Abstract

In array-type optical devices integrated on a single chip with high density, the crosstalk between adjacent devices causes main reason of limited transmission capacity in cascaded optical communication systems. In order to reduce the crosstalk in an arrayed variable optical attenuator, we incorporated a self-assembled monolayer of a microsphere array in the device. The microsphere array introduces a large index contrast in the polymer waveguide, thereby causing strong diffraction of the planar guided modes toward the surface normal directions. Due to the microsphere diffraction, the inter-channel crosstalk between the adjacent channels in a variable optical attenuator array decreases to less than −50 dB.

© 2011 OSA

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  1. K. Tsuzuki, Y. Shibata, N. Kikuchi, M. Ishikawa, T. Yasui, H. Ishii, and H. Yasaka, “Full C-cand tunable DFB laser array copackaged with InP Mach–Zehnder modulator for DWDM optical communication systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(3), 521–527 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  2. H. Nishi, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, H. Shinojima, K. Yamada, and S. Itabashi, “Compact and polarization-independent variable optical attenuator based on a silicon wire waveguide with a carrier injection structure,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 49(4), 04DG20 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  3. K. Watanabe, Y. Hashizume, Y. Nasu, M. Kohtoku, M. Itoh, and Y. Inoue, “Ultralow power consumption silica-based PLC-VOA/switches,” J. Lightwave Technol. 26(14), 2235–2244 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  4. K. H. Koh, C. Lee, and T. Kobayashi, “A piezoelectric-driven three-dimensional MEMS VOA using attenuation mechanism with combination of rotational and translational effects,” J. Microelectromech. Syst. 19(6), 1370–1379 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  5. Y.-O. Noh, C.-H. Lee, J.-M. Kim, W.-Y. Hwang, Y.-H. Won, H.-J. Lee, S.-G. Han, and M.-C. Oh, “Polymer waveguide variable optical attenuator and its reliability,” Opt. Commun. 242(4-6), 533–540 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  6. Y.-T. Han, J.-U. Shin, S.-H. Park, S.-P. Han, Y.-S. Baek, C.-H. Lee, Y.-O. Noh, H.-J. Lee, and H.-H. Park, “Fabrication of 10-channel polymer thermo-optic digital optical switch array,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(20), 1556–1558 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J.-U. Shin, Y.-T. Han, S.-P. Han, S.-H. Park, Y.-S. Baek, Y.-O. Noh, and K.-H. Park, “Reconfigurable optical add-drop multiplexer using a polymer integrated photonic lightwave circuit,” ETRI J. 31(6), 770–777 (2009).
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    [CrossRef]
  12. J.-H. Jang, M.-C. Oh, T.-H. Yoon, and J.-C. Kim, “Polymer grating imbedded organic light emitting diodes with improved out-coupling efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(12), 123302 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
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  14. Y. Koide, K. Fujisawa, and M. Nakane, “Preparation of non-contact ordered array of polystyrene colloidal particles by using a metallic thin film of fused hemispheres,” Colloids Surf. A Physicochem. Eng. Asp. 330(2-3), 108–111 (2008).
    [CrossRef]

2011 (1)

2010 (3)

J.-H. Jang, M.-C. Oh, T.-H. Yoon, and J.-C. Kim, “Polymer grating imbedded organic light emitting diodes with improved out-coupling efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(12), 123302 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Nishi, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, H. Shinojima, K. Yamada, and S. Itabashi, “Compact and polarization-independent variable optical attenuator based on a silicon wire waveguide with a carrier injection structure,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 49(4), 04DG20 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. H. Koh, C. Lee, and T. Kobayashi, “A piezoelectric-driven three-dimensional MEMS VOA using attenuation mechanism with combination of rotational and translational effects,” J. Microelectromech. Syst. 19(6), 1370–1379 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (4)

Y.-T. Han, J.-U. Shin, S.-H. Park, S.-P. Han, Y.-S. Baek, C.-H. Lee, Y.-O. Noh, H.-J. Lee, and H.-H. Park, “Fabrication of 10-channel polymer thermo-optic digital optical switch array,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(20), 1556–1558 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J.-U. Shin, Y.-T. Han, S.-P. Han, S.-H. Park, Y.-S. Baek, Y.-O. Noh, and K.-H. Park, “Reconfigurable optical add-drop multiplexer using a polymer integrated photonic lightwave circuit,” ETRI J. 31(6), 770–777 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Tsuzuki, Y. Shibata, N. Kikuchi, M. Ishikawa, T. Yasui, H. Ishii, and H. Yasaka, “Full C-cand tunable DFB laser array copackaged with InP Mach–Zehnder modulator for DWDM optical communication systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(3), 521–527 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Yamamoto, T. Yoshimatsu, H. Takara, T. Komukai, Y. Hashizume, H. Kubota, H. Masuda, M. Jinno, and A. Takada, “Influence of intrachannel crosstalk with frequency dependence on signal degradation in optical switch network,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27(24), 5716–5722 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (3)

K. Watanabe, Y. Hashizume, Y. Nasu, M. Kohtoku, M. Itoh, and Y. Inoue, “Ultralow power consumption silica-based PLC-VOA/switches,” J. Lightwave Technol. 26(14), 2235–2244 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y.-T. Han, J.-U. Shin, S.-H. Park, S.-P. Han, C.-H. Lee, Y.-O. Noh, H.-J. Lee, and Y.-S. Baek, “Crosstalk-Enhanced DOS integrated with modified radiation-type attenuators,” ETRI J. 30(5), 744–746 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Koide, K. Fujisawa, and M. Nakane, “Preparation of non-contact ordered array of polystyrene colloidal particles by using a metallic thin film of fused hemispheres,” Colloids Surf. A Physicochem. Eng. Asp. 330(2-3), 108–111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

C. L. Cheung, R. J. Nikolíc, C. E. Reinhardt, and T. F. Wang, “Fabrication of nanopillars by nanosphere lithography,” Nanotechnology 17(5), 1339–1343 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

2004 (1)

Y.-O. Noh, C.-H. Lee, J.-M. Kim, W.-Y. Hwang, Y.-H. Won, H.-J. Lee, S.-G. Han, and M.-C. Oh, “Polymer waveguide variable optical attenuator and its reliability,” Opt. Commun. 242(4-6), 533–540 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Baek, Y.-S.

Y.-T. Han, J.-U. Shin, S.-H. Park, S.-P. Han, Y.-S. Baek, C.-H. Lee, Y.-O. Noh, H.-J. Lee, and H.-H. Park, “Fabrication of 10-channel polymer thermo-optic digital optical switch array,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(20), 1556–1558 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J.-U. Shin, Y.-T. Han, S.-P. Han, S.-H. Park, Y.-S. Baek, Y.-O. Noh, and K.-H. Park, “Reconfigurable optical add-drop multiplexer using a polymer integrated photonic lightwave circuit,” ETRI J. 31(6), 770–777 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y.-T. Han, J.-U. Shin, S.-H. Park, S.-P. Han, C.-H. Lee, Y.-O. Noh, H.-J. Lee, and Y.-S. Baek, “Crosstalk-Enhanced DOS integrated with modified radiation-type attenuators,” ETRI J. 30(5), 744–746 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cheung, C. L.

C. L. Cheung, R. J. Nikolíc, C. E. Reinhardt, and T. F. Wang, “Fabrication of nanopillars by nanosphere lithography,” Nanotechnology 17(5), 1339–1343 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Essiambre, R.-J.

Fujisawa, K.

Y. Koide, K. Fujisawa, and M. Nakane, “Preparation of non-contact ordered array of polystyrene colloidal particles by using a metallic thin film of fused hemispheres,” Colloids Surf. A Physicochem. Eng. Asp. 330(2-3), 108–111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Han, S.-G.

Y.-O. Noh, C.-H. Lee, J.-M. Kim, W.-Y. Hwang, Y.-H. Won, H.-J. Lee, S.-G. Han, and M.-C. Oh, “Polymer waveguide variable optical attenuator and its reliability,” Opt. Commun. 242(4-6), 533–540 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Han, S.-P.

Y.-T. Han, J.-U. Shin, S.-H. Park, S.-P. Han, Y.-S. Baek, C.-H. Lee, Y.-O. Noh, H.-J. Lee, and H.-H. Park, “Fabrication of 10-channel polymer thermo-optic digital optical switch array,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(20), 1556–1558 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J.-U. Shin, Y.-T. Han, S.-P. Han, S.-H. Park, Y.-S. Baek, Y.-O. Noh, and K.-H. Park, “Reconfigurable optical add-drop multiplexer using a polymer integrated photonic lightwave circuit,” ETRI J. 31(6), 770–777 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y.-T. Han, J.-U. Shin, S.-H. Park, S.-P. Han, C.-H. Lee, Y.-O. Noh, H.-J. Lee, and Y.-S. Baek, “Crosstalk-Enhanced DOS integrated with modified radiation-type attenuators,” ETRI J. 30(5), 744–746 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Han, Y.-T.

J.-U. Shin, Y.-T. Han, S.-P. Han, S.-H. Park, Y.-S. Baek, Y.-O. Noh, and K.-H. Park, “Reconfigurable optical add-drop multiplexer using a polymer integrated photonic lightwave circuit,” ETRI J. 31(6), 770–777 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y.-T. Han, J.-U. Shin, S.-H. Park, S.-P. Han, Y.-S. Baek, C.-H. Lee, Y.-O. Noh, H.-J. Lee, and H.-H. Park, “Fabrication of 10-channel polymer thermo-optic digital optical switch array,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(20), 1556–1558 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y.-T. Han, J.-U. Shin, S.-H. Park, S.-P. Han, C.-H. Lee, Y.-O. Noh, H.-J. Lee, and Y.-S. Baek, “Crosstalk-Enhanced DOS integrated with modified radiation-type attenuators,” ETRI J. 30(5), 744–746 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hashizume, Y.

Hwang, W.-Y.

Y.-O. Noh, C.-H. Lee, J.-M. Kim, W.-Y. Hwang, Y.-H. Won, H.-J. Lee, S.-G. Han, and M.-C. Oh, “Polymer waveguide variable optical attenuator and its reliability,” Opt. Commun. 242(4-6), 533–540 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Inoue, Y.

Ishigure, T.

Ishii, H.

K. Tsuzuki, Y. Shibata, N. Kikuchi, M. Ishikawa, T. Yasui, H. Ishii, and H. Yasaka, “Full C-cand tunable DFB laser array copackaged with InP Mach–Zehnder modulator for DWDM optical communication systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(3), 521–527 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ishikawa, M.

K. Tsuzuki, Y. Shibata, N. Kikuchi, M. Ishikawa, T. Yasui, H. Ishii, and H. Yasaka, “Full C-cand tunable DFB laser array copackaged with InP Mach–Zehnder modulator for DWDM optical communication systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(3), 521–527 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Itabashi, S.

H. Nishi, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, H. Shinojima, K. Yamada, and S. Itabashi, “Compact and polarization-independent variable optical attenuator based on a silicon wire waveguide with a carrier injection structure,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 49(4), 04DG20 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Itoh, M.

Jang, J.-H.

J.-H. Jang, M.-C. Oh, T.-H. Yoon, and J.-C. Kim, “Polymer grating imbedded organic light emitting diodes with improved out-coupling efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(12), 123302 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jinno, M.

Kikuchi, N.

K. Tsuzuki, Y. Shibata, N. Kikuchi, M. Ishikawa, T. Yasui, H. Ishii, and H. Yasaka, “Full C-cand tunable DFB laser array copackaged with InP Mach–Zehnder modulator for DWDM optical communication systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(3), 521–527 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J.-C.

J.-H. Jang, M.-C. Oh, T.-H. Yoon, and J.-C. Kim, “Polymer grating imbedded organic light emitting diodes with improved out-coupling efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(12), 123302 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J.-M.

Y.-O. Noh, C.-H. Lee, J.-M. Kim, W.-Y. Hwang, Y.-H. Won, H.-J. Lee, S.-G. Han, and M.-C. Oh, “Polymer waveguide variable optical attenuator and its reliability,” Opt. Commun. 242(4-6), 533–540 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kobayashi, T.

K. H. Koh, C. Lee, and T. Kobayashi, “A piezoelectric-driven three-dimensional MEMS VOA using attenuation mechanism with combination of rotational and translational effects,” J. Microelectromech. Syst. 19(6), 1370–1379 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Koh, K. H.

K. H. Koh, C. Lee, and T. Kobayashi, “A piezoelectric-driven three-dimensional MEMS VOA using attenuation mechanism with combination of rotational and translational effects,” J. Microelectromech. Syst. 19(6), 1370–1379 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kohtoku, M.

Koide, Y.

Y. Koide, K. Fujisawa, and M. Nakane, “Preparation of non-contact ordered array of polystyrene colloidal particles by using a metallic thin film of fused hemispheres,” Colloids Surf. A Physicochem. Eng. Asp. 330(2-3), 108–111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Komukai, T.

Kubota, H.

Lee, C.

K. H. Koh, C. Lee, and T. Kobayashi, “A piezoelectric-driven three-dimensional MEMS VOA using attenuation mechanism with combination of rotational and translational effects,” J. Microelectromech. Syst. 19(6), 1370–1379 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lee, C.-H.

Y.-T. Han, J.-U. Shin, S.-H. Park, S.-P. Han, Y.-S. Baek, C.-H. Lee, Y.-O. Noh, H.-J. Lee, and H.-H. Park, “Fabrication of 10-channel polymer thermo-optic digital optical switch array,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(20), 1556–1558 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y.-T. Han, J.-U. Shin, S.-H. Park, S.-P. Han, C.-H. Lee, Y.-O. Noh, H.-J. Lee, and Y.-S. Baek, “Crosstalk-Enhanced DOS integrated with modified radiation-type attenuators,” ETRI J. 30(5), 744–746 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y.-O. Noh, C.-H. Lee, J.-M. Kim, W.-Y. Hwang, Y.-H. Won, H.-J. Lee, S.-G. Han, and M.-C. Oh, “Polymer waveguide variable optical attenuator and its reliability,” Opt. Commun. 242(4-6), 533–540 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lee, H.-J.

Y.-T. Han, J.-U. Shin, S.-H. Park, S.-P. Han, Y.-S. Baek, C.-H. Lee, Y.-O. Noh, H.-J. Lee, and H.-H. Park, “Fabrication of 10-channel polymer thermo-optic digital optical switch array,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(20), 1556–1558 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y.-T. Han, J.-U. Shin, S.-H. Park, S.-P. Han, C.-H. Lee, Y.-O. Noh, H.-J. Lee, and Y.-S. Baek, “Crosstalk-Enhanced DOS integrated with modified radiation-type attenuators,” ETRI J. 30(5), 744–746 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y.-O. Noh, C.-H. Lee, J.-M. Kim, W.-Y. Hwang, Y.-H. Won, H.-J. Lee, S.-G. Han, and M.-C. Oh, “Polymer waveguide variable optical attenuator and its reliability,” Opt. Commun. 242(4-6), 533–540 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Masuda, H.

Nakane, M.

Y. Koide, K. Fujisawa, and M. Nakane, “Preparation of non-contact ordered array of polystyrene colloidal particles by using a metallic thin film of fused hemispheres,” Colloids Surf. A Physicochem. Eng. Asp. 330(2-3), 108–111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nasu, Y.

Nikolíc, R. J.

C. L. Cheung, R. J. Nikolíc, C. E. Reinhardt, and T. F. Wang, “Fabrication of nanopillars by nanosphere lithography,” Nanotechnology 17(5), 1339–1343 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nishi, H.

H. Nishi, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, H. Shinojima, K. Yamada, and S. Itabashi, “Compact and polarization-independent variable optical attenuator based on a silicon wire waveguide with a carrier injection structure,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 49(4), 04DG20 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Noh, Y.-O.

Y.-T. Han, J.-U. Shin, S.-H. Park, S.-P. Han, Y.-S. Baek, C.-H. Lee, Y.-O. Noh, H.-J. Lee, and H.-H. Park, “Fabrication of 10-channel polymer thermo-optic digital optical switch array,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(20), 1556–1558 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J.-U. Shin, Y.-T. Han, S.-P. Han, S.-H. Park, Y.-S. Baek, Y.-O. Noh, and K.-H. Park, “Reconfigurable optical add-drop multiplexer using a polymer integrated photonic lightwave circuit,” ETRI J. 31(6), 770–777 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y.-T. Han, J.-U. Shin, S.-H. Park, S.-P. Han, C.-H. Lee, Y.-O. Noh, H.-J. Lee, and Y.-S. Baek, “Crosstalk-Enhanced DOS integrated with modified radiation-type attenuators,” ETRI J. 30(5), 744–746 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y.-O. Noh, C.-H. Lee, J.-M. Kim, W.-Y. Hwang, Y.-H. Won, H.-J. Lee, S.-G. Han, and M.-C. Oh, “Polymer waveguide variable optical attenuator and its reliability,” Opt. Commun. 242(4-6), 533–540 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Oh, M.-C.

J.-H. Jang, M.-C. Oh, T.-H. Yoon, and J.-C. Kim, “Polymer grating imbedded organic light emitting diodes with improved out-coupling efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(12), 123302 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y.-O. Noh, C.-H. Lee, J.-M. Kim, W.-Y. Hwang, Y.-H. Won, H.-J. Lee, S.-G. Han, and M.-C. Oh, “Polymer waveguide variable optical attenuator and its reliability,” Opt. Commun. 242(4-6), 533–540 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Park, H.-H.

Y.-T. Han, J.-U. Shin, S.-H. Park, S.-P. Han, Y.-S. Baek, C.-H. Lee, Y.-O. Noh, H.-J. Lee, and H.-H. Park, “Fabrication of 10-channel polymer thermo-optic digital optical switch array,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(20), 1556–1558 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Park, K.-H.

J.-U. Shin, Y.-T. Han, S.-P. Han, S.-H. Park, Y.-S. Baek, Y.-O. Noh, and K.-H. Park, “Reconfigurable optical add-drop multiplexer using a polymer integrated photonic lightwave circuit,” ETRI J. 31(6), 770–777 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Park, S.-H.

J.-U. Shin, Y.-T. Han, S.-P. Han, S.-H. Park, Y.-S. Baek, Y.-O. Noh, and K.-H. Park, “Reconfigurable optical add-drop multiplexer using a polymer integrated photonic lightwave circuit,” ETRI J. 31(6), 770–777 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y.-T. Han, J.-U. Shin, S.-H. Park, S.-P. Han, Y.-S. Baek, C.-H. Lee, Y.-O. Noh, H.-J. Lee, and H.-H. Park, “Fabrication of 10-channel polymer thermo-optic digital optical switch array,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(20), 1556–1558 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y.-T. Han, J.-U. Shin, S.-H. Park, S.-P. Han, C.-H. Lee, Y.-O. Noh, H.-J. Lee, and Y.-S. Baek, “Crosstalk-Enhanced DOS integrated with modified radiation-type attenuators,” ETRI J. 30(5), 744–746 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pfennigbauer, M.

Reinhardt, C. E.

C. L. Cheung, R. J. Nikolíc, C. E. Reinhardt, and T. F. Wang, “Fabrication of nanopillars by nanosphere lithography,” Nanotechnology 17(5), 1339–1343 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Shibata, Y.

K. Tsuzuki, Y. Shibata, N. Kikuchi, M. Ishikawa, T. Yasui, H. Ishii, and H. Yasaka, “Full C-cand tunable DFB laser array copackaged with InP Mach–Zehnder modulator for DWDM optical communication systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(3), 521–527 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Shin, J.-U.

J.-U. Shin, Y.-T. Han, S.-P. Han, S.-H. Park, Y.-S. Baek, Y.-O. Noh, and K.-H. Park, “Reconfigurable optical add-drop multiplexer using a polymer integrated photonic lightwave circuit,” ETRI J. 31(6), 770–777 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y.-T. Han, J.-U. Shin, S.-H. Park, S.-P. Han, Y.-S. Baek, C.-H. Lee, Y.-O. Noh, H.-J. Lee, and H.-H. Park, “Fabrication of 10-channel polymer thermo-optic digital optical switch array,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(20), 1556–1558 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y.-T. Han, J.-U. Shin, S.-H. Park, S.-P. Han, C.-H. Lee, Y.-O. Noh, H.-J. Lee, and Y.-S. Baek, “Crosstalk-Enhanced DOS integrated with modified radiation-type attenuators,” ETRI J. 30(5), 744–746 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Shinojima, H.

H. Nishi, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, H. Shinojima, K. Yamada, and S. Itabashi, “Compact and polarization-independent variable optical attenuator based on a silicon wire waveguide with a carrier injection structure,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 49(4), 04DG20 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Takada, A.

Takara, H.

Tsuchizawa, T.

H. Nishi, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, H. Shinojima, K. Yamada, and S. Itabashi, “Compact and polarization-independent variable optical attenuator based on a silicon wire waveguide with a carrier injection structure,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 49(4), 04DG20 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tsuzuki, K.

K. Tsuzuki, Y. Shibata, N. Kikuchi, M. Ishikawa, T. Yasui, H. Ishii, and H. Yasaka, “Full C-cand tunable DFB laser array copackaged with InP Mach–Zehnder modulator for DWDM optical communication systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(3), 521–527 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Uno, H.

Wang, T. F.

C. L. Cheung, R. J. Nikolíc, C. E. Reinhardt, and T. F. Wang, “Fabrication of nanopillars by nanosphere lithography,” Nanotechnology 17(5), 1339–1343 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Watanabe, K.

Watanabe, T.

H. Nishi, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, H. Shinojima, K. Yamada, and S. Itabashi, “Compact and polarization-independent variable optical attenuator based on a silicon wire waveguide with a carrier injection structure,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 49(4), 04DG20 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Winzer, P. J.

Won, Y.-H.

Y.-O. Noh, C.-H. Lee, J.-M. Kim, W.-Y. Hwang, Y.-H. Won, H.-J. Lee, S.-G. Han, and M.-C. Oh, “Polymer waveguide variable optical attenuator and its reliability,” Opt. Commun. 242(4-6), 533–540 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yamada, K.

H. Nishi, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, H. Shinojima, K. Yamada, and S. Itabashi, “Compact and polarization-independent variable optical attenuator based on a silicon wire waveguide with a carrier injection structure,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 49(4), 04DG20 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yamamoto, S.

Yasaka, H.

K. Tsuzuki, Y. Shibata, N. Kikuchi, M. Ishikawa, T. Yasui, H. Ishii, and H. Yasaka, “Full C-cand tunable DFB laser array copackaged with InP Mach–Zehnder modulator for DWDM optical communication systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(3), 521–527 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yasui, T.

K. Tsuzuki, Y. Shibata, N. Kikuchi, M. Ishikawa, T. Yasui, H. Ishii, and H. Yasaka, “Full C-cand tunable DFB laser array copackaged with InP Mach–Zehnder modulator for DWDM optical communication systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(3), 521–527 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yoon, T.-H.

J.-H. Jang, M.-C. Oh, T.-H. Yoon, and J.-C. Kim, “Polymer grating imbedded organic light emitting diodes with improved out-coupling efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(12), 123302 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yoshimatsu, T.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

J.-H. Jang, M.-C. Oh, T.-H. Yoon, and J.-C. Kim, “Polymer grating imbedded organic light emitting diodes with improved out-coupling efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(12), 123302 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Colloids Surf. A Physicochem. Eng. Asp. (1)

Y. Koide, K. Fujisawa, and M. Nakane, “Preparation of non-contact ordered array of polystyrene colloidal particles by using a metallic thin film of fused hemispheres,” Colloids Surf. A Physicochem. Eng. Asp. 330(2-3), 108–111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

ETRI J. (2)

Y.-T. Han, J.-U. Shin, S.-H. Park, S.-P. Han, C.-H. Lee, Y.-O. Noh, H.-J. Lee, and Y.-S. Baek, “Crosstalk-Enhanced DOS integrated with modified radiation-type attenuators,” ETRI J. 30(5), 744–746 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J.-U. Shin, Y.-T. Han, S.-P. Han, S.-H. Park, Y.-S. Baek, Y.-O. Noh, and K.-H. Park, “Reconfigurable optical add-drop multiplexer using a polymer integrated photonic lightwave circuit,” ETRI J. 31(6), 770–777 (2009).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

K. Tsuzuki, Y. Shibata, N. Kikuchi, M. Ishikawa, T. Yasui, H. Ishii, and H. Yasaka, “Full C-cand tunable DFB laser array copackaged with InP Mach–Zehnder modulator for DWDM optical communication systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(3), 521–527 (2009).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

Y.-T. Han, J.-U. Shin, S.-H. Park, S.-P. Han, Y.-S. Baek, C.-H. Lee, Y.-O. Noh, H.-J. Lee, and H.-H. Park, “Fabrication of 10-channel polymer thermo-optic digital optical switch array,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(20), 1556–1558 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (3)

J. Microelectromech. Syst. (1)

K. H. Koh, C. Lee, and T. Kobayashi, “A piezoelectric-driven three-dimensional MEMS VOA using attenuation mechanism with combination of rotational and translational effects,” J. Microelectromech. Syst. 19(6), 1370–1379 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

H. Nishi, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, H. Shinojima, K. Yamada, and S. Itabashi, “Compact and polarization-independent variable optical attenuator based on a silicon wire waveguide with a carrier injection structure,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 49(4), 04DG20 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nanotechnology (1)

C. L. Cheung, R. J. Nikolíc, C. E. Reinhardt, and T. F. Wang, “Fabrication of nanopillars by nanosphere lithography,” Nanotechnology 17(5), 1339–1343 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

Y.-O. Noh, C.-H. Lee, J.-M. Kim, W.-Y. Hwang, Y.-H. Won, H.-J. Lee, S.-G. Han, and M.-C. Oh, “Polymer waveguide variable optical attenuator and its reliability,” Opt. Commun. 242(4-6), 533–540 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic diagram of the polymeric VOA device, wherein the sources of crosstalk are indicated as dotted arrows; (b) side view of the VOA exhibiting the channel guided and planar guided modes confined by the interfaces between air and the silicon surface; (c) diffraction of the planar guided mode in the outward direction by the microsphere array as a function of microsphere size.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

FDTD simulation result of the diffraction efficiency as a function of the position of the microsphere monolayer.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Schematic fabrication procedures of the array-type polymeric VOA device with a self-assembled monolayer of polystyrene microspheres.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Optical microscopy and SEM photographs of the microsphere patterns incorporated in the device. The area of the microsphere array looks dark as a result of the strong scattering effect.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

CCD images of guided mode profiles observed from the samples (a) without microsphere layer, and (b) with microsphere monolayer, wherein the planar guided light is almost invisible. The multiple spots below the mode are appeared by the reflections at the objective lens.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Comparison of the attenuation characteristics of the VOAs and the crosstalks measured from an adjacent channel in the presence and absence of the microsphere array. The crosstalk in the ordinary VOA device was about −30 dB, while that in the microsphere-incorporated VOA device was reduced to less than −50 dB.

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