Abstract

We used quantitative phase imaging to measure the dispersion relation, i.e. decay rate vs. spatial mode, associated with mass transport in live cells. This approach applies equally well to both discrete and continuous mass distributions without the need for particle tracking. From the quadratic experimental curve specific to diffusion, we extracted the diffusion coefficient as the only fitting parameter. The linear portion of the dispersion relation reveals the deterministic component of the intracellular transport. Our data show a universal behavior where the intracellular transport is diffusive at small scales and deterministic at large scales. Measurements by our method and particle tracking show that, on average, the mass transport in the nucleus is slower than in the cytoplasm.

© 2011 OSA

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2011

R. Wang, Z. Wang, J. Leigh, N. Sobh, L. Millet, M. U. Gillette, A. J. Levine, and G. Popescu, “One-dimensional deterministic transport in neurons measured by dispersion-relation phase spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 23(37), 374107 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Wang, L. J. Millet, M. Mir, H. Ding, S. Unarunotai, J. A. Rogers, M. U. Gillette, and G. Popescu, “Spatial light interference microscopy (SLIM),” Opt. Express 19(2), 1016–1026 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010

Z. Wang, I. S. Chun, X. L. Li, Z. Y. Ong, E. Pop, L. Millet, M. Gillette, and G. Popescu, “Topography and refractometry of nanostructures using spatial light interference microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 35(2), 208–210 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Frank, S. Altmeyer, and G. Wernicke, “Non-interferometric, non-iterative phase retrieval by Green’s functions,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 27(10), 2244–2251 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Thompson, J. M. Casolari, M. Badieirostami, P. O. Brown, and W. E. Moerner, “Three-dimensional tracking of single mRNA particles in Saccharomyces cerevisiae using a double-helix point spread function,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(42), 17864–17871 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. C. MacKintosh and C. F. Schmidt, “Active cellular materials,” Curr. Opin. Cell Biol. 22(1), 29–35 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. K. Park, C. A. Best, T. Auth, N. S. Gov, S. A. Safran, G. Popescu, S. Suresh, and M. S. Feld, “Metabolic remodeling of the human red blood cell membrane,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(4), 1289–1294 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. K. Park, C. A. Best, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, T. Kuriabova, M. L. Henle, A. J. Levine, and G. Popescu, “Measurement of red blood cell mechanics during morphological changes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(15), 6731–6736 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

B. Wang, S. M. Anthony, S. C. Bae, and S. Granick, “Anomalous yet Brownian,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106(36), 15160–15164 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. P. Brangwynne, G. H. Koenderink, F. C. MacKintosh, and D. A. Weitz, “Intracellular transport by active diffusion,” Trends Cell Biol. 19(9), 423–427 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Bon, G. Maucort, B. Wattellier, and S. Monneret, “Quadriwave lateral shearing interferometry for quantitative phase microscopy of living cells,” Opt. Express 17(15), 13080–13094 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

H. F. Ding, Z. Wang, F. Nguyen, S. A. Boppart, and G. Popescu, “Fourier transform light scattering of inhomogeneous and dynamic structures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(23), 238102 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. P. Brangwynne, G. H. Koenderink, F. C. MacKintosh, and D. A. Weitz, “Cytoplasmic diffusion: molecular motors mix it up,” J. Cell Biol. 183(4), 583–587 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. P. Brangwynne, G. H. Koenderink, F. C. MacKintosh, and D. A. Weitz, “Nonequilibrium microtubule fluctuations in a model cytoskeleton,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 118104 (2008).

Y. K. Park, M. Diez-Silva, G. Popescu, G. Lykotrafitis, W. Choi, M. S. Feld, and S. Suresh, “Refractive index maps and membrane dynamics of human red blood cells parasitized by Plasmodium falciparum,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105(37), 13730–13735 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Popescu, Y. Park, W. Choi, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, and K. Badizadegan, “Imaging red blood cell dynamics by quantitative phase microscopy,” Blood Cells Mol. Dis. 41(1), 10–16 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Popescu, Y. Park, N. Lue, C. Best-Popescu, L. Deflores, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, and K. Badizadegan, “Optical imaging of cell mass and growth dynamics,” Am. J. Physiol. Cell Physiol. 295(2), C538–C544 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

X. Trepat, L. H. Deng, S. S. An, D. Navajas, D. J. Tschumperlin, W. T. Gerthoffer, J. P. Butler, and J. J. Fredberg, “Universal physical responses to stretch in the living cell,” Nature 447, 592–595 (2007).

D. Mizuno, C. Tardin, C. F. Schmidt, and F. C. Mackintosh, “Nonequilibrium mechanics of active cytoskeletal networks,” Science 315(5810), 370–373 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

G. Popescu, T. Ikeda, K. Goda, C. A. Best-Popescu, M. Laposata, S. Manley, R. R. Dasari, K. Badizadegan, and M. S. Feld, “Optical measurement of cell membrane tension,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(21), 218101 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

2004

Y. Tseng, J. S. Lee, T. P. Kole, I. Jiang, and D. Wirtz, “Micro-organization and visco-elasticity of the interphase nucleus revealed by particle nanotracking,” J. Cell Sci. 117(10), 2159–2167 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

A. Yildiz, J. N. Forkey, S. A. McKinney, T. Ha, Y. E. Goldman, and P. R. Selvin, “Myosin V walks hand-over-hand: single fluorophore imaging with 1.5-nm localization,” Science 300(5628), 2061–2065 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001

B. Fabry, G. N. Maksym, J. P. Butler, M. Glogauer, D. Navajas, and J. J. Fredberg, “Scaling the microrheology of living cells,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87(14), 148102 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000

A. Caspi, R. Granek, and M. Elbaum, “Enhanced diffusion in active intracellular transport,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(26), 5655–5658 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999

D. L. Coy, M. Wagenbach, and J. Howard, “Kinesin takes one 8-nm step for each ATP that it hydrolyzes,” J. Biol. Chem. 274(6), 3667–3671 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996

R. B. Vallee and M. P. Sheetz, “Targeting of motor proteins,” Science 271(5255), 1539–1544 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1955

F. Zernike, “How I discovered phase contrast,” Science 121(3141), 345–349 (1955).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Altmeyer, S.

An, S. S.

X. Trepat, L. H. Deng, S. S. An, D. Navajas, D. J. Tschumperlin, W. T. Gerthoffer, J. P. Butler, and J. J. Fredberg, “Universal physical responses to stretch in the living cell,” Nature 447, 592–595 (2007).

Anthony, S. M.

B. Wang, S. M. Anthony, S. C. Bae, and S. Granick, “Anomalous yet Brownian,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106(36), 15160–15164 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Auth, T.

Y. K. Park, C. A. Best, T. Auth, N. S. Gov, S. A. Safran, G. Popescu, S. Suresh, and M. S. Feld, “Metabolic remodeling of the human red blood cell membrane,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(4), 1289–1294 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Badieirostami, M.

M. A. Thompson, J. M. Casolari, M. Badieirostami, P. O. Brown, and W. E. Moerner, “Three-dimensional tracking of single mRNA particles in Saccharomyces cerevisiae using a double-helix point spread function,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(42), 17864–17871 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Badizadegan, K.

Y. K. Park, C. A. Best, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, T. Kuriabova, M. L. Henle, A. J. Levine, and G. Popescu, “Measurement of red blood cell mechanics during morphological changes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(15), 6731–6736 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Popescu, Y. Park, N. Lue, C. Best-Popescu, L. Deflores, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, and K. Badizadegan, “Optical imaging of cell mass and growth dynamics,” Am. J. Physiol. Cell Physiol. 295(2), C538–C544 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Popescu, Y. Park, W. Choi, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, and K. Badizadegan, “Imaging red blood cell dynamics by quantitative phase microscopy,” Blood Cells Mol. Dis. 41(1), 10–16 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Popescu, T. Ikeda, K. Goda, C. A. Best-Popescu, M. Laposata, S. Manley, R. R. Dasari, K. Badizadegan, and M. S. Feld, “Optical measurement of cell membrane tension,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(21), 218101 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bae, S. C.

B. Wang, S. M. Anthony, S. C. Bae, and S. Granick, “Anomalous yet Brownian,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106(36), 15160–15164 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Best, C. A.

Y. K. Park, C. A. Best, T. Auth, N. S. Gov, S. A. Safran, G. Popescu, S. Suresh, and M. S. Feld, “Metabolic remodeling of the human red blood cell membrane,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(4), 1289–1294 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. K. Park, C. A. Best, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, T. Kuriabova, M. L. Henle, A. J. Levine, and G. Popescu, “Measurement of red blood cell mechanics during morphological changes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(15), 6731–6736 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Best-Popescu, C.

G. Popescu, Y. Park, N. Lue, C. Best-Popescu, L. Deflores, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, and K. Badizadegan, “Optical imaging of cell mass and growth dynamics,” Am. J. Physiol. Cell Physiol. 295(2), C538–C544 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Best-Popescu, C. A.

G. Popescu, T. Ikeda, K. Goda, C. A. Best-Popescu, M. Laposata, S. Manley, R. R. Dasari, K. Badizadegan, and M. S. Feld, “Optical measurement of cell membrane tension,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(21), 218101 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bon, P.

Boppart, S. A.

H. F. Ding, Z. Wang, F. Nguyen, S. A. Boppart, and G. Popescu, “Fourier transform light scattering of inhomogeneous and dynamic structures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(23), 238102 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brangwynne, C. P.

C. P. Brangwynne, G. H. Koenderink, F. C. MacKintosh, and D. A. Weitz, “Intracellular transport by active diffusion,” Trends Cell Biol. 19(9), 423–427 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. P. Brangwynne, G. H. Koenderink, F. C. MacKintosh, and D. A. Weitz, “Nonequilibrium microtubule fluctuations in a model cytoskeleton,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 118104 (2008).

C. P. Brangwynne, G. H. Koenderink, F. C. MacKintosh, and D. A. Weitz, “Cytoplasmic diffusion: molecular motors mix it up,” J. Cell Biol. 183(4), 583–587 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brown, P. O.

M. A. Thompson, J. M. Casolari, M. Badieirostami, P. O. Brown, and W. E. Moerner, “Three-dimensional tracking of single mRNA particles in Saccharomyces cerevisiae using a double-helix point spread function,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(42), 17864–17871 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Butler, J. P.

X. Trepat, L. H. Deng, S. S. An, D. Navajas, D. J. Tschumperlin, W. T. Gerthoffer, J. P. Butler, and J. J. Fredberg, “Universal physical responses to stretch in the living cell,” Nature 447, 592–595 (2007).

B. Fabry, G. N. Maksym, J. P. Butler, M. Glogauer, D. Navajas, and J. J. Fredberg, “Scaling the microrheology of living cells,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87(14), 148102 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Casolari, J. M.

M. A. Thompson, J. M. Casolari, M. Badieirostami, P. O. Brown, and W. E. Moerner, “Three-dimensional tracking of single mRNA particles in Saccharomyces cerevisiae using a double-helix point spread function,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(42), 17864–17871 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Caspi, A.

A. Caspi, R. Granek, and M. Elbaum, “Enhanced diffusion in active intracellular transport,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(26), 5655–5658 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Choi, W.

Y. K. Park, M. Diez-Silva, G. Popescu, G. Lykotrafitis, W. Choi, M. S. Feld, and S. Suresh, “Refractive index maps and membrane dynamics of human red blood cells parasitized by Plasmodium falciparum,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105(37), 13730–13735 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Popescu, Y. Park, W. Choi, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, and K. Badizadegan, “Imaging red blood cell dynamics by quantitative phase microscopy,” Blood Cells Mol. Dis. 41(1), 10–16 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chun, I. S.

Colomb, T.

Coy, D. L.

D. L. Coy, M. Wagenbach, and J. Howard, “Kinesin takes one 8-nm step for each ATP that it hydrolyzes,” J. Biol. Chem. 274(6), 3667–3671 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cuche, E.

Dasari, R. R.

Y. K. Park, C. A. Best, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, T. Kuriabova, M. L. Henle, A. J. Levine, and G. Popescu, “Measurement of red blood cell mechanics during morphological changes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(15), 6731–6736 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Popescu, Y. Park, N. Lue, C. Best-Popescu, L. Deflores, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, and K. Badizadegan, “Optical imaging of cell mass and growth dynamics,” Am. J. Physiol. Cell Physiol. 295(2), C538–C544 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Popescu, Y. Park, W. Choi, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, and K. Badizadegan, “Imaging red blood cell dynamics by quantitative phase microscopy,” Blood Cells Mol. Dis. 41(1), 10–16 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Popescu, T. Ikeda, K. Goda, C. A. Best-Popescu, M. Laposata, S. Manley, R. R. Dasari, K. Badizadegan, and M. S. Feld, “Optical measurement of cell membrane tension,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(21), 218101 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Deflores, L.

G. Popescu, Y. Park, N. Lue, C. Best-Popescu, L. Deflores, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, and K. Badizadegan, “Optical imaging of cell mass and growth dynamics,” Am. J. Physiol. Cell Physiol. 295(2), C538–C544 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Deng, L. H.

X. Trepat, L. H. Deng, S. S. An, D. Navajas, D. J. Tschumperlin, W. T. Gerthoffer, J. P. Butler, and J. J. Fredberg, “Universal physical responses to stretch in the living cell,” Nature 447, 592–595 (2007).

Depeursinge, C.

Diez-Silva, M.

Y. K. Park, M. Diez-Silva, G. Popescu, G. Lykotrafitis, W. Choi, M. S. Feld, and S. Suresh, “Refractive index maps and membrane dynamics of human red blood cells parasitized by Plasmodium falciparum,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105(37), 13730–13735 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ding, H.

Ding, H. F.

H. F. Ding, Z. Wang, F. Nguyen, S. A. Boppart, and G. Popescu, “Fourier transform light scattering of inhomogeneous and dynamic structures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(23), 238102 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Elbaum, M.

A. Caspi, R. Granek, and M. Elbaum, “Enhanced diffusion in active intracellular transport,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(26), 5655–5658 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Emery, Y.

Fabry, B.

B. Fabry, G. N. Maksym, J. P. Butler, M. Glogauer, D. Navajas, and J. J. Fredberg, “Scaling the microrheology of living cells,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87(14), 148102 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feld, M. S.

Y. K. Park, C. A. Best, T. Auth, N. S. Gov, S. A. Safran, G. Popescu, S. Suresh, and M. S. Feld, “Metabolic remodeling of the human red blood cell membrane,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(4), 1289–1294 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. K. Park, C. A. Best, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, T. Kuriabova, M. L. Henle, A. J. Levine, and G. Popescu, “Measurement of red blood cell mechanics during morphological changes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(15), 6731–6736 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. K. Park, M. Diez-Silva, G. Popescu, G. Lykotrafitis, W. Choi, M. S. Feld, and S. Suresh, “Refractive index maps and membrane dynamics of human red blood cells parasitized by Plasmodium falciparum,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105(37), 13730–13735 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Popescu, Y. Park, N. Lue, C. Best-Popescu, L. Deflores, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, and K. Badizadegan, “Optical imaging of cell mass and growth dynamics,” Am. J. Physiol. Cell Physiol. 295(2), C538–C544 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Popescu, Y. Park, W. Choi, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, and K. Badizadegan, “Imaging red blood cell dynamics by quantitative phase microscopy,” Blood Cells Mol. Dis. 41(1), 10–16 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Popescu, T. Ikeda, K. Goda, C. A. Best-Popescu, M. Laposata, S. Manley, R. R. Dasari, K. Badizadegan, and M. S. Feld, “Optical measurement of cell membrane tension,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(21), 218101 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Forkey, J. N.

A. Yildiz, J. N. Forkey, S. A. McKinney, T. Ha, Y. E. Goldman, and P. R. Selvin, “Myosin V walks hand-over-hand: single fluorophore imaging with 1.5-nm localization,” Science 300(5628), 2061–2065 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Frank, J.

Fredberg, J. J.

X. Trepat, L. H. Deng, S. S. An, D. Navajas, D. J. Tschumperlin, W. T. Gerthoffer, J. P. Butler, and J. J. Fredberg, “Universal physical responses to stretch in the living cell,” Nature 447, 592–595 (2007).

B. Fabry, G. N. Maksym, J. P. Butler, M. Glogauer, D. Navajas, and J. J. Fredberg, “Scaling the microrheology of living cells,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87(14), 148102 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gerthoffer, W. T.

X. Trepat, L. H. Deng, S. S. An, D. Navajas, D. J. Tschumperlin, W. T. Gerthoffer, J. P. Butler, and J. J. Fredberg, “Universal physical responses to stretch in the living cell,” Nature 447, 592–595 (2007).

Gillette, M.

Gillette, M. U.

Z. Wang, L. J. Millet, M. Mir, H. Ding, S. Unarunotai, J. A. Rogers, M. U. Gillette, and G. Popescu, “Spatial light interference microscopy (SLIM),” Opt. Express 19(2), 1016–1026 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Wang, Z. Wang, J. Leigh, N. Sobh, L. Millet, M. U. Gillette, A. J. Levine, and G. Popescu, “One-dimensional deterministic transport in neurons measured by dispersion-relation phase spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 23(37), 374107 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Glogauer, M.

B. Fabry, G. N. Maksym, J. P. Butler, M. Glogauer, D. Navajas, and J. J. Fredberg, “Scaling the microrheology of living cells,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87(14), 148102 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goda, K.

G. Popescu, T. Ikeda, K. Goda, C. A. Best-Popescu, M. Laposata, S. Manley, R. R. Dasari, K. Badizadegan, and M. S. Feld, “Optical measurement of cell membrane tension,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(21), 218101 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goldman, Y. E.

A. Yildiz, J. N. Forkey, S. A. McKinney, T. Ha, Y. E. Goldman, and P. R. Selvin, “Myosin V walks hand-over-hand: single fluorophore imaging with 1.5-nm localization,” Science 300(5628), 2061–2065 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gov, N. S.

Y. K. Park, C. A. Best, T. Auth, N. S. Gov, S. A. Safran, G. Popescu, S. Suresh, and M. S. Feld, “Metabolic remodeling of the human red blood cell membrane,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(4), 1289–1294 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Granek, R.

A. Caspi, R. Granek, and M. Elbaum, “Enhanced diffusion in active intracellular transport,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(26), 5655–5658 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Granick, S.

B. Wang, S. M. Anthony, S. C. Bae, and S. Granick, “Anomalous yet Brownian,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106(36), 15160–15164 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ha, T.

A. Yildiz, J. N. Forkey, S. A. McKinney, T. Ha, Y. E. Goldman, and P. R. Selvin, “Myosin V walks hand-over-hand: single fluorophore imaging with 1.5-nm localization,” Science 300(5628), 2061–2065 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Henle, M. L.

Y. K. Park, C. A. Best, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, T. Kuriabova, M. L. Henle, A. J. Levine, and G. Popescu, “Measurement of red blood cell mechanics during morphological changes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(15), 6731–6736 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Howard, J.

D. L. Coy, M. Wagenbach, and J. Howard, “Kinesin takes one 8-nm step for each ATP that it hydrolyzes,” J. Biol. Chem. 274(6), 3667–3671 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ikeda, T.

G. Popescu, T. Ikeda, K. Goda, C. A. Best-Popescu, M. Laposata, S. Manley, R. R. Dasari, K. Badizadegan, and M. S. Feld, “Optical measurement of cell membrane tension,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(21), 218101 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jiang, I.

Y. Tseng, J. S. Lee, T. P. Kole, I. Jiang, and D. Wirtz, “Micro-organization and visco-elasticity of the interphase nucleus revealed by particle nanotracking,” J. Cell Sci. 117(10), 2159–2167 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koenderink, G. H.

C. P. Brangwynne, G. H. Koenderink, F. C. MacKintosh, and D. A. Weitz, “Intracellular transport by active diffusion,” Trends Cell Biol. 19(9), 423–427 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. P. Brangwynne, G. H. Koenderink, F. C. MacKintosh, and D. A. Weitz, “Nonequilibrium microtubule fluctuations in a model cytoskeleton,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 118104 (2008).

C. P. Brangwynne, G. H. Koenderink, F. C. MacKintosh, and D. A. Weitz, “Cytoplasmic diffusion: molecular motors mix it up,” J. Cell Biol. 183(4), 583–587 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kole, T. P.

Y. Tseng, J. S. Lee, T. P. Kole, I. Jiang, and D. Wirtz, “Micro-organization and visco-elasticity of the interphase nucleus revealed by particle nanotracking,” J. Cell Sci. 117(10), 2159–2167 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koumoutsakos, P.

I. F. Sbalzarini and P. Koumoutsakos, “Feature point tracking and trajectory analysis for video imaging in cell biology,” J. Struct. Biol. 151(2), 182–195 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kuriabova, T.

Y. K. Park, C. A. Best, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, T. Kuriabova, M. L. Henle, A. J. Levine, and G. Popescu, “Measurement of red blood cell mechanics during morphological changes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(15), 6731–6736 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Laposata, M.

G. Popescu, T. Ikeda, K. Goda, C. A. Best-Popescu, M. Laposata, S. Manley, R. R. Dasari, K. Badizadegan, and M. S. Feld, “Optical measurement of cell membrane tension,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(21), 218101 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, J. S.

Y. Tseng, J. S. Lee, T. P. Kole, I. Jiang, and D. Wirtz, “Micro-organization and visco-elasticity of the interphase nucleus revealed by particle nanotracking,” J. Cell Sci. 117(10), 2159–2167 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leigh, J.

R. Wang, Z. Wang, J. Leigh, N. Sobh, L. Millet, M. U. Gillette, A. J. Levine, and G. Popescu, “One-dimensional deterministic transport in neurons measured by dispersion-relation phase spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 23(37), 374107 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Levine, A. J.

R. Wang, Z. Wang, J. Leigh, N. Sobh, L. Millet, M. U. Gillette, A. J. Levine, and G. Popescu, “One-dimensional deterministic transport in neurons measured by dispersion-relation phase spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 23(37), 374107 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. K. Park, C. A. Best, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, T. Kuriabova, M. L. Henle, A. J. Levine, and G. Popescu, “Measurement of red blood cell mechanics during morphological changes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(15), 6731–6736 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, X. L.

Lue, N.

G. Popescu, Y. Park, N. Lue, C. Best-Popescu, L. Deflores, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, and K. Badizadegan, “Optical imaging of cell mass and growth dynamics,” Am. J. Physiol. Cell Physiol. 295(2), C538–C544 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lykotrafitis, G.

Y. K. Park, M. Diez-Silva, G. Popescu, G. Lykotrafitis, W. Choi, M. S. Feld, and S. Suresh, “Refractive index maps and membrane dynamics of human red blood cells parasitized by Plasmodium falciparum,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105(37), 13730–13735 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

MacKintosh, F. C.

F. C. MacKintosh and C. F. Schmidt, “Active cellular materials,” Curr. Opin. Cell Biol. 22(1), 29–35 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. P. Brangwynne, G. H. Koenderink, F. C. MacKintosh, and D. A. Weitz, “Intracellular transport by active diffusion,” Trends Cell Biol. 19(9), 423–427 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. P. Brangwynne, G. H. Koenderink, F. C. MacKintosh, and D. A. Weitz, “Nonequilibrium microtubule fluctuations in a model cytoskeleton,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 118104 (2008).

C. P. Brangwynne, G. H. Koenderink, F. C. MacKintosh, and D. A. Weitz, “Cytoplasmic diffusion: molecular motors mix it up,” J. Cell Biol. 183(4), 583–587 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Mizuno, C. Tardin, C. F. Schmidt, and F. C. Mackintosh, “Nonequilibrium mechanics of active cytoskeletal networks,” Science 315(5810), 370–373 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Magistretti, P. J.

Maksym, G. N.

B. Fabry, G. N. Maksym, J. P. Butler, M. Glogauer, D. Navajas, and J. J. Fredberg, “Scaling the microrheology of living cells,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87(14), 148102 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Manley, S.

G. Popescu, T. Ikeda, K. Goda, C. A. Best-Popescu, M. Laposata, S. Manley, R. R. Dasari, K. Badizadegan, and M. S. Feld, “Optical measurement of cell membrane tension,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(21), 218101 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marquet, P.

Maucort, G.

McKinney, S. A.

A. Yildiz, J. N. Forkey, S. A. McKinney, T. Ha, Y. E. Goldman, and P. R. Selvin, “Myosin V walks hand-over-hand: single fluorophore imaging with 1.5-nm localization,” Science 300(5628), 2061–2065 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Millet, L.

R. Wang, Z. Wang, J. Leigh, N. Sobh, L. Millet, M. U. Gillette, A. J. Levine, and G. Popescu, “One-dimensional deterministic transport in neurons measured by dispersion-relation phase spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 23(37), 374107 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Wang, I. S. Chun, X. L. Li, Z. Y. Ong, E. Pop, L. Millet, M. Gillette, and G. Popescu, “Topography and refractometry of nanostructures using spatial light interference microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 35(2), 208–210 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Millet, L. J.

Mir, M.

Mizuno, D.

D. Mizuno, C. Tardin, C. F. Schmidt, and F. C. Mackintosh, “Nonequilibrium mechanics of active cytoskeletal networks,” Science 315(5810), 370–373 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moerner, W. E.

M. A. Thompson, J. M. Casolari, M. Badieirostami, P. O. Brown, and W. E. Moerner, “Three-dimensional tracking of single mRNA particles in Saccharomyces cerevisiae using a double-helix point spread function,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(42), 17864–17871 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Monneret, S.

Navajas, D.

X. Trepat, L. H. Deng, S. S. An, D. Navajas, D. J. Tschumperlin, W. T. Gerthoffer, J. P. Butler, and J. J. Fredberg, “Universal physical responses to stretch in the living cell,” Nature 447, 592–595 (2007).

B. Fabry, G. N. Maksym, J. P. Butler, M. Glogauer, D. Navajas, and J. J. Fredberg, “Scaling the microrheology of living cells,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87(14), 148102 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nguyen, F.

H. F. Ding, Z. Wang, F. Nguyen, S. A. Boppart, and G. Popescu, “Fourier transform light scattering of inhomogeneous and dynamic structures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(23), 238102 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ong, Z. Y.

Park, Y.

G. Popescu, Y. Park, W. Choi, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, and K. Badizadegan, “Imaging red blood cell dynamics by quantitative phase microscopy,” Blood Cells Mol. Dis. 41(1), 10–16 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Popescu, Y. Park, N. Lue, C. Best-Popescu, L. Deflores, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, and K. Badizadegan, “Optical imaging of cell mass and growth dynamics,” Am. J. Physiol. Cell Physiol. 295(2), C538–C544 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Park, Y. K.

Y. K. Park, C. A. Best, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, T. Kuriabova, M. L. Henle, A. J. Levine, and G. Popescu, “Measurement of red blood cell mechanics during morphological changes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(15), 6731–6736 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. K. Park, C. A. Best, T. Auth, N. S. Gov, S. A. Safran, G. Popescu, S. Suresh, and M. S. Feld, “Metabolic remodeling of the human red blood cell membrane,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(4), 1289–1294 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. K. Park, M. Diez-Silva, G. Popescu, G. Lykotrafitis, W. Choi, M. S. Feld, and S. Suresh, “Refractive index maps and membrane dynamics of human red blood cells parasitized by Plasmodium falciparum,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105(37), 13730–13735 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pop, E.

Popescu, G.

R. Wang, Z. Wang, J. Leigh, N. Sobh, L. Millet, M. U. Gillette, A. J. Levine, and G. Popescu, “One-dimensional deterministic transport in neurons measured by dispersion-relation phase spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 23(37), 374107 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Wang, L. J. Millet, M. Mir, H. Ding, S. Unarunotai, J. A. Rogers, M. U. Gillette, and G. Popescu, “Spatial light interference microscopy (SLIM),” Opt. Express 19(2), 1016–1026 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. K. Park, C. A. Best, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, T. Kuriabova, M. L. Henle, A. J. Levine, and G. Popescu, “Measurement of red blood cell mechanics during morphological changes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(15), 6731–6736 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Wang, I. S. Chun, X. L. Li, Z. Y. Ong, E. Pop, L. Millet, M. Gillette, and G. Popescu, “Topography and refractometry of nanostructures using spatial light interference microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 35(2), 208–210 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. K. Park, C. A. Best, T. Auth, N. S. Gov, S. A. Safran, G. Popescu, S. Suresh, and M. S. Feld, “Metabolic remodeling of the human red blood cell membrane,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(4), 1289–1294 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Popescu, Y. Park, W. Choi, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, and K. Badizadegan, “Imaging red blood cell dynamics by quantitative phase microscopy,” Blood Cells Mol. Dis. 41(1), 10–16 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. K. Park, M. Diez-Silva, G. Popescu, G. Lykotrafitis, W. Choi, M. S. Feld, and S. Suresh, “Refractive index maps and membrane dynamics of human red blood cells parasitized by Plasmodium falciparum,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105(37), 13730–13735 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. F. Ding, Z. Wang, F. Nguyen, S. A. Boppart, and G. Popescu, “Fourier transform light scattering of inhomogeneous and dynamic structures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(23), 238102 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Popescu, Y. Park, N. Lue, C. Best-Popescu, L. Deflores, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, and K. Badizadegan, “Optical imaging of cell mass and growth dynamics,” Am. J. Physiol. Cell Physiol. 295(2), C538–C544 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Popescu, T. Ikeda, K. Goda, C. A. Best-Popescu, M. Laposata, S. Manley, R. R. Dasari, K. Badizadegan, and M. S. Feld, “Optical measurement of cell membrane tension,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(21), 218101 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rappaz, B.

Rogers, J. A.

Safran, S. A.

Y. K. Park, C. A. Best, T. Auth, N. S. Gov, S. A. Safran, G. Popescu, S. Suresh, and M. S. Feld, “Metabolic remodeling of the human red blood cell membrane,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(4), 1289–1294 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sbalzarini, I. F.

I. F. Sbalzarini and P. Koumoutsakos, “Feature point tracking and trajectory analysis for video imaging in cell biology,” J. Struct. Biol. 151(2), 182–195 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schmidt, C. F.

F. C. MacKintosh and C. F. Schmidt, “Active cellular materials,” Curr. Opin. Cell Biol. 22(1), 29–35 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Mizuno, C. Tardin, C. F. Schmidt, and F. C. Mackintosh, “Nonequilibrium mechanics of active cytoskeletal networks,” Science 315(5810), 370–373 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Selvin, P. R.

A. Yildiz, J. N. Forkey, S. A. McKinney, T. Ha, Y. E. Goldman, and P. R. Selvin, “Myosin V walks hand-over-hand: single fluorophore imaging with 1.5-nm localization,” Science 300(5628), 2061–2065 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sheetz, M. P.

R. B. Vallee and M. P. Sheetz, “Targeting of motor proteins,” Science 271(5255), 1539–1544 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sobh, N.

R. Wang, Z. Wang, J. Leigh, N. Sobh, L. Millet, M. U. Gillette, A. J. Levine, and G. Popescu, “One-dimensional deterministic transport in neurons measured by dispersion-relation phase spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 23(37), 374107 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Suresh, S.

Y. K. Park, C. A. Best, T. Auth, N. S. Gov, S. A. Safran, G. Popescu, S. Suresh, and M. S. Feld, “Metabolic remodeling of the human red blood cell membrane,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(4), 1289–1294 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. K. Park, M. Diez-Silva, G. Popescu, G. Lykotrafitis, W. Choi, M. S. Feld, and S. Suresh, “Refractive index maps and membrane dynamics of human red blood cells parasitized by Plasmodium falciparum,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105(37), 13730–13735 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tardin, C.

D. Mizuno, C. Tardin, C. F. Schmidt, and F. C. Mackintosh, “Nonequilibrium mechanics of active cytoskeletal networks,” Science 315(5810), 370–373 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thompson, M. A.

M. A. Thompson, J. M. Casolari, M. Badieirostami, P. O. Brown, and W. E. Moerner, “Three-dimensional tracking of single mRNA particles in Saccharomyces cerevisiae using a double-helix point spread function,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(42), 17864–17871 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Trepat, X.

X. Trepat, L. H. Deng, S. S. An, D. Navajas, D. J. Tschumperlin, W. T. Gerthoffer, J. P. Butler, and J. J. Fredberg, “Universal physical responses to stretch in the living cell,” Nature 447, 592–595 (2007).

Tschumperlin, D. J.

X. Trepat, L. H. Deng, S. S. An, D. Navajas, D. J. Tschumperlin, W. T. Gerthoffer, J. P. Butler, and J. J. Fredberg, “Universal physical responses to stretch in the living cell,” Nature 447, 592–595 (2007).

Tseng, Y.

Y. Tseng, J. S. Lee, T. P. Kole, I. Jiang, and D. Wirtz, “Micro-organization and visco-elasticity of the interphase nucleus revealed by particle nanotracking,” J. Cell Sci. 117(10), 2159–2167 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Unarunotai, S.

Vallee, R. B.

R. B. Vallee and M. P. Sheetz, “Targeting of motor proteins,” Science 271(5255), 1539–1544 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wagenbach, M.

D. L. Coy, M. Wagenbach, and J. Howard, “Kinesin takes one 8-nm step for each ATP that it hydrolyzes,” J. Biol. Chem. 274(6), 3667–3671 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, B.

B. Wang, S. M. Anthony, S. C. Bae, and S. Granick, “Anomalous yet Brownian,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106(36), 15160–15164 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, R.

R. Wang, Z. Wang, J. Leigh, N. Sobh, L. Millet, M. U. Gillette, A. J. Levine, and G. Popescu, “One-dimensional deterministic transport in neurons measured by dispersion-relation phase spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 23(37), 374107 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, Z.

R. Wang, Z. Wang, J. Leigh, N. Sobh, L. Millet, M. U. Gillette, A. J. Levine, and G. Popescu, “One-dimensional deterministic transport in neurons measured by dispersion-relation phase spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 23(37), 374107 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Wang, L. J. Millet, M. Mir, H. Ding, S. Unarunotai, J. A. Rogers, M. U. Gillette, and G. Popescu, “Spatial light interference microscopy (SLIM),” Opt. Express 19(2), 1016–1026 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Wang, I. S. Chun, X. L. Li, Z. Y. Ong, E. Pop, L. Millet, M. Gillette, and G. Popescu, “Topography and refractometry of nanostructures using spatial light interference microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 35(2), 208–210 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. F. Ding, Z. Wang, F. Nguyen, S. A. Boppart, and G. Popescu, “Fourier transform light scattering of inhomogeneous and dynamic structures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(23), 238102 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wattellier, B.

Weitz, D. A.

C. P. Brangwynne, G. H. Koenderink, F. C. MacKintosh, and D. A. Weitz, “Intracellular transport by active diffusion,” Trends Cell Biol. 19(9), 423–427 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. P. Brangwynne, G. H. Koenderink, F. C. MacKintosh, and D. A. Weitz, “Nonequilibrium microtubule fluctuations in a model cytoskeleton,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 118104 (2008).

C. P. Brangwynne, G. H. Koenderink, F. C. MacKintosh, and D. A. Weitz, “Cytoplasmic diffusion: molecular motors mix it up,” J. Cell Biol. 183(4), 583–587 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wernicke, G.

Wirtz, D.

Y. Tseng, J. S. Lee, T. P. Kole, I. Jiang, and D. Wirtz, “Micro-organization and visco-elasticity of the interphase nucleus revealed by particle nanotracking,” J. Cell Sci. 117(10), 2159–2167 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yildiz, A.

A. Yildiz, J. N. Forkey, S. A. McKinney, T. Ha, Y. E. Goldman, and P. R. Selvin, “Myosin V walks hand-over-hand: single fluorophore imaging with 1.5-nm localization,” Science 300(5628), 2061–2065 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zernike, F.

F. Zernike, “How I discovered phase contrast,” Science 121(3141), 345–349 (1955).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Am. J. Physiol. Cell Physiol.

G. Popescu, Y. Park, N. Lue, C. Best-Popescu, L. Deflores, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, and K. Badizadegan, “Optical imaging of cell mass and growth dynamics,” Am. J. Physiol. Cell Physiol. 295(2), C538–C544 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Blood Cells Mol. Dis.

G. Popescu, Y. Park, W. Choi, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, and K. Badizadegan, “Imaging red blood cell dynamics by quantitative phase microscopy,” Blood Cells Mol. Dis. 41(1), 10–16 (2008).
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Curr. Opin. Cell Biol.

F. C. MacKintosh and C. F. Schmidt, “Active cellular materials,” Curr. Opin. Cell Biol. 22(1), 29–35 (2010).
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J. Biol. Chem.

D. L. Coy, M. Wagenbach, and J. Howard, “Kinesin takes one 8-nm step for each ATP that it hydrolyzes,” J. Biol. Chem. 274(6), 3667–3671 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Cell Biol.

C. P. Brangwynne, G. H. Koenderink, F. C. MacKintosh, and D. A. Weitz, “Cytoplasmic diffusion: molecular motors mix it up,” J. Cell Biol. 183(4), 583–587 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Cell Sci.

Y. Tseng, J. S. Lee, T. P. Kole, I. Jiang, and D. Wirtz, “Micro-organization and visco-elasticity of the interphase nucleus revealed by particle nanotracking,” J. Cell Sci. 117(10), 2159–2167 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

J. Phys. Condens. Matter

R. Wang, Z. Wang, J. Leigh, N. Sobh, L. Millet, M. U. Gillette, A. J. Levine, and G. Popescu, “One-dimensional deterministic transport in neurons measured by dispersion-relation phase spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 23(37), 374107 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Struct. Biol.

I. F. Sbalzarini and P. Koumoutsakos, “Feature point tracking and trajectory analysis for video imaging in cell biology,” J. Struct. Biol. 151(2), 182–195 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature

X. Trepat, L. H. Deng, S. S. An, D. Navajas, D. J. Tschumperlin, W. T. Gerthoffer, J. P. Butler, and J. J. Fredberg, “Universal physical responses to stretch in the living cell,” Nature 447, 592–595 (2007).

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. Lett.

H. F. Ding, Z. Wang, F. Nguyen, S. A. Boppart, and G. Popescu, “Fourier transform light scattering of inhomogeneous and dynamic structures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(23), 238102 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Fabry, G. N. Maksym, J. P. Butler, M. Glogauer, D. Navajas, and J. J. Fredberg, “Scaling the microrheology of living cells,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87(14), 148102 (2001).
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A. Caspi, R. Granek, and M. Elbaum, “Enhanced diffusion in active intracellular transport,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(26), 5655–5658 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Popescu, T. Ikeda, K. Goda, C. A. Best-Popescu, M. Laposata, S. Manley, R. R. Dasari, K. Badizadegan, and M. S. Feld, “Optical measurement of cell membrane tension,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(21), 218101 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. P. Brangwynne, G. H. Koenderink, F. C. MacKintosh, and D. A. Weitz, “Nonequilibrium microtubule fluctuations in a model cytoskeleton,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 118104 (2008).

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.

Y. K. Park, C. A. Best, T. Auth, N. S. Gov, S. A. Safran, G. Popescu, S. Suresh, and M. S. Feld, “Metabolic remodeling of the human red blood cell membrane,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(4), 1289–1294 (2010).
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Y. K. Park, M. Diez-Silva, G. Popescu, G. Lykotrafitis, W. Choi, M. S. Feld, and S. Suresh, “Refractive index maps and membrane dynamics of human red blood cells parasitized by Plasmodium falciparum,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105(37), 13730–13735 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. K. Park, C. A. Best, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, T. Kuriabova, M. L. Henle, A. J. Levine, and G. Popescu, “Measurement of red blood cell mechanics during morphological changes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(15), 6731–6736 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Wang, S. M. Anthony, S. C. Bae, and S. Granick, “Anomalous yet Brownian,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106(36), 15160–15164 (2009).
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M. A. Thompson, J. M. Casolari, M. Badieirostami, P. O. Brown, and W. E. Moerner, “Three-dimensional tracking of single mRNA particles in Saccharomyces cerevisiae using a double-helix point spread function,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(42), 17864–17871 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science

F. Zernike, “How I discovered phase contrast,” Science 121(3141), 345–349 (1955).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Mizuno, C. Tardin, C. F. Schmidt, and F. C. Mackintosh, “Nonequilibrium mechanics of active cytoskeletal networks,” Science 315(5810), 370–373 (2007).
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A. Yildiz, J. N. Forkey, S. A. McKinney, T. Ha, Y. E. Goldman, and P. R. Selvin, “Myosin V walks hand-over-hand: single fluorophore imaging with 1.5-nm localization,” Science 300(5628), 2061–2065 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Trends Cell Biol.

C. P. Brangwynne, G. H. Koenderink, F. C. MacKintosh, and D. A. Weitz, “Intracellular transport by active diffusion,” Trends Cell Biol. 19(9), 423–427 (2009).
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Other

G. Popescu, in Methods in Cell Biology, 87–115, ed. Jena, B. P.), Academic Press, San Diego, 2008.

R. B. Bird, W. E. Stewart, and E. N. Lightfoot, Transport Phenomena (John Wiley & Sons, 1960).

B. J. Berne and R. Pecora, Dynamic Light Scattering with Applications to Chemistry, Biology and Physics (Wiley, 1976).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

a) Microscope as a scattering instrument: dash line, scattered field; green, unscattered fields. b) Quantitative phase image of a live cell. Color bar indicates phase in radians. c) Momentum transfer in a microscope.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

a) Quantitative phase image of 1μm polystyrene beads in glycerol. Colorbar indicates pathlength in nm. b) Mean squared displacements (MSD) obtained by tracking individual beads in a. The inset illustrates the trajectory of a single bead. c) Decay rate vs. spatial mode, Γ(q), associated with the beads in a. The dash ring indicates the maximum q values allowed by the resolution limit of the microscope. d) Azimuthal average of data in c) to yield Γ(q). The fits with the quadratic function yields the value of the diffusion coefficient as indicated.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Quantitative phase image of a culture of glia (a, g), microglia (c) and hippocampal neurons (e). b) Dispersion curve measured for the cell in a. The green and red lines indicate directed motion and diffusion, respectively, with the results of the fit as indicated in the legend. Inset shows the Γ(qx, qy) map. d, f, h) Dispersion curves, Γ(q), associated with the white box regions in c),e) and g), respectively. The corresponding fits and resulting D and Δv values are indicated.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

a) and c) MSD ensemble-averaged over 7 and 6 particles in nucleus and cytoplasm regions, respectively, as indicated in Fig. 3g by the red and blue boxes. Corresponding fits give diffusion coefficients and standard deviation of drift velocity. Inset in a) shows the MSD for a particle in log scale where directed motion is indicated by green line. b) and d) are dispersion curves for the same area of a) and c. Inset are trajectories of two particles denoted by black arrow in Fig. 3 g). The blue one is the particle at cytoplasm and red one is inside nucleus.

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Δs(r,t)=s(r,t) s(r,t) r,t =[ h(r,t) r,t +Δh(r,t) ][ n(r,t) r,t +Δn(r,t) ] h(r,t) r,t n(r,t) r,t n(r,t) r,t Δh(r,t)+ h(r,t) r,t Δn(r,t)
D 2 ρ(r,t)vρ(r,t) t ρ(r,t)=0,
g(r',τ)= ρ(r,t)ρ(r+r',t+τ) t,r ,
g ˜ (q,τ)= e iqvτD q 2 τ
g ˜ (q,τ)= e ivqτD q 2 t v , = e D q 2 t P(|v v 0 |) e ivqτ d 2 v
g ˜ (q,τ)= e i v 0 qτ e qΔvτD q 2 τ .

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