Abstract

We demonstrate an active metamaterial device that allows to electrically control terahertz transmission over more than one order of magnitude. Our device consists of a lithographically defined gold nano antenna array fabricated on a thin film of vanadium dioxide (VO2), a material that possesses an insulator to metal transition. The nano antennas let terahertz (THz) radiation funnel through when the VO2 film is in the insulating state. By applying a dc-bias voltage through our device, the VO2 becomes metallic. This electrically shorts the antennas and therefore switches off the transmission in two distinct regimes: reversible and irreversible switching.

© 2011 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. M. Nakajima, N. Takubo, Z. Hiroi, Y. Ueda, and T. Suemoto, “Photoinduced metallic state in VO2 proved by the terahertz pump-probe spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(1), 011907 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  5. A. Cavalleri, T. Dekorsy, H. H. W. Chong, J. C. Kieffer, and R. W. Schoenlein, “Evidence for a structurally-driven insulator-to-metal transition in VO2: A view from the ultrafast timescale,” Phys. Rev. B 70(16), 161102 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  6. A. Cavalleri, M. Rini, H. H. W. Chong, S. Fourmaux, T. E. Glover, P. A. Heimann, J. C. Kieffer, and R. W. Schoenlein, “Band-selective measurements of electron dynamics in VO2 using femtosecond near-edge x-ray absorption,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(6), 067405 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. H. T. Kim, B. G. Chae, D. H. Youn, S. L. Maeng, G. Kim, K. Y. Kang, and Y. S. Lim, “Mechanism and observation of Mott transition in VO2-based two- and three-terminal devices,” New J. Phys. 6, 52 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. S. Lee, M. Ortolani, U. Schade, Y. J. Chang, and T. W. Noh, “Microspectroscopic detection of local conducting areas generated by electric-pulse-induced phase transition in VO2 films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(13), 133509 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  11. S. J. Yun, J. W. Lim, B. G. Chae, B. J. Kim, and H. T. Kim, “Characteristics of vanadium dioxide films deposited by RF-magnetron sputter deposition technique using V-metal target,” Physica B 403, 1381–1383 (2008).
  12. P. U. Jepsen, B. M. Fischer, A. Thoman, H. Helm, J. Y. Suh, R. Lopez, and R. F. Haglund., “Metal-insulator phase transition in a VO2 thin film observed with terahertz spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 74(20), 205103 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
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  14. M. M. Qazilbash, K. S. Burch, D. Whisler, D. Shrekenhamer, B. G. Chae, H. T. Kim, and D. N. Basov, “Correlated metallic state of vanadium dioxide,” Phys. Rev. B 74(20), 205118 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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  18. H. R. Park, S. M. Koo, O. K. Suwal, Y. M. Park, J. S. Kyoung, M. A. Seo, S. S. Choi, N. K. Park, D. S. Kim, and K. J. Ahn, “Resonance behavior of single ultrathin slot antennas on finite dielectric substrates in terahertz regime,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(21), 211109 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  20. M. Shalaby, H. Merbold, M. Peccianti, L. Razzari, G. Sharma, T. Ozaki, R. Morandotti, T. Feurer, A. Weber, L. Heyderman, B. Patterson, and H. Sigg, “Concurrent field enhancement and high transmission of THz radiation in nanoslit arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(4), 041110 (2011).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. H. T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature 444(7119), 597–600 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. H. T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, M. J. Cich, A. K. Azad, R. D. Averitt, and A. J. Taylor, “A metamaterial solid-state terahertz phase modulator,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 148–151 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  25. W. L. Chan, H. Chen, A. J. Taylor, I. Brener, M. J. Cich, and D. M. Mittleman, “A spatial light modulator for terahertz beams,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(21), 213511 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  26. J. S. Lee, M. Ortolani, A. Ginolas, Y. J. Chang, T. W. Noh, and U. Schade, “Transport and microscopic investigations on the electric-pulse-induced phase transition of VO2 films,” Physica C 460-462, 549–550 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  27. K. Okimura, N. Ezreena, Y. Sasakawa, and J. Sakai, “Electric-Field-Induced Multistep Resistance Switching in Planar VO2/c-Al2O3 Structure,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48(6), 065003 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  28. M. Nagashima, H. Wada, K. Tanikawa, and H. Shirahata, “The electronic behaviors of oxygen-deficient VO2 thin films in low temperature region,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37(Part 1, No. 8), 4433–4438 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  29. B. G. Chae, H. T. Kim, D. H. Youn, and K. Y. Kang, “Abrupt metal-insulator transition observed in VO2 thin films induced by a switching voltage pulse,” Physica B 369(1-4), 76–80 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  30. G. Gopalakrishnan, D. Ruzmetov, and S. Ramanathan, “On the triggering mechanism for the metal-insulator transition in thin film VO2 devices: electric field versus thermal effects,” J. Mater. Sci. 44(19), 5345–5353 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  31. Q. Wu, T. D. Hewitt, and X. C. Zhang, “Two-dimensional electro-optic imaging of THz beams,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(8), 1026–1028 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  32. T. Driscoll, H. T. Kim, B. G. Chae, B. J. Kim, Y. W. Lee, N. M. Jokerst, S. Palit, D. R. Smith, M. Di Ventra, and D. N. Basov, “Memory metamaterials,” Science 325(5947), 1518–1521 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  33. T. Driscoll, H. Kim, B. Chae, M. Di Ventra, and D. N. Basov, “Phase-transition driven memristive system,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(4), 043503 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  34. M. D. Goldflam, T. Driscoll, B. Chapler, O. Khatib, N. Marie Jokerst, S. Palit, D. R. Smith, B. Kim, G. Seo, H. Kim, M. D. Ventra, and D. N. Basov, “Reconfigurable gradient index using VO2 memory metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(4), 044103 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  35. J. Kim, C. Ko, A. Frenzel, S. Ramanathan, and J. E. Hoffman, “Nanoscale imaging and control of resistance switching in VO2 at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(21), 213106 (2010).
    [CrossRef]

2011 (2)

M. Shalaby, H. Merbold, M. Peccianti, L. Razzari, G. Sharma, T. Ozaki, R. Morandotti, T. Feurer, A. Weber, L. Heyderman, B. Patterson, and H. Sigg, “Concurrent field enhancement and high transmission of THz radiation in nanoslit arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(4), 041110 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Goldflam, T. Driscoll, B. Chapler, O. Khatib, N. Marie Jokerst, S. Palit, D. R. Smith, B. Kim, G. Seo, H. Kim, M. D. Ventra, and D. N. Basov, “Reconfigurable gradient index using VO2 memory metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(4), 044103 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (6)

J. Kim, C. Ko, A. Frenzel, S. Ramanathan, and J. E. Hoffman, “Nanoscale imaging and control of resistance switching in VO2 at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(21), 213106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Kyoung, M. Seo, H. Park, S. Koo, H. S. Kim, Y. Park, B. J. Kim, K. Ahn, N. Park, H. T. Kim, and D. S. Kim, “Giant nonlinear response of terahertz nanoresonators on VO2 thin film,” Opt. Express 18(16), 16452–16459 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Seo, J. Kyoung, H. Park, S. Koo, H. S. Kim, H. Bernien, B. J. Kim, J. H. Choe, Y. H. Ahn, H. T. Kim, N. Park, Q. H. Park, K. Ahn, and D. S. Kim, “Active Terahertz Nanoantennas Based on VO2 Phase Transition,” Nano Lett. 10(6), 2064–2068 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. R. Park, Y. M. Park, H. S. Kim, J. S. Kyoung, M. A. Seo, D. J. Park, Y. H. Ahn, K. J. Ahn, and D. S. Kim, “Terahertz nanoresonators: Giant field enhancement and ultrabroadband performance,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(12), 121106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. J. Garcia-Vidal, L. Martin-Moreno, T. W. Ebbesen, and L. Kuipers, “Light passing through subwavelength apertures,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 82(1), 729–787 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Park, S. M. Koo, O. K. Suwal, Y. M. Park, J. S. Kyoung, M. A. Seo, S. S. Choi, N. K. Park, D. S. Kim, and K. J. Ahn, “Resonance behavior of single ultrathin slot antennas on finite dielectric substrates in terahertz regime,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(21), 211109 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (7)

M. A. Seo, H. R. Park, S. M. Koo, D. J. Park, J. H. Kang, O. K. Suwal, S. S. Choi, P. C. M. Planken, G. S. Park, N. K. Park, Q. H. Park, and D. S. Kim, “Terahertz field enhancement by a metallic nano slit operating beyond the skin-depth limit,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 152–156 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, M. J. Cich, A. K. Azad, R. D. Averitt, and A. J. Taylor, “A metamaterial solid-state terahertz phase modulator,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 148–151 (2009).
[CrossRef]

W. L. Chan, H. Chen, A. J. Taylor, I. Brener, M. J. Cich, and D. M. Mittleman, “A spatial light modulator for terahertz beams,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(21), 213511 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Okimura, N. Ezreena, Y. Sasakawa, and J. Sakai, “Electric-Field-Induced Multistep Resistance Switching in Planar VO2/c-Al2O3 Structure,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48(6), 065003 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Gopalakrishnan, D. Ruzmetov, and S. Ramanathan, “On the triggering mechanism for the metal-insulator transition in thin film VO2 devices: electric field versus thermal effects,” J. Mater. Sci. 44(19), 5345–5353 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Driscoll, H. T. Kim, B. G. Chae, B. J. Kim, Y. W. Lee, N. M. Jokerst, S. Palit, D. R. Smith, M. Di Ventra, and D. N. Basov, “Memory metamaterials,” Science 325(5947), 1518–1521 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Driscoll, H. Kim, B. Chae, M. Di Ventra, and D. N. Basov, “Phase-transition driven memristive system,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(4), 043503 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

S. J. Yun, J. W. Lim, B. G. Chae, B. J. Kim, and H. T. Kim, “Characteristics of vanadium dioxide films deposited by RF-magnetron sputter deposition technique using V-metal target,” Physica B 403, 1381–1383 (2008).

M. Nakajima, N. Takubo, Z. Hiroi, Y. Ueda, and T. Suemoto, “Photoinduced metallic state in VO2 proved by the terahertz pump-probe spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(1), 011907 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (4)

J. S. Lee, M. Ortolani, U. Schade, Y. J. Chang, and T. W. Noh, “Microspectroscopic detection of local conducting areas generated by electric-pulse-induced phase transition in VO2 films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(13), 133509 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. M. Qazilbash, M. Brehm, B. G. Chae, P. C. Ho, G. O. Andreev, B. J. Kim, S. J. Yun, A. V. Balatsky, M. B. Maple, F. Keilmann, H. T. Kim, and D. N. Basov, “Mott transition in VO2 revealed by infrared spectroscopy and nano-imaging,” Science 318(5857), 1750–1753 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Hilton, R. P. Prasankumar, S. Fourmaux, A. Cavalleri, D. Brassard, M. A. El Khakani, J. C. Kieffer, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Enhanced photosusceptibility near Tc for the light-induced insulator-to-metal phase transition in vanadium dioxide,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(22), 226401 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. S. Lee, M. Ortolani, A. Ginolas, Y. J. Chang, T. W. Noh, and U. Schade, “Transport and microscopic investigations on the electric-pulse-induced phase transition of VO2 films,” Physica C 460-462, 549–550 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (3)

H. T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature 444(7119), 597–600 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. M. Qazilbash, K. S. Burch, D. Whisler, D. Shrekenhamer, B. G. Chae, H. T. Kim, and D. N. Basov, “Correlated metallic state of vanadium dioxide,” Phys. Rev. B 74(20), 205118 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. U. Jepsen, B. M. Fischer, A. Thoman, H. Helm, J. Y. Suh, R. Lopez, and R. F. Haglund., “Metal-insulator phase transition in a VO2 thin film observed with terahertz spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 74(20), 205103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

A. Cavalleri, M. Rini, H. H. W. Chong, S. Fourmaux, T. E. Glover, P. A. Heimann, J. C. Kieffer, and R. W. Schoenlein, “Band-selective measurements of electron dynamics in VO2 using femtosecond near-edge x-ray absorption,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(6), 067405 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. G. Chae, H. T. Kim, D. H. Youn, and K. Y. Kang, “Abrupt metal-insulator transition observed in VO2 thin films induced by a switching voltage pulse,” Physica B 369(1-4), 76–80 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

H. T. Kim, B. G. Chae, D. H. Youn, S. L. Maeng, G. Kim, K. Y. Kang, and Y. S. Lim, “Mechanism and observation of Mott transition in VO2-based two- and three-terminal devices,” New J. Phys. 6, 52 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Cavalleri, T. Dekorsy, H. H. W. Chong, J. C. Kieffer, and R. W. Schoenlein, “Evidence for a structurally-driven insulator-to-metal transition in VO2: A view from the ultrafast timescale,” Phys. Rev. B 70(16), 161102 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

1998 (1)

M. Nagashima, H. Wada, K. Tanikawa, and H. Shirahata, “The electronic behaviors of oxygen-deficient VO2 thin films in low temperature region,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37(Part 1, No. 8), 4433–4438 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

Q. Wu, T. D. Hewitt, and X. C. Zhang, “Two-dimensional electro-optic imaging of THz beams,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(8), 1026–1028 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

D. H. Kim and H. S. Kwok, “Pulsed-Laser Deposition of VO2 Thin-Films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65(25), 3188–3190 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

D. P. Partlow, S. R. Gurkovich, K. C. Radford, and L. J. Denes, “Switchable Vanadium-Oxide Films by a Sol-Gel Process,” J. Appl. Phys. 70(1), 443–452 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1959 (1)

F. J. Morin, “Oxides Which Show a Metal-to-Insulator Transition at the Neel Temperature,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 3(1), 34–36 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Ahn, K.

M. Seo, J. Kyoung, H. Park, S. Koo, H. S. Kim, H. Bernien, B. J. Kim, J. H. Choe, Y. H. Ahn, H. T. Kim, N. Park, Q. H. Park, K. Ahn, and D. S. Kim, “Active Terahertz Nanoantennas Based on VO2 Phase Transition,” Nano Lett. 10(6), 2064–2068 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Kyoung, M. Seo, H. Park, S. Koo, H. S. Kim, Y. Park, B. J. Kim, K. Ahn, N. Park, H. T. Kim, and D. S. Kim, “Giant nonlinear response of terahertz nanoresonators on VO2 thin film,” Opt. Express 18(16), 16452–16459 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ahn, K. J.

H. R. Park, Y. M. Park, H. S. Kim, J. S. Kyoung, M. A. Seo, D. J. Park, Y. H. Ahn, K. J. Ahn, and D. S. Kim, “Terahertz nanoresonators: Giant field enhancement and ultrabroadband performance,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(12), 121106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Park, S. M. Koo, O. K. Suwal, Y. M. Park, J. S. Kyoung, M. A. Seo, S. S. Choi, N. K. Park, D. S. Kim, and K. J. Ahn, “Resonance behavior of single ultrathin slot antennas on finite dielectric substrates in terahertz regime,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(21), 211109 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ahn, Y. H.

H. R. Park, Y. M. Park, H. S. Kim, J. S. Kyoung, M. A. Seo, D. J. Park, Y. H. Ahn, K. J. Ahn, and D. S. Kim, “Terahertz nanoresonators: Giant field enhancement and ultrabroadband performance,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(12), 121106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Seo, J. Kyoung, H. Park, S. Koo, H. S. Kim, H. Bernien, B. J. Kim, J. H. Choe, Y. H. Ahn, H. T. Kim, N. Park, Q. H. Park, K. Ahn, and D. S. Kim, “Active Terahertz Nanoantennas Based on VO2 Phase Transition,” Nano Lett. 10(6), 2064–2068 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Andreev, G. O.

M. M. Qazilbash, M. Brehm, B. G. Chae, P. C. Ho, G. O. Andreev, B. J. Kim, S. J. Yun, A. V. Balatsky, M. B. Maple, F. Keilmann, H. T. Kim, and D. N. Basov, “Mott transition in VO2 revealed by infrared spectroscopy and nano-imaging,” Science 318(5857), 1750–1753 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Averitt, R. D.

H. T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, M. J. Cich, A. K. Azad, R. D. Averitt, and A. J. Taylor, “A metamaterial solid-state terahertz phase modulator,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 148–151 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Hilton, R. P. Prasankumar, S. Fourmaux, A. Cavalleri, D. Brassard, M. A. El Khakani, J. C. Kieffer, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Enhanced photosusceptibility near Tc for the light-induced insulator-to-metal phase transition in vanadium dioxide,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(22), 226401 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature 444(7119), 597–600 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Azad, A. K.

H. T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, M. J. Cich, A. K. Azad, R. D. Averitt, and A. J. Taylor, “A metamaterial solid-state terahertz phase modulator,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 148–151 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Balatsky, A. V.

M. M. Qazilbash, M. Brehm, B. G. Chae, P. C. Ho, G. O. Andreev, B. J. Kim, S. J. Yun, A. V. Balatsky, M. B. Maple, F. Keilmann, H. T. Kim, and D. N. Basov, “Mott transition in VO2 revealed by infrared spectroscopy and nano-imaging,” Science 318(5857), 1750–1753 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Basov, D. N.

M. D. Goldflam, T. Driscoll, B. Chapler, O. Khatib, N. Marie Jokerst, S. Palit, D. R. Smith, B. Kim, G. Seo, H. Kim, M. D. Ventra, and D. N. Basov, “Reconfigurable gradient index using VO2 memory metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(4), 044103 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. Driscoll, H. T. Kim, B. G. Chae, B. J. Kim, Y. W. Lee, N. M. Jokerst, S. Palit, D. R. Smith, M. Di Ventra, and D. N. Basov, “Memory metamaterials,” Science 325(5947), 1518–1521 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Driscoll, H. Kim, B. Chae, M. Di Ventra, and D. N. Basov, “Phase-transition driven memristive system,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(4), 043503 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. M. Qazilbash, M. Brehm, B. G. Chae, P. C. Ho, G. O. Andreev, B. J. Kim, S. J. Yun, A. V. Balatsky, M. B. Maple, F. Keilmann, H. T. Kim, and D. N. Basov, “Mott transition in VO2 revealed by infrared spectroscopy and nano-imaging,” Science 318(5857), 1750–1753 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. M. Qazilbash, K. S. Burch, D. Whisler, D. Shrekenhamer, B. G. Chae, H. T. Kim, and D. N. Basov, “Correlated metallic state of vanadium dioxide,” Phys. Rev. B 74(20), 205118 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bernien, H.

M. Seo, J. Kyoung, H. Park, S. Koo, H. S. Kim, H. Bernien, B. J. Kim, J. H. Choe, Y. H. Ahn, H. T. Kim, N. Park, Q. H. Park, K. Ahn, and D. S. Kim, “Active Terahertz Nanoantennas Based on VO2 Phase Transition,” Nano Lett. 10(6), 2064–2068 (2010).
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Brassard, D.

D. J. Hilton, R. P. Prasankumar, S. Fourmaux, A. Cavalleri, D. Brassard, M. A. El Khakani, J. C. Kieffer, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Enhanced photosusceptibility near Tc for the light-induced insulator-to-metal phase transition in vanadium dioxide,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(22), 226401 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brehm, M.

M. M. Qazilbash, M. Brehm, B. G. Chae, P. C. Ho, G. O. Andreev, B. J. Kim, S. J. Yun, A. V. Balatsky, M. B. Maple, F. Keilmann, H. T. Kim, and D. N. Basov, “Mott transition in VO2 revealed by infrared spectroscopy and nano-imaging,” Science 318(5857), 1750–1753 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brener, I.

W. L. Chan, H. Chen, A. J. Taylor, I. Brener, M. J. Cich, and D. M. Mittleman, “A spatial light modulator for terahertz beams,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(21), 213511 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Burch, K. S.

M. M. Qazilbash, K. S. Burch, D. Whisler, D. Shrekenhamer, B. G. Chae, H. T. Kim, and D. N. Basov, “Correlated metallic state of vanadium dioxide,” Phys. Rev. B 74(20), 205118 (2006).
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Cavalleri, A.

D. J. Hilton, R. P. Prasankumar, S. Fourmaux, A. Cavalleri, D. Brassard, M. A. El Khakani, J. C. Kieffer, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Enhanced photosusceptibility near Tc for the light-induced insulator-to-metal phase transition in vanadium dioxide,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(22), 226401 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Cavalleri, M. Rini, H. H. W. Chong, S. Fourmaux, T. E. Glover, P. A. Heimann, J. C. Kieffer, and R. W. Schoenlein, “Band-selective measurements of electron dynamics in VO2 using femtosecond near-edge x-ray absorption,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(6), 067405 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Cavalleri, T. Dekorsy, H. H. W. Chong, J. C. Kieffer, and R. W. Schoenlein, “Evidence for a structurally-driven insulator-to-metal transition in VO2: A view from the ultrafast timescale,” Phys. Rev. B 70(16), 161102 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chae, B.

T. Driscoll, H. Kim, B. Chae, M. Di Ventra, and D. N. Basov, “Phase-transition driven memristive system,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(4), 043503 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chae, B. G.

T. Driscoll, H. T. Kim, B. G. Chae, B. J. Kim, Y. W. Lee, N. M. Jokerst, S. Palit, D. R. Smith, M. Di Ventra, and D. N. Basov, “Memory metamaterials,” Science 325(5947), 1518–1521 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. J. Yun, J. W. Lim, B. G. Chae, B. J. Kim, and H. T. Kim, “Characteristics of vanadium dioxide films deposited by RF-magnetron sputter deposition technique using V-metal target,” Physica B 403, 1381–1383 (2008).

M. M. Qazilbash, M. Brehm, B. G. Chae, P. C. Ho, G. O. Andreev, B. J. Kim, S. J. Yun, A. V. Balatsky, M. B. Maple, F. Keilmann, H. T. Kim, and D. N. Basov, “Mott transition in VO2 revealed by infrared spectroscopy and nano-imaging,” Science 318(5857), 1750–1753 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. M. Qazilbash, K. S. Burch, D. Whisler, D. Shrekenhamer, B. G. Chae, H. T. Kim, and D. N. Basov, “Correlated metallic state of vanadium dioxide,” Phys. Rev. B 74(20), 205118 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. G. Chae, H. T. Kim, D. H. Youn, and K. Y. Kang, “Abrupt metal-insulator transition observed in VO2 thin films induced by a switching voltage pulse,” Physica B 369(1-4), 76–80 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. T. Kim, B. G. Chae, D. H. Youn, S. L. Maeng, G. Kim, K. Y. Kang, and Y. S. Lim, “Mechanism and observation of Mott transition in VO2-based two- and three-terminal devices,” New J. Phys. 6, 52 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chan, W. L.

W. L. Chan, H. Chen, A. J. Taylor, I. Brener, M. J. Cich, and D. M. Mittleman, “A spatial light modulator for terahertz beams,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(21), 213511 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chang, Y. J.

J. S. Lee, M. Ortolani, A. Ginolas, Y. J. Chang, T. W. Noh, and U. Schade, “Transport and microscopic investigations on the electric-pulse-induced phase transition of VO2 films,” Physica C 460-462, 549–550 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Lee, M. Ortolani, U. Schade, Y. J. Chang, and T. W. Noh, “Microspectroscopic detection of local conducting areas generated by electric-pulse-induced phase transition in VO2 films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(13), 133509 (2007).
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M. D. Goldflam, T. Driscoll, B. Chapler, O. Khatib, N. Marie Jokerst, S. Palit, D. R. Smith, B. Kim, G. Seo, H. Kim, M. D. Ventra, and D. N. Basov, “Reconfigurable gradient index using VO2 memory metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(4), 044103 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H.

W. L. Chan, H. Chen, A. J. Taylor, I. Brener, M. J. Cich, and D. M. Mittleman, “A spatial light modulator for terahertz beams,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(21), 213511 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H. T.

H. T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, M. J. Cich, A. K. Azad, R. D. Averitt, and A. J. Taylor, “A metamaterial solid-state terahertz phase modulator,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 148–151 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature 444(7119), 597–600 (2006).
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Choe, J. H.

M. Seo, J. Kyoung, H. Park, S. Koo, H. S. Kim, H. Bernien, B. J. Kim, J. H. Choe, Y. H. Ahn, H. T. Kim, N. Park, Q. H. Park, K. Ahn, and D. S. Kim, “Active Terahertz Nanoantennas Based on VO2 Phase Transition,” Nano Lett. 10(6), 2064–2068 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Choi, S. S.

H. R. Park, S. M. Koo, O. K. Suwal, Y. M. Park, J. S. Kyoung, M. A. Seo, S. S. Choi, N. K. Park, D. S. Kim, and K. J. Ahn, “Resonance behavior of single ultrathin slot antennas on finite dielectric substrates in terahertz regime,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(21), 211109 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Seo, H. R. Park, S. M. Koo, D. J. Park, J. H. Kang, O. K. Suwal, S. S. Choi, P. C. M. Planken, G. S. Park, N. K. Park, Q. H. Park, and D. S. Kim, “Terahertz field enhancement by a metallic nano slit operating beyond the skin-depth limit,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 152–156 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chong, H. H. W.

A. Cavalleri, M. Rini, H. H. W. Chong, S. Fourmaux, T. E. Glover, P. A. Heimann, J. C. Kieffer, and R. W. Schoenlein, “Band-selective measurements of electron dynamics in VO2 using femtosecond near-edge x-ray absorption,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(6), 067405 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Cavalleri, T. Dekorsy, H. H. W. Chong, J. C. Kieffer, and R. W. Schoenlein, “Evidence for a structurally-driven insulator-to-metal transition in VO2: A view from the ultrafast timescale,” Phys. Rev. B 70(16), 161102 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cich, M. J.

H. T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, M. J. Cich, A. K. Azad, R. D. Averitt, and A. J. Taylor, “A metamaterial solid-state terahertz phase modulator,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 148–151 (2009).
[CrossRef]

W. L. Chan, H. Chen, A. J. Taylor, I. Brener, M. J. Cich, and D. M. Mittleman, “A spatial light modulator for terahertz beams,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(21), 213511 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dekorsy, T.

A. Cavalleri, T. Dekorsy, H. H. W. Chong, J. C. Kieffer, and R. W. Schoenlein, “Evidence for a structurally-driven insulator-to-metal transition in VO2: A view from the ultrafast timescale,” Phys. Rev. B 70(16), 161102 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Denes, L. J.

D. P. Partlow, S. R. Gurkovich, K. C. Radford, and L. J. Denes, “Switchable Vanadium-Oxide Films by a Sol-Gel Process,” J. Appl. Phys. 70(1), 443–452 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Di Ventra, M.

T. Driscoll, H. Kim, B. Chae, M. Di Ventra, and D. N. Basov, “Phase-transition driven memristive system,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(4), 043503 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Driscoll, H. T. Kim, B. G. Chae, B. J. Kim, Y. W. Lee, N. M. Jokerst, S. Palit, D. R. Smith, M. Di Ventra, and D. N. Basov, “Memory metamaterials,” Science 325(5947), 1518–1521 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Driscoll, T.

M. D. Goldflam, T. Driscoll, B. Chapler, O. Khatib, N. Marie Jokerst, S. Palit, D. R. Smith, B. Kim, G. Seo, H. Kim, M. D. Ventra, and D. N. Basov, “Reconfigurable gradient index using VO2 memory metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(4), 044103 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. Driscoll, H. Kim, B. Chae, M. Di Ventra, and D. N. Basov, “Phase-transition driven memristive system,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(4), 043503 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Driscoll, H. T. Kim, B. G. Chae, B. J. Kim, Y. W. Lee, N. M. Jokerst, S. Palit, D. R. Smith, M. Di Ventra, and D. N. Basov, “Memory metamaterials,” Science 325(5947), 1518–1521 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ebbesen, T. W.

F. J. Garcia-Vidal, L. Martin-Moreno, T. W. Ebbesen, and L. Kuipers, “Light passing through subwavelength apertures,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 82(1), 729–787 (2010).
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El Khakani, M. A.

D. J. Hilton, R. P. Prasankumar, S. Fourmaux, A. Cavalleri, D. Brassard, M. A. El Khakani, J. C. Kieffer, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Enhanced photosusceptibility near Tc for the light-induced insulator-to-metal phase transition in vanadium dioxide,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(22), 226401 (2007).
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K. Okimura, N. Ezreena, Y. Sasakawa, and J. Sakai, “Electric-Field-Induced Multistep Resistance Switching in Planar VO2/c-Al2O3 Structure,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48(6), 065003 (2009).
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Feurer, T.

M. Shalaby, H. Merbold, M. Peccianti, L. Razzari, G. Sharma, T. Ozaki, R. Morandotti, T. Feurer, A. Weber, L. Heyderman, B. Patterson, and H. Sigg, “Concurrent field enhancement and high transmission of THz radiation in nanoslit arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(4), 041110 (2011).
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Fischer, B. M.

P. U. Jepsen, B. M. Fischer, A. Thoman, H. Helm, J. Y. Suh, R. Lopez, and R. F. Haglund., “Metal-insulator phase transition in a VO2 thin film observed with terahertz spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 74(20), 205103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fourmaux, S.

D. J. Hilton, R. P. Prasankumar, S. Fourmaux, A. Cavalleri, D. Brassard, M. A. El Khakani, J. C. Kieffer, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Enhanced photosusceptibility near Tc for the light-induced insulator-to-metal phase transition in vanadium dioxide,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(22), 226401 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Cavalleri, M. Rini, H. H. W. Chong, S. Fourmaux, T. E. Glover, P. A. Heimann, J. C. Kieffer, and R. W. Schoenlein, “Band-selective measurements of electron dynamics in VO2 using femtosecond near-edge x-ray absorption,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(6), 067405 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Frenzel, A.

J. Kim, C. Ko, A. Frenzel, S. Ramanathan, and J. E. Hoffman, “Nanoscale imaging and control of resistance switching in VO2 at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(21), 213106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Garcia-Vidal, F. J.

F. J. Garcia-Vidal, L. Martin-Moreno, T. W. Ebbesen, and L. Kuipers, “Light passing through subwavelength apertures,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 82(1), 729–787 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ginolas, A.

J. S. Lee, M. Ortolani, A. Ginolas, Y. J. Chang, T. W. Noh, and U. Schade, “Transport and microscopic investigations on the electric-pulse-induced phase transition of VO2 films,” Physica C 460-462, 549–550 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Glover, T. E.

A. Cavalleri, M. Rini, H. H. W. Chong, S. Fourmaux, T. E. Glover, P. A. Heimann, J. C. Kieffer, and R. W. Schoenlein, “Band-selective measurements of electron dynamics in VO2 using femtosecond near-edge x-ray absorption,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(6), 067405 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goldflam, M. D.

M. D. Goldflam, T. Driscoll, B. Chapler, O. Khatib, N. Marie Jokerst, S. Palit, D. R. Smith, B. Kim, G. Seo, H. Kim, M. D. Ventra, and D. N. Basov, “Reconfigurable gradient index using VO2 memory metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(4), 044103 (2011).
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G. Gopalakrishnan, D. Ruzmetov, and S. Ramanathan, “On the triggering mechanism for the metal-insulator transition in thin film VO2 devices: electric field versus thermal effects,” J. Mater. Sci. 44(19), 5345–5353 (2009).
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Gossard, A. C.

H. T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature 444(7119), 597–600 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gurkovich, S. R.

D. P. Partlow, S. R. Gurkovich, K. C. Radford, and L. J. Denes, “Switchable Vanadium-Oxide Films by a Sol-Gel Process,” J. Appl. Phys. 70(1), 443–452 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Haglund, R. F.

P. U. Jepsen, B. M. Fischer, A. Thoman, H. Helm, J. Y. Suh, R. Lopez, and R. F. Haglund., “Metal-insulator phase transition in a VO2 thin film observed with terahertz spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 74(20), 205103 (2006).
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R. Lopez, T. E. Haynes, L. A. Boatner, L. C. Feldman, and R. F. Haglund., “Temperature-controlled surface plasmon resonance in VO2 nanorods,” Opt. Lett. 27(15), 1327–1329 (2002).
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Heimann, P. A.

A. Cavalleri, M. Rini, H. H. W. Chong, S. Fourmaux, T. E. Glover, P. A. Heimann, J. C. Kieffer, and R. W. Schoenlein, “Band-selective measurements of electron dynamics in VO2 using femtosecond near-edge x-ray absorption,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(6), 067405 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Helm, H.

P. U. Jepsen, B. M. Fischer, A. Thoman, H. Helm, J. Y. Suh, R. Lopez, and R. F. Haglund., “Metal-insulator phase transition in a VO2 thin film observed with terahertz spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 74(20), 205103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hewitt, T. D.

Q. Wu, T. D. Hewitt, and X. C. Zhang, “Two-dimensional electro-optic imaging of THz beams,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(8), 1026–1028 (1996).
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Heyderman, L.

M. Shalaby, H. Merbold, M. Peccianti, L. Razzari, G. Sharma, T. Ozaki, R. Morandotti, T. Feurer, A. Weber, L. Heyderman, B. Patterson, and H. Sigg, “Concurrent field enhancement and high transmission of THz radiation in nanoslit arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(4), 041110 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hilton, D. J.

D. J. Hilton, R. P. Prasankumar, S. Fourmaux, A. Cavalleri, D. Brassard, M. A. El Khakani, J. C. Kieffer, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Enhanced photosusceptibility near Tc for the light-induced insulator-to-metal phase transition in vanadium dioxide,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(22), 226401 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hiroi, Z.

M. Nakajima, N. Takubo, Z. Hiroi, Y. Ueda, and T. Suemoto, “Photoinduced metallic state in VO2 proved by the terahertz pump-probe spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(1), 011907 (2008).
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Ho, P. C.

M. M. Qazilbash, M. Brehm, B. G. Chae, P. C. Ho, G. O. Andreev, B. J. Kim, S. J. Yun, A. V. Balatsky, M. B. Maple, F. Keilmann, H. T. Kim, and D. N. Basov, “Mott transition in VO2 revealed by infrared spectroscopy and nano-imaging,” Science 318(5857), 1750–1753 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hoffman, J. E.

J. Kim, C. Ko, A. Frenzel, S. Ramanathan, and J. E. Hoffman, “Nanoscale imaging and control of resistance switching in VO2 at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(21), 213106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jepsen, P. U.

P. U. Jepsen, B. M. Fischer, A. Thoman, H. Helm, J. Y. Suh, R. Lopez, and R. F. Haglund., “Metal-insulator phase transition in a VO2 thin film observed with terahertz spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 74(20), 205103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jokerst, N. M.

T. Driscoll, H. T. Kim, B. G. Chae, B. J. Kim, Y. W. Lee, N. M. Jokerst, S. Palit, D. R. Smith, M. Di Ventra, and D. N. Basov, “Memory metamaterials,” Science 325(5947), 1518–1521 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kang, J. H.

M. A. Seo, H. R. Park, S. M. Koo, D. J. Park, J. H. Kang, O. K. Suwal, S. S. Choi, P. C. M. Planken, G. S. Park, N. K. Park, Q. H. Park, and D. S. Kim, “Terahertz field enhancement by a metallic nano slit operating beyond the skin-depth limit,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 152–156 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kang, K. Y.

B. G. Chae, H. T. Kim, D. H. Youn, and K. Y. Kang, “Abrupt metal-insulator transition observed in VO2 thin films induced by a switching voltage pulse,” Physica B 369(1-4), 76–80 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. T. Kim, B. G. Chae, D. H. Youn, S. L. Maeng, G. Kim, K. Y. Kang, and Y. S. Lim, “Mechanism and observation of Mott transition in VO2-based two- and three-terminal devices,” New J. Phys. 6, 52 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Keilmann, F.

M. M. Qazilbash, M. Brehm, B. G. Chae, P. C. Ho, G. O. Andreev, B. J. Kim, S. J. Yun, A. V. Balatsky, M. B. Maple, F. Keilmann, H. T. Kim, and D. N. Basov, “Mott transition in VO2 revealed by infrared spectroscopy and nano-imaging,” Science 318(5857), 1750–1753 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Khatib, O.

M. D. Goldflam, T. Driscoll, B. Chapler, O. Khatib, N. Marie Jokerst, S. Palit, D. R. Smith, B. Kim, G. Seo, H. Kim, M. D. Ventra, and D. N. Basov, “Reconfigurable gradient index using VO2 memory metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(4), 044103 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kieffer, J. C.

D. J. Hilton, R. P. Prasankumar, S. Fourmaux, A. Cavalleri, D. Brassard, M. A. El Khakani, J. C. Kieffer, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Enhanced photosusceptibility near Tc for the light-induced insulator-to-metal phase transition in vanadium dioxide,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(22), 226401 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Cavalleri, M. Rini, H. H. W. Chong, S. Fourmaux, T. E. Glover, P. A. Heimann, J. C. Kieffer, and R. W. Schoenlein, “Band-selective measurements of electron dynamics in VO2 using femtosecond near-edge x-ray absorption,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(6), 067405 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Cavalleri, T. Dekorsy, H. H. W. Chong, J. C. Kieffer, and R. W. Schoenlein, “Evidence for a structurally-driven insulator-to-metal transition in VO2: A view from the ultrafast timescale,” Phys. Rev. B 70(16), 161102 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kim, B.

M. D. Goldflam, T. Driscoll, B. Chapler, O. Khatib, N. Marie Jokerst, S. Palit, D. R. Smith, B. Kim, G. Seo, H. Kim, M. D. Ventra, and D. N. Basov, “Reconfigurable gradient index using VO2 memory metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(4), 044103 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kim, B. J.

J. Kyoung, M. Seo, H. Park, S. Koo, H. S. Kim, Y. Park, B. J. Kim, K. Ahn, N. Park, H. T. Kim, and D. S. Kim, “Giant nonlinear response of terahertz nanoresonators on VO2 thin film,” Opt. Express 18(16), 16452–16459 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Seo, J. Kyoung, H. Park, S. Koo, H. S. Kim, H. Bernien, B. J. Kim, J. H. Choe, Y. H. Ahn, H. T. Kim, N. Park, Q. H. Park, K. Ahn, and D. S. Kim, “Active Terahertz Nanoantennas Based on VO2 Phase Transition,” Nano Lett. 10(6), 2064–2068 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Driscoll, H. T. Kim, B. G. Chae, B. J. Kim, Y. W. Lee, N. M. Jokerst, S. Palit, D. R. Smith, M. Di Ventra, and D. N. Basov, “Memory metamaterials,” Science 325(5947), 1518–1521 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. J. Yun, J. W. Lim, B. G. Chae, B. J. Kim, and H. T. Kim, “Characteristics of vanadium dioxide films deposited by RF-magnetron sputter deposition technique using V-metal target,” Physica B 403, 1381–1383 (2008).

M. M. Qazilbash, M. Brehm, B. G. Chae, P. C. Ho, G. O. Andreev, B. J. Kim, S. J. Yun, A. V. Balatsky, M. B. Maple, F. Keilmann, H. T. Kim, and D. N. Basov, “Mott transition in VO2 revealed by infrared spectroscopy and nano-imaging,” Science 318(5857), 1750–1753 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, D. H.

D. H. Kim and H. S. Kwok, “Pulsed-Laser Deposition of VO2 Thin-Films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65(25), 3188–3190 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Kim, D. S.

H. R. Park, Y. M. Park, H. S. Kim, J. S. Kyoung, M. A. Seo, D. J. Park, Y. H. Ahn, K. J. Ahn, and D. S. Kim, “Terahertz nanoresonators: Giant field enhancement and ultrabroadband performance,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(12), 121106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Seo, J. Kyoung, H. Park, S. Koo, H. S. Kim, H. Bernien, B. J. Kim, J. H. Choe, Y. H. Ahn, H. T. Kim, N. Park, Q. H. Park, K. Ahn, and D. S. Kim, “Active Terahertz Nanoantennas Based on VO2 Phase Transition,” Nano Lett. 10(6), 2064–2068 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. R. Park, S. M. Koo, O. K. Suwal, Y. M. Park, J. S. Kyoung, M. A. Seo, S. S. Choi, N. K. Park, D. S. Kim, and K. J. Ahn, “Resonance behavior of single ultrathin slot antennas on finite dielectric substrates in terahertz regime,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(21), 211109 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Kyoung, M. Seo, H. Park, S. Koo, H. S. Kim, Y. Park, B. J. Kim, K. Ahn, N. Park, H. T. Kim, and D. S. Kim, “Giant nonlinear response of terahertz nanoresonators on VO2 thin film,” Opt. Express 18(16), 16452–16459 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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[CrossRef]

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M. D. Goldflam, T. Driscoll, B. Chapler, O. Khatib, N. Marie Jokerst, S. Palit, D. R. Smith, B. Kim, G. Seo, H. Kim, M. D. Ventra, and D. N. Basov, “Reconfigurable gradient index using VO2 memory metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(4), 044103 (2011).
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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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H. R. Park, S. M. Koo, O. K. Suwal, Y. M. Park, J. S. Kyoung, M. A. Seo, S. S. Choi, N. K. Park, D. S. Kim, and K. J. Ahn, “Resonance behavior of single ultrathin slot antennas on finite dielectric substrates in terahertz regime,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(21), 211109 (2010).
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H. T. Kim, B. G. Chae, D. H. Youn, S. L. Maeng, G. Kim, K. Y. Kang, and Y. S. Lim, “Mechanism and observation of Mott transition in VO2-based two- and three-terminal devices,” New J. Phys. 6, 52 (2004).
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M. Seo, J. Kyoung, H. Park, S. Koo, H. S. Kim, H. Bernien, B. J. Kim, J. H. Choe, Y. H. Ahn, H. T. Kim, N. Park, Q. H. Park, K. Ahn, and D. S. Kim, “Active Terahertz Nanoantennas Based on VO2 Phase Transition,” Nano Lett. 10(6), 2064–2068 (2010).
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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Qazilbash, M. M.

M. M. Qazilbash, M. Brehm, B. G. Chae, P. C. Ho, G. O. Andreev, B. J. Kim, S. J. Yun, A. V. Balatsky, M. B. Maple, F. Keilmann, H. T. Kim, and D. N. Basov, “Mott transition in VO2 revealed by infrared spectroscopy and nano-imaging,” Science 318(5857), 1750–1753 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. M. Qazilbash, K. S. Burch, D. Whisler, D. Shrekenhamer, B. G. Chae, H. T. Kim, and D. N. Basov, “Correlated metallic state of vanadium dioxide,” Phys. Rev. B 74(20), 205118 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Radford, K. C.

D. P. Partlow, S. R. Gurkovich, K. C. Radford, and L. J. Denes, “Switchable Vanadium-Oxide Films by a Sol-Gel Process,” J. Appl. Phys. 70(1), 443–452 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Ramanathan, S.

J. Kim, C. Ko, A. Frenzel, S. Ramanathan, and J. E. Hoffman, “Nanoscale imaging and control of resistance switching in VO2 at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(21), 213106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. Gopalakrishnan, D. Ruzmetov, and S. Ramanathan, “On the triggering mechanism for the metal-insulator transition in thin film VO2 devices: electric field versus thermal effects,” J. Mater. Sci. 44(19), 5345–5353 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Razzari, L.

M. Shalaby, H. Merbold, M. Peccianti, L. Razzari, G. Sharma, T. Ozaki, R. Morandotti, T. Feurer, A. Weber, L. Heyderman, B. Patterson, and H. Sigg, “Concurrent field enhancement and high transmission of THz radiation in nanoslit arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(4), 041110 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Rini, M.

A. Cavalleri, M. Rini, H. H. W. Chong, S. Fourmaux, T. E. Glover, P. A. Heimann, J. C. Kieffer, and R. W. Schoenlein, “Band-selective measurements of electron dynamics in VO2 using femtosecond near-edge x-ray absorption,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(6), 067405 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ruzmetov, D.

G. Gopalakrishnan, D. Ruzmetov, and S. Ramanathan, “On the triggering mechanism for the metal-insulator transition in thin film VO2 devices: electric field versus thermal effects,” J. Mater. Sci. 44(19), 5345–5353 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sakai, J.

K. Okimura, N. Ezreena, Y. Sasakawa, and J. Sakai, “Electric-Field-Induced Multistep Resistance Switching in Planar VO2/c-Al2O3 Structure,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48(6), 065003 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sasakawa, Y.

K. Okimura, N. Ezreena, Y. Sasakawa, and J. Sakai, “Electric-Field-Induced Multistep Resistance Switching in Planar VO2/c-Al2O3 Structure,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48(6), 065003 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Schade, U.

J. S. Lee, M. Ortolani, A. Ginolas, Y. J. Chang, T. W. Noh, and U. Schade, “Transport and microscopic investigations on the electric-pulse-induced phase transition of VO2 films,” Physica C 460-462, 549–550 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Lee, M. Ortolani, U. Schade, Y. J. Chang, and T. W. Noh, “Microspectroscopic detection of local conducting areas generated by electric-pulse-induced phase transition in VO2 films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(13), 133509 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Schoenlein, R. W.

A. Cavalleri, M. Rini, H. H. W. Chong, S. Fourmaux, T. E. Glover, P. A. Heimann, J. C. Kieffer, and R. W. Schoenlein, “Band-selective measurements of electron dynamics in VO2 using femtosecond near-edge x-ray absorption,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(6), 067405 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Cavalleri, T. Dekorsy, H. H. W. Chong, J. C. Kieffer, and R. W. Schoenlein, “Evidence for a structurally-driven insulator-to-metal transition in VO2: A view from the ultrafast timescale,” Phys. Rev. B 70(16), 161102 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Seo, G.

M. D. Goldflam, T. Driscoll, B. Chapler, O. Khatib, N. Marie Jokerst, S. Palit, D. R. Smith, B. Kim, G. Seo, H. Kim, M. D. Ventra, and D. N. Basov, “Reconfigurable gradient index using VO2 memory metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(4), 044103 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Seo, M.

J. Kyoung, M. Seo, H. Park, S. Koo, H. S. Kim, Y. Park, B. J. Kim, K. Ahn, N. Park, H. T. Kim, and D. S. Kim, “Giant nonlinear response of terahertz nanoresonators on VO2 thin film,” Opt. Express 18(16), 16452–16459 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Seo, J. Kyoung, H. Park, S. Koo, H. S. Kim, H. Bernien, B. J. Kim, J. H. Choe, Y. H. Ahn, H. T. Kim, N. Park, Q. H. Park, K. Ahn, and D. S. Kim, “Active Terahertz Nanoantennas Based on VO2 Phase Transition,” Nano Lett. 10(6), 2064–2068 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Seo, M. A.

H. R. Park, Y. M. Park, H. S. Kim, J. S. Kyoung, M. A. Seo, D. J. Park, Y. H. Ahn, K. J. Ahn, and D. S. Kim, “Terahertz nanoresonators: Giant field enhancement and ultrabroadband performance,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(12), 121106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Park, S. M. Koo, O. K. Suwal, Y. M. Park, J. S. Kyoung, M. A. Seo, S. S. Choi, N. K. Park, D. S. Kim, and K. J. Ahn, “Resonance behavior of single ultrathin slot antennas on finite dielectric substrates in terahertz regime,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(21), 211109 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Seo, H. R. Park, S. M. Koo, D. J. Park, J. H. Kang, O. K. Suwal, S. S. Choi, P. C. M. Planken, G. S. Park, N. K. Park, Q. H. Park, and D. S. Kim, “Terahertz field enhancement by a metallic nano slit operating beyond the skin-depth limit,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 152–156 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Shalaby, M.

M. Shalaby, H. Merbold, M. Peccianti, L. Razzari, G. Sharma, T. Ozaki, R. Morandotti, T. Feurer, A. Weber, L. Heyderman, B. Patterson, and H. Sigg, “Concurrent field enhancement and high transmission of THz radiation in nanoslit arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(4), 041110 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sharma, G.

M. Shalaby, H. Merbold, M. Peccianti, L. Razzari, G. Sharma, T. Ozaki, R. Morandotti, T. Feurer, A. Weber, L. Heyderman, B. Patterson, and H. Sigg, “Concurrent field enhancement and high transmission of THz radiation in nanoslit arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(4), 041110 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Shirahata, H.

M. Nagashima, H. Wada, K. Tanikawa, and H. Shirahata, “The electronic behaviors of oxygen-deficient VO2 thin films in low temperature region,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37(Part 1, No. 8), 4433–4438 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Shrekenhamer, D.

M. M. Qazilbash, K. S. Burch, D. Whisler, D. Shrekenhamer, B. G. Chae, H. T. Kim, and D. N. Basov, “Correlated metallic state of vanadium dioxide,” Phys. Rev. B 74(20), 205118 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sigg, H.

M. Shalaby, H. Merbold, M. Peccianti, L. Razzari, G. Sharma, T. Ozaki, R. Morandotti, T. Feurer, A. Weber, L. Heyderman, B. Patterson, and H. Sigg, “Concurrent field enhancement and high transmission of THz radiation in nanoslit arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(4), 041110 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Smith, D. R.

M. D. Goldflam, T. Driscoll, B. Chapler, O. Khatib, N. Marie Jokerst, S. Palit, D. R. Smith, B. Kim, G. Seo, H. Kim, M. D. Ventra, and D. N. Basov, “Reconfigurable gradient index using VO2 memory metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(4), 044103 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. Driscoll, H. T. Kim, B. G. Chae, B. J. Kim, Y. W. Lee, N. M. Jokerst, S. Palit, D. R. Smith, M. Di Ventra, and D. N. Basov, “Memory metamaterials,” Science 325(5947), 1518–1521 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Suemoto, T.

M. Nakajima, N. Takubo, Z. Hiroi, Y. Ueda, and T. Suemoto, “Photoinduced metallic state in VO2 proved by the terahertz pump-probe spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(1), 011907 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Suh, J. Y.

P. U. Jepsen, B. M. Fischer, A. Thoman, H. Helm, J. Y. Suh, R. Lopez, and R. F. Haglund., “Metal-insulator phase transition in a VO2 thin film observed with terahertz spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 74(20), 205103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Suwal, O. K.

H. R. Park, S. M. Koo, O. K. Suwal, Y. M. Park, J. S. Kyoung, M. A. Seo, S. S. Choi, N. K. Park, D. S. Kim, and K. J. Ahn, “Resonance behavior of single ultrathin slot antennas on finite dielectric substrates in terahertz regime,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(21), 211109 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Seo, H. R. Park, S. M. Koo, D. J. Park, J. H. Kang, O. K. Suwal, S. S. Choi, P. C. M. Planken, G. S. Park, N. K. Park, Q. H. Park, and D. S. Kim, “Terahertz field enhancement by a metallic nano slit operating beyond the skin-depth limit,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 152–156 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Takubo, N.

M. Nakajima, N. Takubo, Z. Hiroi, Y. Ueda, and T. Suemoto, “Photoinduced metallic state in VO2 proved by the terahertz pump-probe spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(1), 011907 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tanikawa, K.

M. Nagashima, H. Wada, K. Tanikawa, and H. Shirahata, “The electronic behaviors of oxygen-deficient VO2 thin films in low temperature region,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37(Part 1, No. 8), 4433–4438 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, A. J.

W. L. Chan, H. Chen, A. J. Taylor, I. Brener, M. J. Cich, and D. M. Mittleman, “A spatial light modulator for terahertz beams,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(21), 213511 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, M. J. Cich, A. K. Azad, R. D. Averitt, and A. J. Taylor, “A metamaterial solid-state terahertz phase modulator,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 148–151 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Hilton, R. P. Prasankumar, S. Fourmaux, A. Cavalleri, D. Brassard, M. A. El Khakani, J. C. Kieffer, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Enhanced photosusceptibility near Tc for the light-induced insulator-to-metal phase transition in vanadium dioxide,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(22), 226401 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature 444(7119), 597–600 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thoman, A.

P. U. Jepsen, B. M. Fischer, A. Thoman, H. Helm, J. Y. Suh, R. Lopez, and R. F. Haglund., “Metal-insulator phase transition in a VO2 thin film observed with terahertz spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 74(20), 205103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ueda, Y.

M. Nakajima, N. Takubo, Z. Hiroi, Y. Ueda, and T. Suemoto, “Photoinduced metallic state in VO2 proved by the terahertz pump-probe spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(1), 011907 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ventra, M. D.

M. D. Goldflam, T. Driscoll, B. Chapler, O. Khatib, N. Marie Jokerst, S. Palit, D. R. Smith, B. Kim, G. Seo, H. Kim, M. D. Ventra, and D. N. Basov, “Reconfigurable gradient index using VO2 memory metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(4), 044103 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wada, H.

M. Nagashima, H. Wada, K. Tanikawa, and H. Shirahata, “The electronic behaviors of oxygen-deficient VO2 thin films in low temperature region,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37(Part 1, No. 8), 4433–4438 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Weber, A.

M. Shalaby, H. Merbold, M. Peccianti, L. Razzari, G. Sharma, T. Ozaki, R. Morandotti, T. Feurer, A. Weber, L. Heyderman, B. Patterson, and H. Sigg, “Concurrent field enhancement and high transmission of THz radiation in nanoslit arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(4), 041110 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Whisler, D.

M. M. Qazilbash, K. S. Burch, D. Whisler, D. Shrekenhamer, B. G. Chae, H. T. Kim, and D. N. Basov, “Correlated metallic state of vanadium dioxide,” Phys. Rev. B 74(20), 205118 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wu, Q.

Q. Wu, T. D. Hewitt, and X. C. Zhang, “Two-dimensional electro-optic imaging of THz beams,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(8), 1026–1028 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Youn, D. H.

B. G. Chae, H. T. Kim, D. H. Youn, and K. Y. Kang, “Abrupt metal-insulator transition observed in VO2 thin films induced by a switching voltage pulse,” Physica B 369(1-4), 76–80 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. T. Kim, B. G. Chae, D. H. Youn, S. L. Maeng, G. Kim, K. Y. Kang, and Y. S. Lim, “Mechanism and observation of Mott transition in VO2-based two- and three-terminal devices,” New J. Phys. 6, 52 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yun, S. J.

S. J. Yun, J. W. Lim, B. G. Chae, B. J. Kim, and H. T. Kim, “Characteristics of vanadium dioxide films deposited by RF-magnetron sputter deposition technique using V-metal target,” Physica B 403, 1381–1383 (2008).

M. M. Qazilbash, M. Brehm, B. G. Chae, P. C. Ho, G. O. Andreev, B. J. Kim, S. J. Yun, A. V. Balatsky, M. B. Maple, F. Keilmann, H. T. Kim, and D. N. Basov, “Mott transition in VO2 revealed by infrared spectroscopy and nano-imaging,” Science 318(5857), 1750–1753 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zalkovskij, M.

A. Novitsky, M. Zalkovskij, R. Malureanu, and A. Lavrinenko, “Microscopic model of the THz field enhancement in a metal nanoslit,” Opt. Commun. (to be published).

Zhang, X. C.

Q. Wu, T. D. Hewitt, and X. C. Zhang, “Two-dimensional electro-optic imaging of THz beams,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(8), 1026–1028 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Zide, J. M. O.

H. T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature 444(7119), 597–600 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (11)

M. Nakajima, N. Takubo, Z. Hiroi, Y. Ueda, and T. Suemoto, “Photoinduced metallic state in VO2 proved by the terahertz pump-probe spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(1), 011907 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Lee, M. Ortolani, U. Schade, Y. J. Chang, and T. W. Noh, “Microspectroscopic detection of local conducting areas generated by electric-pulse-induced phase transition in VO2 films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(13), 133509 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. H. Kim and H. S. Kwok, “Pulsed-Laser Deposition of VO2 Thin-Films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65(25), 3188–3190 (1994).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Park, Y. M. Park, H. S. Kim, J. S. Kyoung, M. A. Seo, D. J. Park, Y. H. Ahn, K. J. Ahn, and D. S. Kim, “Terahertz nanoresonators: Giant field enhancement and ultrabroadband performance,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(12), 121106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Park, S. M. Koo, O. K. Suwal, Y. M. Park, J. S. Kyoung, M. A. Seo, S. S. Choi, N. K. Park, D. S. Kim, and K. J. Ahn, “Resonance behavior of single ultrathin slot antennas on finite dielectric substrates in terahertz regime,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(21), 211109 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Shalaby, H. Merbold, M. Peccianti, L. Razzari, G. Sharma, T. Ozaki, R. Morandotti, T. Feurer, A. Weber, L. Heyderman, B. Patterson, and H. Sigg, “Concurrent field enhancement and high transmission of THz radiation in nanoslit arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(4), 041110 (2011).
[CrossRef]

W. L. Chan, H. Chen, A. J. Taylor, I. Brener, M. J. Cich, and D. M. Mittleman, “A spatial light modulator for terahertz beams,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(21), 213511 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Q. Wu, T. D. Hewitt, and X. C. Zhang, “Two-dimensional electro-optic imaging of THz beams,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(8), 1026–1028 (1996).
[CrossRef]

T. Driscoll, H. Kim, B. Chae, M. Di Ventra, and D. N. Basov, “Phase-transition driven memristive system,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(4), 043503 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Goldflam, T. Driscoll, B. Chapler, O. Khatib, N. Marie Jokerst, S. Palit, D. R. Smith, B. Kim, G. Seo, H. Kim, M. D. Ventra, and D. N. Basov, “Reconfigurable gradient index using VO2 memory metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(4), 044103 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Kim, C. Ko, A. Frenzel, S. Ramanathan, and J. E. Hoffman, “Nanoscale imaging and control of resistance switching in VO2 at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(21), 213106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

D. P. Partlow, S. R. Gurkovich, K. C. Radford, and L. J. Denes, “Switchable Vanadium-Oxide Films by a Sol-Gel Process,” J. Appl. Phys. 70(1), 443–452 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Mater. Sci. (1)

G. Gopalakrishnan, D. Ruzmetov, and S. Ramanathan, “On the triggering mechanism for the metal-insulator transition in thin film VO2 devices: electric field versus thermal effects,” J. Mater. Sci. 44(19), 5345–5353 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (2)

K. Okimura, N. Ezreena, Y. Sasakawa, and J. Sakai, “Electric-Field-Induced Multistep Resistance Switching in Planar VO2/c-Al2O3 Structure,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48(6), 065003 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Nagashima, H. Wada, K. Tanikawa, and H. Shirahata, “The electronic behaviors of oxygen-deficient VO2 thin films in low temperature region,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37(Part 1, No. 8), 4433–4438 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett. (1)

M. Seo, J. Kyoung, H. Park, S. Koo, H. S. Kim, H. Bernien, B. J. Kim, J. H. Choe, Y. H. Ahn, H. T. Kim, N. Park, Q. H. Park, K. Ahn, and D. S. Kim, “Active Terahertz Nanoantennas Based on VO2 Phase Transition,” Nano Lett. 10(6), 2064–2068 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (2)

H. T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, M. J. Cich, A. K. Azad, R. D. Averitt, and A. J. Taylor, “A metamaterial solid-state terahertz phase modulator,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 148–151 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Seo, H. R. Park, S. M. Koo, D. J. Park, J. H. Kang, O. K. Suwal, S. S. Choi, P. C. M. Planken, G. S. Park, N. K. Park, Q. H. Park, and D. S. Kim, “Terahertz field enhancement by a metallic nano slit operating beyond the skin-depth limit,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 152–156 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

H. T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature 444(7119), 597–600 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

New J. Phys. (1)

H. T. Kim, B. G. Chae, D. H. Youn, S. L. Maeng, G. Kim, K. Y. Kang, and Y. S. Lim, “Mechanism and observation of Mott transition in VO2-based two- and three-terminal devices,” New J. Phys. 6, 52 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

A. Novitsky, M. Zalkovskij, R. Malureanu, and A. Lavrinenko, “Microscopic model of the THz field enhancement in a metal nanoslit,” Opt. Commun. (to be published).

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. B (3)

A. Cavalleri, T. Dekorsy, H. H. W. Chong, J. C. Kieffer, and R. W. Schoenlein, “Evidence for a structurally-driven insulator-to-metal transition in VO2: A view from the ultrafast timescale,” Phys. Rev. B 70(16), 161102 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. U. Jepsen, B. M. Fischer, A. Thoman, H. Helm, J. Y. Suh, R. Lopez, and R. F. Haglund., “Metal-insulator phase transition in a VO2 thin film observed with terahertz spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 74(20), 205103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. M. Qazilbash, K. S. Burch, D. Whisler, D. Shrekenhamer, B. G. Chae, H. T. Kim, and D. N. Basov, “Correlated metallic state of vanadium dioxide,” Phys. Rev. B 74(20), 205118 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (3)

F. J. Morin, “Oxides Which Show a Metal-to-Insulator Transition at the Neel Temperature,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 3(1), 34–36 (1959).
[CrossRef]

A. Cavalleri, M. Rini, H. H. W. Chong, S. Fourmaux, T. E. Glover, P. A. Heimann, J. C. Kieffer, and R. W. Schoenlein, “Band-selective measurements of electron dynamics in VO2 using femtosecond near-edge x-ray absorption,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(6), 067405 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Hilton, R. P. Prasankumar, S. Fourmaux, A. Cavalleri, D. Brassard, M. A. El Khakani, J. C. Kieffer, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Enhanced photosusceptibility near Tc for the light-induced insulator-to-metal phase transition in vanadium dioxide,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(22), 226401 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Physica B (2)

S. J. Yun, J. W. Lim, B. G. Chae, B. J. Kim, and H. T. Kim, “Characteristics of vanadium dioxide films deposited by RF-magnetron sputter deposition technique using V-metal target,” Physica B 403, 1381–1383 (2008).

B. G. Chae, H. T. Kim, D. H. Youn, and K. Y. Kang, “Abrupt metal-insulator transition observed in VO2 thin films induced by a switching voltage pulse,” Physica B 369(1-4), 76–80 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Physica C (1)

J. S. Lee, M. Ortolani, A. Ginolas, Y. J. Chang, T. W. Noh, and U. Schade, “Transport and microscopic investigations on the electric-pulse-induced phase transition of VO2 films,” Physica C 460-462, 549–550 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Mod. Phys. (1)

F. J. Garcia-Vidal, L. Martin-Moreno, T. W. Ebbesen, and L. Kuipers, “Light passing through subwavelength apertures,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 82(1), 729–787 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Science (2)

M. M. Qazilbash, M. Brehm, B. G. Chae, P. C. Ho, G. O. Andreev, B. J. Kim, S. J. Yun, A. V. Balatsky, M. B. Maple, F. Keilmann, H. T. Kim, and D. N. Basov, “Mott transition in VO2 revealed by infrared spectroscopy and nano-imaging,” Science 318(5857), 1750–1753 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Driscoll, H. T. Kim, B. G. Chae, B. J. Kim, Y. W. Lee, N. M. Jokerst, S. Palit, D. R. Smith, M. Di Ventra, and D. N. Basov, “Memory metamaterials,” Science 325(5947), 1518–1521 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) External voltage driven insulator-metal transition in VO2 thin film. The two electrodes are 1 mm apart from each other. (b) When a pulsed voltage is applied, the transition happens on a microsecond time-scale. (c) Schematic of the THz transmission measurement stage. (d) Relative transmission of THz radiation through bare VO2 in dependence of an external bias from 0 V to 500 V at 333 K. The film is largely transparent irrespective of the temperature and the intensity of the voltage bias.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Schematic of the sample fabrication procedure. The nano antenna pattern and gold electrodes are deposited on a 100-nm-thick VO2 thin film by e-beam lithography. (b) SEM image of the nano antenna pattern. (c) Schematic of the nano antenna array (width w = 600 nm, length l = 140 μm, parallel period p// = 10 μm, perpendicular period p = 30 μm, distance between the electrodes d = 1 mm, gap between the electrode and nano antenna pattern g = 10 μm).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Nanopatterned VO2 sample shows on-off (at 333 K) and (b) memory (at 335 K) switching behavior of THz transmission. Each transmission spectrum is normalized by the maximum THz transmission intensity at each resonance frequency.

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