Abstract

We present experimental demonstration of light superfocusing by using an optical fiber based surface plasmonic (SP) lens with nanoscale concentric annular slits. A far-field, sub-diffraction-limit sized focus was achieved with an optical fiber based device. The performance of SP lenses with three and four annular slits was experimentally characterized. Guidelines and suggestions on designing the SP lens are provided. As a microscale device with nanoscale features, the fiber-based SP lens can provide a solution to bridging nanophotonics and conventional optics.

© 2011 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
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  26. H. F. Schouten, T. D. Visser, D. Lenstra, and H. Blok, “Light transmission through a subwavelength slit: waveguiding and optical vortices,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 67(3), 036608 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. Z. Bomzon, V. Kleiner, and E. Hasman, “Formation of radially and azimuthally polarized light using space-variant subwavelength metal stripe gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(11), 1587–1589 (2001).
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2011 (1)

2010 (9)

F. Wang, M. Xiao, K. Sun, and Q. H. Wei, “Generation of radially and azimuthally polarized light by optical transmission through concentric circular nanoslits in Ag films,” Opt. Express 18(1), 63–71 (2010), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?uri=oe-18-1-63 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Fu, Y. Liu, X. Zhou, Z. Xu, and F. Fang, “Experimental investigation of superfocusing of plasmonic lens with chirped circular nanoslits,” Opt. Express 18(4), 3438–3443 (2010), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?uri=oe-18-4-3438 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Ko, H. C. Kim, and M. Cheng, “Light focusing at metallic annular slit structure coated with dielectric layers,” Appl. Opt. 49(6), 950–954 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Duerr, Y. Meuret, and H. Thienpont, “Miniaturization of Fresnel lenses for solar concentration: a quantitative investigation,” Appl. Opt. 49(12), 2339–2346 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Bae, X. M. Zhang, H. Liu, and M. Yu, “Miniature surface-mountable Fabry-Perot pressure sensor constructed with a 45 ° angled fiber,” Opt. Lett. 35(10), 1701–1703 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Lin, X. M. Goh, L. P. McGuinness, and A. Roberts, “Plasmonic lenses formed by two-dimensional nanometric cross-shaped aperture arrays for Fresnel-region focusing,” Nano Lett. 10(5), 1936–1940 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. J. Smith, Z. Liu, Y. Mei, and O. G. Schmidt, “Combined surface plasmon and classical waveguiding through metamaterial fiber design,” Nano Lett. 10(1), 1–5 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Cai, J. Zhang, W. Bai, Q. Wang, X. Wei, and G. Song, “Generation of compact radially polarized beam at 850 nm in vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser via plasmonic modulation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(20), 201101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Garcia-Vidal, L. Martin-Moreno, T. Ebbesen, and L. Kuipers, “Light passing through subwavelength apertures,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 82(1), 729–787 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (5)

P. B. Catrysse and S. Fan, “Understanding the dispersion of coaxial plasmonic structures through a connection with the planar metal-insulator-metal geometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(23), 231111 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Verslegers, P. B. Catrysse, Z. Yu, and S. Fan, “Planar metallic nanoscale slit lenses for angle compensation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(7), 071112 (2009).
[CrossRef]

W. Chen, D. C. Abeysinghe, R. L. Nelson, and Q. Zhan, “Plasmonic lens made of multiple concentric metallic rings under radially polarized illumination,” Nano Lett. 9(12), 4320–4325 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Verslegers, P. B. Catrysse, Z. Yu, J. S. White, E. S. Barnard, M. L. Brongersma, and S. Fan, “Planar lenses based on nanoscale slit arrays in a metallic film,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 235–238 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. G. Curto, A. Manjavacas, and F. J. García de Abajo, “Near-field focusing with optical phase antennas,” Opt. Express 17(20), 17801–17811 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?uri=oe-17-20-17801 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

S. Nesson, M. Yu, X. M. Zhang, and A. H. Hsieh, “Miniature fiber optic pressure sensor with composite polymer-metal diaphragm for intradiscal pressure measurements,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(4), 044040 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (3)

2006 (1)

2005 (2)

2003 (2)

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424(6950), 824–830 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. F. Schouten, T. D. Visser, D. Lenstra, and H. Blok, “Light transmission through a subwavelength slit: waveguiding and optical vortices,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 67(3), 036608 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (2)

Z. Bomzon, V. Kleiner, and E. Hasman, “Formation of radially and azimuthally polarized light using space-variant subwavelength metal stripe gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(11), 1587–1589 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Z. Bomzon, V. Kleiner, and E. Hasman, “Formation of radially and azimuthally polarized light using space-variant subwavelength metal stripe gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(11), 1587 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Abeysinghe, D. C.

W. Chen, D. C. Abeysinghe, R. L. Nelson, and Q. Zhan, “Plasmonic lens made of multiple concentric metallic rings under radially polarized illumination,” Nano Lett. 9(12), 4320–4325 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bae, H.

Bai, W.

L. Cai, J. Zhang, W. Bai, Q. Wang, X. Wei, and G. Song, “Generation of compact radially polarized beam at 850 nm in vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser via plasmonic modulation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(20), 201101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Barnard, E. S.

L. Verslegers, P. B. Catrysse, Z. Yu, J. S. White, E. S. Barnard, M. L. Brongersma, and S. Fan, “Planar lenses based on nanoscale slit arrays in a metallic film,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 235–238 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barnes, W. L.

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424(6950), 824–830 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Blok, H.

H. F. Schouten, T. D. Visser, D. Lenstra, and H. Blok, “Light transmission through a subwavelength slit: waveguiding and optical vortices,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 67(3), 036608 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bomzon, Z.

Z. Bomzon, V. Kleiner, and E. Hasman, “Formation of radially and azimuthally polarized light using space-variant subwavelength metal stripe gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(11), 1587–1589 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Z. Bomzon, V. Kleiner, and E. Hasman, “Formation of radially and azimuthally polarized light using space-variant subwavelength metal stripe gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(11), 1587 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Brongersma, M. L.

L. Verslegers, P. B. Catrysse, Z. Yu, J. S. White, E. S. Barnard, M. L. Brongersma, and S. Fan, “Planar lenses based on nanoscale slit arrays in a metallic film,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 235–238 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cai, L.

L. Cai, J. Zhang, W. Bai, Q. Wang, X. Wei, and G. Song, “Generation of compact radially polarized beam at 850 nm in vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser via plasmonic modulation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(20), 201101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Catrysse, P. B.

L. Verslegers, P. B. Catrysse, Z. Yu, and S. Fan, “Planar metallic nanoscale slit lenses for angle compensation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(7), 071112 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Verslegers, P. B. Catrysse, Z. Yu, J. S. White, E. S. Barnard, M. L. Brongersma, and S. Fan, “Planar lenses based on nanoscale slit arrays in a metallic film,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 235–238 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. B. Catrysse and S. Fan, “Understanding the dispersion of coaxial plasmonic structures through a connection with the planar metal-insulator-metal geometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(23), 231111 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chen, W.

W. Chen, D. C. Abeysinghe, R. L. Nelson, and Q. Zhan, “Plasmonic lens made of multiple concentric metallic rings under radially polarized illumination,” Nano Lett. 9(12), 4320–4325 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cheng, M.

Curto, A. G.

Dereux, A.

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424(6950), 824–830 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dong, X.

Du, C.

Du, C. L.

Y. Fu, W. Zhou, L. E. N. Lim, C. L. Du, and X. G. Luo, “Plasmonic microzone plate: superfocusing at visible regime,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(6), 061124 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Duerr, F.

Ebbesen, T.

F. Garcia-Vidal, L. Martin-Moreno, T. Ebbesen, and L. Kuipers, “Light passing through subwavelength apertures,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 82(1), 729–787 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ebbesen, T. W.

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424(6950), 824–830 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fan, S.

L. Verslegers, P. B. Catrysse, Z. Yu, and S. Fan, “Planar metallic nanoscale slit lenses for angle compensation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(7), 071112 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Verslegers, P. B. Catrysse, Z. Yu, J. S. White, E. S. Barnard, M. L. Brongersma, and S. Fan, “Planar lenses based on nanoscale slit arrays in a metallic film,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 235–238 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. B. Catrysse and S. Fan, “Understanding the dispersion of coaxial plasmonic structures through a connection with the planar metal-insulator-metal geometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(23), 231111 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fang, F.

Fu, Y.

Gao, H.

García de Abajo, F. J.

Garcia-Vidal, F.

F. Garcia-Vidal, L. Martin-Moreno, T. Ebbesen, and L. Kuipers, “Light passing through subwavelength apertures,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 82(1), 729–787 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Goh, X. M.

L. Lin, X. M. Goh, L. P. McGuinness, and A. Roberts, “Plasmonic lenses formed by two-dimensional nanometric cross-shaped aperture arrays for Fresnel-region focusing,” Nano Lett. 10(5), 1936–1940 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Golub, I.

Hasman, E.

Z. Bomzon, V. Kleiner, and E. Hasman, “Formation of radially and azimuthally polarized light using space-variant subwavelength metal stripe gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(11), 1587–1589 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Z. Bomzon, V. Kleiner, and E. Hasman, “Formation of radially and azimuthally polarized light using space-variant subwavelength metal stripe gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(11), 1587 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Herzig, H. P.

Hsieh, A. H.

S. Nesson, M. Yu, X. M. Zhang, and A. H. Hsieh, “Miniature fiber optic pressure sensor with composite polymer-metal diaphragm for intradiscal pressure measurements,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(4), 044040 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kalosha, V. P.

Kim, H. C.

Kleiner, V.

Z. Bomzon, V. Kleiner, and E. Hasman, “Formation of radially and azimuthally polarized light using space-variant subwavelength metal stripe gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(11), 1587 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Z. Bomzon, V. Kleiner, and E. Hasman, “Formation of radially and azimuthally polarized light using space-variant subwavelength metal stripe gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(11), 1587–1589 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ko, H.

Kuipers, L.

F. Garcia-Vidal, L. Martin-Moreno, T. Ebbesen, and L. Kuipers, “Light passing through subwavelength apertures,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 82(1), 729–787 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lenstra, D.

H. F. Schouten, T. D. Visser, D. Lenstra, and H. Blok, “Light transmission through a subwavelength slit: waveguiding and optical vortices,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 67(3), 036608 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lim, L. E. N.

Y. Fu, W. Zhou, L. E. N. Lim, C. L. Du, and X. G. Luo, “Plasmonic microzone plate: superfocusing at visible regime,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(6), 061124 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lin, L.

L. Lin, X. M. Goh, L. P. McGuinness, and A. Roberts, “Plasmonic lenses formed by two-dimensional nanometric cross-shaped aperture arrays for Fresnel-region focusing,” Nano Lett. 10(5), 1936–1940 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, H.

Liu, Y.

Liu, Z.

E. J. Smith, Z. Liu, Y. Mei, and O. G. Schmidt, “Combined surface plasmon and classical waveguiding through metamaterial fiber design,” Nano Lett. 10(1), 1–5 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Liu, J. M. Steele, W. Srituravanich, Y. Pikus, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Focusing surface plasmons with a plasmonic lens,” Nano Lett. 5(9), 1726–1729 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Luo, X.

Luo, X. G.

Y. Fu, W. Zhou, L. E. N. Lim, C. L. Du, and X. G. Luo, “Plasmonic microzone plate: superfocusing at visible regime,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(6), 061124 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Manjavacas, A.

Mansuripur, M.

Martin-Moreno, L.

F. Garcia-Vidal, L. Martin-Moreno, T. Ebbesen, and L. Kuipers, “Light passing through subwavelength apertures,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 82(1), 729–787 (2010).
[CrossRef]

McGuinness, L. P.

L. Lin, X. M. Goh, L. P. McGuinness, and A. Roberts, “Plasmonic lenses formed by two-dimensional nanometric cross-shaped aperture arrays for Fresnel-region focusing,” Nano Lett. 10(5), 1936–1940 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mei, Y.

E. J. Smith, Z. Liu, Y. Mei, and O. G. Schmidt, “Combined surface plasmon and classical waveguiding through metamaterial fiber design,” Nano Lett. 10(1), 1–5 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Meuret, Y.

Moloney, J. V.

Nelson, R. L.

W. Chen, D. C. Abeysinghe, R. L. Nelson, and Q. Zhan, “Plasmonic lens made of multiple concentric metallic rings under radially polarized illumination,” Nano Lett. 9(12), 4320–4325 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nesson, S.

S. Nesson, M. Yu, X. M. Zhang, and A. H. Hsieh, “Miniature fiber optic pressure sensor with composite polymer-metal diaphragm for intradiscal pressure measurements,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(4), 044040 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pikus, Y.

Z. Liu, J. M. Steele, W. Srituravanich, Y. Pikus, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Focusing surface plasmons with a plasmonic lens,” Nano Lett. 5(9), 1726–1729 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Roberts, A.

L. Lin, X. M. Goh, L. P. McGuinness, and A. Roberts, “Plasmonic lenses formed by two-dimensional nanometric cross-shaped aperture arrays for Fresnel-region focusing,” Nano Lett. 10(5), 1936–1940 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ruffieux, P.

Scharf, T.

Schmidt, O. G.

E. J. Smith, Z. Liu, Y. Mei, and O. G. Schmidt, “Combined surface plasmon and classical waveguiding through metamaterial fiber design,” Nano Lett. 10(1), 1–5 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schouten, H. F.

H. F. Schouten, T. D. Visser, D. Lenstra, and H. Blok, “Light transmission through a subwavelength slit: waveguiding and optical vortices,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 67(3), 036608 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shi, H.

Smith, E. J.

E. J. Smith, Z. Liu, Y. Mei, and O. G. Schmidt, “Combined surface plasmon and classical waveguiding through metamaterial fiber design,” Nano Lett. 10(1), 1–5 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Song, G.

L. Cai, J. Zhang, W. Bai, Q. Wang, X. Wei, and G. Song, “Generation of compact radially polarized beam at 850 nm in vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser via plasmonic modulation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(20), 201101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Srituravanich, W.

Z. Liu, J. M. Steele, W. Srituravanich, Y. Pikus, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Focusing surface plasmons with a plasmonic lens,” Nano Lett. 5(9), 1726–1729 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Steele, J. M.

Z. Liu, J. M. Steele, W. Srituravanich, Y. Pikus, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Focusing surface plasmons with a plasmonic lens,” Nano Lett. 5(9), 1726–1729 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sun, C.

Z. Liu, J. M. Steele, W. Srituravanich, Y. Pikus, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Focusing surface plasmons with a plasmonic lens,” Nano Lett. 5(9), 1726–1729 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sun, K.

Thienpont, H.

Verslegers, L.

L. Verslegers, P. B. Catrysse, Z. Yu, J. S. White, E. S. Barnard, M. L. Brongersma, and S. Fan, “Planar lenses based on nanoscale slit arrays in a metallic film,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 235–238 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Verslegers, P. B. Catrysse, Z. Yu, and S. Fan, “Planar metallic nanoscale slit lenses for angle compensation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(7), 071112 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Visser, T. D.

H. F. Schouten, T. D. Visser, D. Lenstra, and H. Blok, “Light transmission through a subwavelength slit: waveguiding and optical vortices,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 67(3), 036608 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Völkel, R.

Wang, C.

Wang, F.

Wang, Q.

L. Cai, J. Zhang, W. Bai, Q. Wang, X. Wei, and G. Song, “Generation of compact radially polarized beam at 850 nm in vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser via plasmonic modulation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(20), 201101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wei, Q. H.

Wei, X.

L. Cai, J. Zhang, W. Bai, Q. Wang, X. Wei, and G. Song, “Generation of compact radially polarized beam at 850 nm in vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser via plasmonic modulation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(20), 201101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Weible, K. J.

White, J. S.

L. Verslegers, P. B. Catrysse, Z. Yu, J. S. White, E. S. Barnard, M. L. Brongersma, and S. Fan, “Planar lenses based on nanoscale slit arrays in a metallic film,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 235–238 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xiao, M.

Xu, Z.

Yu, M.

H. Bae, X. M. Zhang, H. Liu, and M. Yu, “Miniature surface-mountable Fabry-Perot pressure sensor constructed with a 45 ° angled fiber,” Opt. Lett. 35(10), 1701–1703 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Nesson, M. Yu, X. M. Zhang, and A. H. Hsieh, “Miniature fiber optic pressure sensor with composite polymer-metal diaphragm for intradiscal pressure measurements,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(4), 044040 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yu, Y.

Yu, Z.

L. Verslegers, P. B. Catrysse, Z. Yu, J. S. White, E. S. Barnard, M. L. Brongersma, and S. Fan, “Planar lenses based on nanoscale slit arrays in a metallic film,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 235–238 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Verslegers, P. B. Catrysse, Z. Yu, and S. Fan, “Planar metallic nanoscale slit lenses for angle compensation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(7), 071112 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zakharian, A. R.

Zappe, H.

Zhan, Q.

W. Chen, D. C. Abeysinghe, R. L. Nelson, and Q. Zhan, “Plasmonic lens made of multiple concentric metallic rings under radially polarized illumination,” Nano Lett. 9(12), 4320–4325 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, J.

L. Cai, J. Zhang, W. Bai, Q. Wang, X. Wei, and G. Song, “Generation of compact radially polarized beam at 850 nm in vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser via plasmonic modulation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(20), 201101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X.

Z. Liu, J. M. Steele, W. Srituravanich, Y. Pikus, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Focusing surface plasmons with a plasmonic lens,” Nano Lett. 5(9), 1726–1729 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, X. M.

H. Bae, X. M. Zhang, H. Liu, and M. Yu, “Miniature surface-mountable Fabry-Perot pressure sensor constructed with a 45 ° angled fiber,” Opt. Lett. 35(10), 1701–1703 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Nesson, M. Yu, X. M. Zhang, and A. H. Hsieh, “Miniature fiber optic pressure sensor with composite polymer-metal diaphragm for intradiscal pressure measurements,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(4), 044040 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhou, W.

Y. Fu, W. Zhou, L. E. N. Lim, C. L. Du, and X. G. Luo, “Plasmonic microzone plate: superfocusing at visible regime,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(6), 061124 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, X.

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (6)

P. B. Catrysse and S. Fan, “Understanding the dispersion of coaxial plasmonic structures through a connection with the planar metal-insulator-metal geometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(23), 231111 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Cai, J. Zhang, W. Bai, Q. Wang, X. Wei, and G. Song, “Generation of compact radially polarized beam at 850 nm in vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser via plasmonic modulation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(20), 201101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. Bomzon, V. Kleiner, and E. Hasman, “Formation of radially and azimuthally polarized light using space-variant subwavelength metal stripe gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(11), 1587 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Y. Fu, W. Zhou, L. E. N. Lim, C. L. Du, and X. G. Luo, “Plasmonic microzone plate: superfocusing at visible regime,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(6), 061124 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Verslegers, P. B. Catrysse, Z. Yu, and S. Fan, “Planar metallic nanoscale slit lenses for angle compensation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(7), 071112 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Z. Bomzon, V. Kleiner, and E. Hasman, “Formation of radially and azimuthally polarized light using space-variant subwavelength metal stripe gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(11), 1587–1589 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

S. Nesson, M. Yu, X. M. Zhang, and A. H. Hsieh, “Miniature fiber optic pressure sensor with composite polymer-metal diaphragm for intradiscal pressure measurements,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(4), 044040 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nano Lett. (5)

Z. Liu, J. M. Steele, W. Srituravanich, Y. Pikus, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Focusing surface plasmons with a plasmonic lens,” Nano Lett. 5(9), 1726–1729 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Chen, D. C. Abeysinghe, R. L. Nelson, and Q. Zhan, “Plasmonic lens made of multiple concentric metallic rings under radially polarized illumination,” Nano Lett. 9(12), 4320–4325 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Verslegers, P. B. Catrysse, Z. Yu, J. S. White, E. S. Barnard, M. L. Brongersma, and S. Fan, “Planar lenses based on nanoscale slit arrays in a metallic film,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 235–238 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Lin, X. M. Goh, L. P. McGuinness, and A. Roberts, “Plasmonic lenses formed by two-dimensional nanometric cross-shaped aperture arrays for Fresnel-region focusing,” Nano Lett. 10(5), 1936–1940 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. J. Smith, Z. Liu, Y. Mei, and O. G. Schmidt, “Combined surface plasmon and classical waveguiding through metamaterial fiber design,” Nano Lett. 10(1), 1–5 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature (1)

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424(6950), 824–830 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (7)

H. Shi, C. Wang, C. Du, X. Luo, X. Dong, and H. Gao, “Beam manipulating by metallic nano-slits with variant widths,” Opt. Express 13(18), 6815–6820 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-18-6815 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Ruffieux, T. Scharf, H. P. Herzig, R. Völkel, and K. J. Weible, “On the chromatic aberration of microlenses,” Opt. Express 14(11), 4687–4694 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?uri=oe-14-11-4687 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. R. Zakharian, J. V. Moloney, and M. Mansuripur, “Surface plasmon polaritons on metallic surfaces,” Opt. Express 15(1), 183–197 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?uri=oe-15-1-183 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. G. Curto, A. Manjavacas, and F. J. García de Abajo, “Near-field focusing with optical phase antennas,” Opt. Express 17(20), 17801–17811 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?uri=oe-17-20-17801 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Wang, M. Xiao, K. Sun, and Q. H. Wei, “Generation of radially and azimuthally polarized light by optical transmission through concentric circular nanoslits in Ag films,” Opt. Express 18(1), 63–71 (2010), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?uri=oe-18-1-63 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Fu, Y. Liu, X. Zhou, Z. Xu, and F. Fang, “Experimental investigation of superfocusing of plasmonic lens with chirped circular nanoslits,” Opt. Express 18(4), 3438–3443 (2010), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?uri=oe-18-4-3438 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Yu and H. Zappe, “Effect of lens size on the focusing performance of plasmonic lenses and suggestions for the design,” Opt. Express 19(10), 9434–9444 (2011), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-19-10-9434 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. (1)

H. F. Schouten, T. D. Visser, D. Lenstra, and H. Blok, “Light transmission through a subwavelength slit: waveguiding and optical vortices,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 67(3), 036608 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rev. Mod. Phys. (1)

F. Garcia-Vidal, L. Martin-Moreno, T. Ebbesen, and L. Kuipers, “Light passing through subwavelength apertures,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 82(1), 729–787 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

E. D. Palik, Handbook of optical constants of solid (Academic Press, San Diego, 1998).

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 7th (expanded) ed. (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2003).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic of a surface plasmonic lens formed on the endface of an optical fiber. (b) Schematic of the design model of the fiber-based SP lens. The two circles with arrows show the polarization states of the light in fiber core (linear polarized) and in the medium (in-phase radially polarized).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Dependence of the phase delay and effective index on the width of a water slit in gold. (b) Dependence of the phase delay on the slit radius to achieve a focus in water. The gold layer thickness is 100 nm. The two inner annular slits of the 3-ring design and 4-ring design share the same widths and radii.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Intensity profiles obtained with the 3-ring SP lens in the (a) xz and (b) yz planes. The fiber faced downwards with the endface (the white line) located at z = 0 and the z axis being the optical axis. (c)-(e) Intensity profiles in the xy planes at z = 1.2 μm, 3 μm, and 4 μm, respectively. (f) SEM image of the 3-ring SP lens. (g) The intensity along the x axis at z = 1.2 μm (focus).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Intensity profiles obtained with the 4-ring SP lens in the (a) xz and (b) yz planes. The fiber faced downwards with the endface (the white line) located at z = 0 and the z axis being the optical axis. (c)-(f) Intensity profiles in the xy planes at z = 3.1 μm, 5 μm, 8 μm, and 12 μm, respectively. (g) SEM image of the 4-ring SP lens. (h) The intensity along the x axis at z = 3.1 μm (focus).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

The intensity distributions along the optical axis obtained from the two SP lenses.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Experimental arrangement for validation of the camera imaging method.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

A typical calibration curve of the camera imaging method. The x axis is the image displacement obtained with the camera imaging method, while the y axis is that obtained with the Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI) method. The slope of linear fit is 63.5 nm/pixel.

Equations (5)

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2π n d r i 2 + f 0 2 r i+1 2 + f 0 2 λ +Re( β i β i+1 )d=2πN,
tanh[ w i 2 β i 2 k 0 2 ε d ]= ε d β i 2 k 0 2 ε m ε m β i 2 k 0 2 ε d ,
FN= ρ 2 n d λ f 0 ,
I( z )=4 I 0 sin ( π ρ 2 2λz ) 2 .
z m = ρ 2 λ .

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