis, R.

M. Mbonye, R. Mendis, and D. M. Mittleman, “A terahertz two-wire waveguide with low bending loss,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(23), 233506 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Mendis and D. Grischkowsky, “Plastic ribbon THz waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 88(7), 4449–4451 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Miles, R. E.

M. Naftaly and R. E. Miles, “Terahertz Time-Domain spectroscopy for Material Characterization,” Proc. IEEE 95(8), 1658–1665 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mitrofanov, O.

Mittleman, D. M.

M. Mbonye, R. Mendis, and D. M. Mittleman, “A terahertz two-wire waveguide with low bending loss,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(23), 233506 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Wang and D. M. Mittleman, “Metal wires for terahertz wave guiding,” Nature 432(7015), 376–379 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miyagi, M.

Monro, T. M.

Mueller, E.

Naftaly, M.

M. Naftaly and R. E. Miles, “Terahertz Time-Domain spectroscopy for Material Characterization,” Proc. IEEE 95(8), 1658–1665 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nguema, E.

Pan, C.-L.

Pedersen, P.

Peng, J.-L.

Pfeiffer, L.

M. A. Duguay, Y. Kokubun, T. L. Koch, and L. Pfeiffer, “Antiresonant reflecting optical waveguides in SiO2–Si multilayer structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 49(1), 13–15 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Ritchie, D. A.

Sengupta, A.

A. Sengupta, A. Bandyopadhyay, B. F. Bowden, J. A. Harrington, and J. F. Federici, “Characterisation of olefin copolymers using terahertz spectroscopy,” Electron. Lett. 42(25), 1477–1479 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Skorobogatiy, M.

Steier, W. H.

Sun, C.-K.

Tredicucci, A.

Vitiello, M. S.

Wang, K.

K. Wang and D. M. Mittleman, “Metal wires for terahertz wave guiding,” Nature 432(7015), 376–379 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xu, J.-H.

You, B.

Zhang, J.

T.-I. Jeon, J. Zhang, and D. Grischkowsky, “THz Sommerfeld wave propagation on a single metal wire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(16), 161904 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

T.-I. Jeon, J. Zhang, and D. Grischkowsky, “THz Sommerfeld wave propagation on a single metal wire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(16), 161904 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. Bowden, J. A. Harrington, and O. Mitrofanov, “Low-loss modes in hollow metallic terahertz waveguides with dielectric coatings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(18), 181104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Mbonye, R. Mendis, and D. M. Mittleman, “A terahertz two-wire waveguide with low bending loss,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(23), 233506 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Duguay, Y. Kokubun, T. L. Koch, and L. Pfeiffer, “Antiresonant reflecting optical waveguides in SiO2–Si multilayer structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 49(1), 13–15 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

A. Sengupta, A. Bandyopadhyay, B. F. Bowden, J. A. Harrington, and J. F. Federici, “Characterisation of olefin copolymers using terahertz spectroscopy,” Electron. Lett. 42(25), 1477–1479 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves (1)

J. W. Lamb, “Miscellaneous data on materials for millimetre and submillimetre optics,” Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 17(12), 1997–2034 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

R. Mendis and D. Grischkowsky, “Plastic ribbon THz waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 88(7), 4449–4451 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Nature (1)

K. Wang and D. M. Mittleman, “Metal wires for terahertz wave guiding,” Nature 432(7015), 376–379 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (7)

J. A. Harrington, R. George, P. Pedersen, and E. Mueller, “Hollow polycarbonate waveguides with inner Cu coatings for delivery of terahertz radiation,” Opt. Express 12(21), 5263–5268 (2004), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-12-21-5263 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C.-H. Lai, B. You, J.-Y. Lu, T.-A. Liu, J.-L. Peng, C.-K. Sun, and H.-C. Chang, “Modal characteristics of antiresonant reflecting pipe waveguides for terahertz waveguiding,” Opt. Express 18(1), 309–322 (2010), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?uri=oe-18-1-309 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Mitrofanov and J. A. Harrington, “Dielectric-lined cylindrical metallic THz waveguides: mode structure and dispersion,” Opt. Express 18(3), 1898–1903 (2010), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-18-3-1898 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.-T. Lu, Y.-C. Hsueh, Y.-R. Huang, Y.-J. Hwang, and C.-K. Sun, “Bending loss of terahertz pipe waveguides,” Opt. Express 18(25), 26332–26338 (2010), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-18-25-26332 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. S. Vitiello, J.-H. Xu, M. Kumar, F. Beltram, A. Tredicucci, O. Mitrofanov, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “High efficiency coupling of Terahertz micro-ring quantum cascade lasers to the low-loss optical modes of hollow metallic waveguides,” Opt. Express 19(2), 1122–1130 (2011), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-19-2-1122 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Hassani, A. Dupuis, and M. Skorobogatiy, “Porous polymer fibers for low-loss Terahertz guiding,” Opt. Express 16(9), 6340–6351 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?uri=OE-16-9-6340 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Atakaramians, S. Afshar V, B. M. Fischer, D. Abbott, and T. M. Monro, “Porous fibers: a novel approach to low loss THz waveguides,” Opt. Express 16(12), 8845–8854 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?uri=oe-16-12-8845 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (5)

Proc. IEEE (1)

M. Naftaly and R. E. Miles, “Terahertz Time-Domain spectroscopy for Material Characterization,” Proc. IEEE 95(8), 1658–1665 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

R. G. Hunsperger, Integrated Optics (Springer, 2002), Chap. 3.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Structure of the square and rectangular pipe waveguide. (b) Cross section of the square pipe waveguide. (c) Cross section of the rectangular pipe waveguide, where n1 = 1 (air). The x-direction and y-direction are defined as the longer axis and the shorter axis of the rectangular pipe, respectively.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Attenuation spectra of PE square pipe waveguides for t = 1mm (black squares) and t = 2mm (red triangles) with S = 8mm.(b) Attenuation spectra of PE square pipe waveguides for S = 8mm (black squares) and S = 6mm (red triangles) with t = 1mm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Attenuation spectra of PMMA (black squares) and PE (red triangles) square pipe waveguide with S = 8mm, t = 2mm. (b) The measured intensity distribution ( E 11 y ) at the output end of a 100-cm-long PE square pipe waveguide with S = 6mm and t = 1mm at 376 GHz.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

x-polarized (black squares) and y-polarized (red triangles) attenuation spectra of (a) PE rectangular pipe waveguides with L = 10mm, W = 6mm, t = 1mm. (b) PE rectangular pipe waveguides with L = 10mm, W = 8mm, t = 1mm. (c) The measured intensity distribution ( E 11 x ) at the output end of a PE rectangular pipe waveguide of 100cm long at 400 GHz with L = 10mm, W = 8mm, and t = 1mm. (d)The attenuation spectra of a special rectangular pipe waveguides: the air core region is square. The thickness of top and bottom cladding is 1mm, while the thickness of left and right cladding is 2mm. The x direction and y-direction are defined as the longer axis and shorter axis, respectively.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Experimental setup for butt coupling. (b) The attenuation spectrum of a Teflon circular pipe with a core diameter (D) of 8mm and a cladding thickness (t) of 1mm. (c) Measurement of butt coupling efficiency between circular (D = 8mm, t = 1mm) and square (S = 8mm, t = 1mm) pipe waveguide (black squares), and between circular (D = 8mm, t = 1mm) and rectangular (L = 10mm, W = 6mm, t = 1mm) pipe waveguide (red triangles for x polarization and blue circles for y polarization).

Equations (2)

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f m = mc 2 n 1 t ( n 2 / n 1 ) 2 1 , m=1,2,3...
C= P O ×exp(α×Z) P I ,

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