Abstract

In this paper a new generation of optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy (OR-PAM) with a wide range of potential clinical applications is demonstrated. Using fast scanning mirrors, an image guide with 30,000 fiber pixels, a refocusing lens and a unique probe we managed to reduce the footprint of an OR-PAM system from a stationary table-top system to a portable, 4cm by 6cm, probe weighing ~500g tethered to a scanning unit. The phantom studies show that the handheld optical-resolution photoacoustic microscope is able to image with ~7μm resolution. For in vivo studies images of the microvasculature in a Swiss Webster mouse ear are shown. The compact, flexible nature of the proposed design and the small footprint of the apparatus increase the usability of OR-PAM for potential clinical applications such as in dermatology.

© 2011 OSA

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References

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  1. W. Shi, P. Hajireza, P. Shao, S. Kerr, and R. J. Zemp, “Real-time optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy using fiber-laser technology,” Proc. SPIE 7899, 789939, 789939-6 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  2. K. Maslov, H. F. Zhang, S. Hu, and L. V. Wang, “Optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy for in vivo imaging of single capillaries,” Opt. Lett. 33(9), 929–931 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. B. Rao, L. Li, K. Maslov, and L. V. Wang, “Hybrid-scanning optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy for in vivo vasculature imaging,” Opt. Lett. 35(10), 1521–1523 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. S. Hu, K. Maslov, and L. V. Wang, “Noninvasive label-free imaging of microhemodynamics by optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy,” Opt. Express 17(9), 7688–7693 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. H. F. Zhang, K. Maslov, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Functional photoacoustic microscopy for high-resolution and noninvasive in vivo imaging,” Nat. Biotechnol. 24(7), 848–851 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. H. F. Zhang, K. Maslov, and L. V. Wang, “In vivo imaging of subcutaneous structures using functional photoacoustic microscopy,” Nat. Protoc. 2(4), 797–804 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. W. Shi, S. Kerr, I. Utkin, J. Ranasinghesagara, L. Pan, Y. Godwal, R. J. Zemp, and R. Fedosejevs, “Optical resolution photoacoustic microscopy using novel high-repetition-rate passively Q-switched microchip and fiber lasers,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(5), 056017 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. W. Shi, P. Hajireza, P. Shao, A. Forbrich, and R. J. Zemp, “In vivo near-realtime volumetric optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy using a high-repetition-rate nanosecond fiber-laser,” Opt. Express 19(18), 17143–17150 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. L. Wang, K. Maslov, J. Yao, B. Rao, and L. V. Wang, “Fast voice-coil scanning optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 36(2), 139–141 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. P. Hajireza, W. Shi, P. Shao, S. Kerr, and R. J. Zemp, “Optical-resolution photoacoustic micro-endoscopy using image-guide fibers and fiber laser technology,” Proc. SPIE 7899, 78990P, 78990P-6 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  11. J. C. Ranasinghesagara, Y. Jian, X. Chen, K. Mathewson, and R. J. Zemp, “Photoacoustic technique for assessing optical scattering properties of turbid media,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(4), 040504 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. R. Manniesing and W. Niessen, “Multiscale vessel enhancing diffusion in CT angiography noise filtering,” Inf. Process. Med. Imaging 19, 138–149 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. Laser Institute of America, American National Standard for Safe Use of Lasers ANSI Z136.1–2007 (American National Standards Institute, Inc., 2007).
  14. G. O. Fruhwirth, S. Ameer-Beg, R. Cook, T. Watson, T. Ng, and F. Festy, “Fluorescence lifetime endoscopy using TCSPC for the measurement of FRET in live cells,” Opt. Express 18(11), 11148–11158 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. S. Tang, W. Jung, D. McCormick, T. Xie, J. Su, Y. C. Ahn, B. J. Tromberg, and Z. Chen, “Design and implementation of fiber-based multiphoton endoscopy with microelectromechanical systems scanning,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(3), 034005 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. K. Sokolov, K. B. Sung, T. Collier, A. Clark, D. Arifler, A. Lacy, M. Descour, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Endoscopic microscopy,” Dis. Markers 18(5-6), 269–291 (2002).
    [PubMed]

2011 (4)

W. Shi, P. Hajireza, P. Shao, S. Kerr, and R. J. Zemp, “Real-time optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy using fiber-laser technology,” Proc. SPIE 7899, 789939, 789939-6 (2011).
[CrossRef]

W. Shi, P. Hajireza, P. Shao, A. Forbrich, and R. J. Zemp, “In vivo near-realtime volumetric optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy using a high-repetition-rate nanosecond fiber-laser,” Opt. Express 19(18), 17143–17150 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Wang, K. Maslov, J. Yao, B. Rao, and L. V. Wang, “Fast voice-coil scanning optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 36(2), 139–141 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Hajireza, W. Shi, P. Shao, S. Kerr, and R. J. Zemp, “Optical-resolution photoacoustic micro-endoscopy using image-guide fibers and fiber laser technology,” Proc. SPIE 7899, 78990P, 78990P-6 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (3)

2009 (3)

S. Tang, W. Jung, D. McCormick, T. Xie, J. Su, Y. C. Ahn, B. J. Tromberg, and Z. Chen, “Design and implementation of fiber-based multiphoton endoscopy with microelectromechanical systems scanning,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(3), 034005 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Hu, K. Maslov, and L. V. Wang, “Noninvasive label-free imaging of microhemodynamics by optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy,” Opt. Express 17(9), 7688–7693 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Ranasinghesagara, Y. Jian, X. Chen, K. Mathewson, and R. J. Zemp, “Photoacoustic technique for assessing optical scattering properties of turbid media,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(4), 040504 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

2007 (1)

H. F. Zhang, K. Maslov, and L. V. Wang, “In vivo imaging of subcutaneous structures using functional photoacoustic microscopy,” Nat. Protoc. 2(4), 797–804 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

H. F. Zhang, K. Maslov, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Functional photoacoustic microscopy for high-resolution and noninvasive in vivo imaging,” Nat. Biotechnol. 24(7), 848–851 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

R. Manniesing and W. Niessen, “Multiscale vessel enhancing diffusion in CT angiography noise filtering,” Inf. Process. Med. Imaging 19, 138–149 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

K. Sokolov, K. B. Sung, T. Collier, A. Clark, D. Arifler, A. Lacy, M. Descour, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Endoscopic microscopy,” Dis. Markers 18(5-6), 269–291 (2002).
[PubMed]

Ahn, Y. C.

S. Tang, W. Jung, D. McCormick, T. Xie, J. Su, Y. C. Ahn, B. J. Tromberg, and Z. Chen, “Design and implementation of fiber-based multiphoton endoscopy with microelectromechanical systems scanning,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(3), 034005 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ameer-Beg, S.

Arifler, D.

K. Sokolov, K. B. Sung, T. Collier, A. Clark, D. Arifler, A. Lacy, M. Descour, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Endoscopic microscopy,” Dis. Markers 18(5-6), 269–291 (2002).
[PubMed]

Chen, X.

J. C. Ranasinghesagara, Y. Jian, X. Chen, K. Mathewson, and R. J. Zemp, “Photoacoustic technique for assessing optical scattering properties of turbid media,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(4), 040504 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, Z.

S. Tang, W. Jung, D. McCormick, T. Xie, J. Su, Y. C. Ahn, B. J. Tromberg, and Z. Chen, “Design and implementation of fiber-based multiphoton endoscopy with microelectromechanical systems scanning,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(3), 034005 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Clark, A.

K. Sokolov, K. B. Sung, T. Collier, A. Clark, D. Arifler, A. Lacy, M. Descour, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Endoscopic microscopy,” Dis. Markers 18(5-6), 269–291 (2002).
[PubMed]

Collier, T.

K. Sokolov, K. B. Sung, T. Collier, A. Clark, D. Arifler, A. Lacy, M. Descour, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Endoscopic microscopy,” Dis. Markers 18(5-6), 269–291 (2002).
[PubMed]

Cook, R.

Descour, M.

K. Sokolov, K. B. Sung, T. Collier, A. Clark, D. Arifler, A. Lacy, M. Descour, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Endoscopic microscopy,” Dis. Markers 18(5-6), 269–291 (2002).
[PubMed]

Fedosejevs, R.

W. Shi, S. Kerr, I. Utkin, J. Ranasinghesagara, L. Pan, Y. Godwal, R. J. Zemp, and R. Fedosejevs, “Optical resolution photoacoustic microscopy using novel high-repetition-rate passively Q-switched microchip and fiber lasers,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(5), 056017 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Festy, F.

Forbrich, A.

Fruhwirth, G. O.

Godwal, Y.

W. Shi, S. Kerr, I. Utkin, J. Ranasinghesagara, L. Pan, Y. Godwal, R. J. Zemp, and R. Fedosejevs, “Optical resolution photoacoustic microscopy using novel high-repetition-rate passively Q-switched microchip and fiber lasers,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(5), 056017 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hajireza, P.

W. Shi, P. Hajireza, P. Shao, A. Forbrich, and R. J. Zemp, “In vivo near-realtime volumetric optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy using a high-repetition-rate nanosecond fiber-laser,” Opt. Express 19(18), 17143–17150 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Shi, P. Hajireza, P. Shao, S. Kerr, and R. J. Zemp, “Real-time optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy using fiber-laser technology,” Proc. SPIE 7899, 789939, 789939-6 (2011).
[CrossRef]

P. Hajireza, W. Shi, P. Shao, S. Kerr, and R. J. Zemp, “Optical-resolution photoacoustic micro-endoscopy using image-guide fibers and fiber laser technology,” Proc. SPIE 7899, 78990P, 78990P-6 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hu, S.

Jian, Y.

J. C. Ranasinghesagara, Y. Jian, X. Chen, K. Mathewson, and R. J. Zemp, “Photoacoustic technique for assessing optical scattering properties of turbid media,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(4), 040504 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jung, W.

S. Tang, W. Jung, D. McCormick, T. Xie, J. Su, Y. C. Ahn, B. J. Tromberg, and Z. Chen, “Design and implementation of fiber-based multiphoton endoscopy with microelectromechanical systems scanning,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(3), 034005 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kerr, S.

P. Hajireza, W. Shi, P. Shao, S. Kerr, and R. J. Zemp, “Optical-resolution photoacoustic micro-endoscopy using image-guide fibers and fiber laser technology,” Proc. SPIE 7899, 78990P, 78990P-6 (2011).
[CrossRef]

W. Shi, P. Hajireza, P. Shao, S. Kerr, and R. J. Zemp, “Real-time optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy using fiber-laser technology,” Proc. SPIE 7899, 789939, 789939-6 (2011).
[CrossRef]

W. Shi, S. Kerr, I. Utkin, J. Ranasinghesagara, L. Pan, Y. Godwal, R. J. Zemp, and R. Fedosejevs, “Optical resolution photoacoustic microscopy using novel high-repetition-rate passively Q-switched microchip and fiber lasers,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(5), 056017 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lacy, A.

K. Sokolov, K. B. Sung, T. Collier, A. Clark, D. Arifler, A. Lacy, M. Descour, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Endoscopic microscopy,” Dis. Markers 18(5-6), 269–291 (2002).
[PubMed]

Li, L.

Manniesing, R.

R. Manniesing and W. Niessen, “Multiscale vessel enhancing diffusion in CT angiography noise filtering,” Inf. Process. Med. Imaging 19, 138–149 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maslov, K.

Mathewson, K.

J. C. Ranasinghesagara, Y. Jian, X. Chen, K. Mathewson, and R. J. Zemp, “Photoacoustic technique for assessing optical scattering properties of turbid media,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(4), 040504 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McCormick, D.

S. Tang, W. Jung, D. McCormick, T. Xie, J. Su, Y. C. Ahn, B. J. Tromberg, and Z. Chen, “Design and implementation of fiber-based multiphoton endoscopy with microelectromechanical systems scanning,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(3), 034005 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ng, T.

Niessen, W.

R. Manniesing and W. Niessen, “Multiscale vessel enhancing diffusion in CT angiography noise filtering,” Inf. Process. Med. Imaging 19, 138–149 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pan, L.

W. Shi, S. Kerr, I. Utkin, J. Ranasinghesagara, L. Pan, Y. Godwal, R. J. Zemp, and R. Fedosejevs, “Optical resolution photoacoustic microscopy using novel high-repetition-rate passively Q-switched microchip and fiber lasers,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(5), 056017 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ranasinghesagara, J.

W. Shi, S. Kerr, I. Utkin, J. Ranasinghesagara, L. Pan, Y. Godwal, R. J. Zemp, and R. Fedosejevs, “Optical resolution photoacoustic microscopy using novel high-repetition-rate passively Q-switched microchip and fiber lasers,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(5), 056017 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ranasinghesagara, J. C.

J. C. Ranasinghesagara, Y. Jian, X. Chen, K. Mathewson, and R. J. Zemp, “Photoacoustic technique for assessing optical scattering properties of turbid media,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(4), 040504 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rao, B.

Richards-Kortum, R.

K. Sokolov, K. B. Sung, T. Collier, A. Clark, D. Arifler, A. Lacy, M. Descour, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Endoscopic microscopy,” Dis. Markers 18(5-6), 269–291 (2002).
[PubMed]

Shao, P.

W. Shi, P. Hajireza, P. Shao, S. Kerr, and R. J. Zemp, “Real-time optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy using fiber-laser technology,” Proc. SPIE 7899, 789939, 789939-6 (2011).
[CrossRef]

W. Shi, P. Hajireza, P. Shao, A. Forbrich, and R. J. Zemp, “In vivo near-realtime volumetric optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy using a high-repetition-rate nanosecond fiber-laser,” Opt. Express 19(18), 17143–17150 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Hajireza, W. Shi, P. Shao, S. Kerr, and R. J. Zemp, “Optical-resolution photoacoustic micro-endoscopy using image-guide fibers and fiber laser technology,” Proc. SPIE 7899, 78990P, 78990P-6 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Shi, W.

P. Hajireza, W. Shi, P. Shao, S. Kerr, and R. J. Zemp, “Optical-resolution photoacoustic micro-endoscopy using image-guide fibers and fiber laser technology,” Proc. SPIE 7899, 78990P, 78990P-6 (2011).
[CrossRef]

W. Shi, P. Hajireza, P. Shao, A. Forbrich, and R. J. Zemp, “In vivo near-realtime volumetric optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy using a high-repetition-rate nanosecond fiber-laser,” Opt. Express 19(18), 17143–17150 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Shi, P. Hajireza, P. Shao, S. Kerr, and R. J. Zemp, “Real-time optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy using fiber-laser technology,” Proc. SPIE 7899, 789939, 789939-6 (2011).
[CrossRef]

W. Shi, S. Kerr, I. Utkin, J. Ranasinghesagara, L. Pan, Y. Godwal, R. J. Zemp, and R. Fedosejevs, “Optical resolution photoacoustic microscopy using novel high-repetition-rate passively Q-switched microchip and fiber lasers,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(5), 056017 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sokolov, K.

K. Sokolov, K. B. Sung, T. Collier, A. Clark, D. Arifler, A. Lacy, M. Descour, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Endoscopic microscopy,” Dis. Markers 18(5-6), 269–291 (2002).
[PubMed]

Stoica, G.

H. F. Zhang, K. Maslov, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Functional photoacoustic microscopy for high-resolution and noninvasive in vivo imaging,” Nat. Biotechnol. 24(7), 848–851 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Su, J.

S. Tang, W. Jung, D. McCormick, T. Xie, J. Su, Y. C. Ahn, B. J. Tromberg, and Z. Chen, “Design and implementation of fiber-based multiphoton endoscopy with microelectromechanical systems scanning,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(3), 034005 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sung, K. B.

K. Sokolov, K. B. Sung, T. Collier, A. Clark, D. Arifler, A. Lacy, M. Descour, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Endoscopic microscopy,” Dis. Markers 18(5-6), 269–291 (2002).
[PubMed]

Tang, S.

S. Tang, W. Jung, D. McCormick, T. Xie, J. Su, Y. C. Ahn, B. J. Tromberg, and Z. Chen, “Design and implementation of fiber-based multiphoton endoscopy with microelectromechanical systems scanning,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(3), 034005 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tromberg, B. J.

S. Tang, W. Jung, D. McCormick, T. Xie, J. Su, Y. C. Ahn, B. J. Tromberg, and Z. Chen, “Design and implementation of fiber-based multiphoton endoscopy with microelectromechanical systems scanning,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(3), 034005 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Utkin, I.

W. Shi, S. Kerr, I. Utkin, J. Ranasinghesagara, L. Pan, Y. Godwal, R. J. Zemp, and R. Fedosejevs, “Optical resolution photoacoustic microscopy using novel high-repetition-rate passively Q-switched microchip and fiber lasers,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(5), 056017 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, L.

Wang, L. V.

Watson, T.

Xie, T.

S. Tang, W. Jung, D. McCormick, T. Xie, J. Su, Y. C. Ahn, B. J. Tromberg, and Z. Chen, “Design and implementation of fiber-based multiphoton endoscopy with microelectromechanical systems scanning,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(3), 034005 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yao, J.

Zemp, R. J.

W. Shi, P. Hajireza, P. Shao, A. Forbrich, and R. J. Zemp, “In vivo near-realtime volumetric optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy using a high-repetition-rate nanosecond fiber-laser,” Opt. Express 19(18), 17143–17150 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Hajireza, W. Shi, P. Shao, S. Kerr, and R. J. Zemp, “Optical-resolution photoacoustic micro-endoscopy using image-guide fibers and fiber laser technology,” Proc. SPIE 7899, 78990P, 78990P-6 (2011).
[CrossRef]

W. Shi, P. Hajireza, P. Shao, S. Kerr, and R. J. Zemp, “Real-time optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy using fiber-laser technology,” Proc. SPIE 7899, 789939, 789939-6 (2011).
[CrossRef]

W. Shi, S. Kerr, I. Utkin, J. Ranasinghesagara, L. Pan, Y. Godwal, R. J. Zemp, and R. Fedosejevs, “Optical resolution photoacoustic microscopy using novel high-repetition-rate passively Q-switched microchip and fiber lasers,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(5), 056017 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Ranasinghesagara, Y. Jian, X. Chen, K. Mathewson, and R. J. Zemp, “Photoacoustic technique for assessing optical scattering properties of turbid media,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(4), 040504 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, H. F.

K. Maslov, H. F. Zhang, S. Hu, and L. V. Wang, “Optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy for in vivo imaging of single capillaries,” Opt. Lett. 33(9), 929–931 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. F. Zhang, K. Maslov, and L. V. Wang, “In vivo imaging of subcutaneous structures using functional photoacoustic microscopy,” Nat. Protoc. 2(4), 797–804 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. F. Zhang, K. Maslov, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Functional photoacoustic microscopy for high-resolution and noninvasive in vivo imaging,” Nat. Biotechnol. 24(7), 848–851 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dis. Markers (1)

K. Sokolov, K. B. Sung, T. Collier, A. Clark, D. Arifler, A. Lacy, M. Descour, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Endoscopic microscopy,” Dis. Markers 18(5-6), 269–291 (2002).
[PubMed]

Inf. Process. Med. Imaging (1)

R. Manniesing and W. Niessen, “Multiscale vessel enhancing diffusion in CT angiography noise filtering,” Inf. Process. Med. Imaging 19, 138–149 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (3)

S. Tang, W. Jung, D. McCormick, T. Xie, J. Su, Y. C. Ahn, B. J. Tromberg, and Z. Chen, “Design and implementation of fiber-based multiphoton endoscopy with microelectromechanical systems scanning,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(3), 034005 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Ranasinghesagara, Y. Jian, X. Chen, K. Mathewson, and R. J. Zemp, “Photoacoustic technique for assessing optical scattering properties of turbid media,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(4), 040504 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Shi, S. Kerr, I. Utkin, J. Ranasinghesagara, L. Pan, Y. Godwal, R. J. Zemp, and R. Fedosejevs, “Optical resolution photoacoustic microscopy using novel high-repetition-rate passively Q-switched microchip and fiber lasers,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(5), 056017 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Biotechnol. (1)

H. F. Zhang, K. Maslov, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Functional photoacoustic microscopy for high-resolution and noninvasive in vivo imaging,” Nat. Biotechnol. 24(7), 848–851 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Protoc. (1)

H. F. Zhang, K. Maslov, and L. V. Wang, “In vivo imaging of subcutaneous structures using functional photoacoustic microscopy,” Nat. Protoc. 2(4), 797–804 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Proc. SPIE (2)

P. Hajireza, W. Shi, P. Shao, S. Kerr, and R. J. Zemp, “Optical-resolution photoacoustic micro-endoscopy using image-guide fibers and fiber laser technology,” Proc. SPIE 7899, 78990P, 78990P-6 (2011).
[CrossRef]

W. Shi, P. Hajireza, P. Shao, S. Kerr, and R. J. Zemp, “Real-time optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy using fiber-laser technology,” Proc. SPIE 7899, 789939, 789939-6 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

Laser Institute of America, American National Standard for Safe Use of Lasers ANSI Z136.1–2007 (American National Standards Institute, Inc., 2007).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Experimental setup of our HH-OR-PAM imaging system employing a high repetition rate diode- pumped pulsed Ytterbium fiber laser with up to 600 kHz pulse repetition rate and pulse widths of 1ns. FLD: fiber laser driver, Yb: Ytterbium, M: mirror, Gs: glass, PD: Photodiode, FG1: function generator channel 1, FG2: function generator channel 2, DX: X axis mirror driver, DY: Y axis mirror driver, OL: objective lens, A: amplifier (Olympus 5900PR). (b) The structure of the handheld probe. The light at the end of the fiber is refocused using a pair of glass aspheric lenses with 350 to 700nm AR Coating. Then the light passes through an oblique 10-mm fused silica prism. The photoacoustic signals directed upward to the prism’s diagonal will be deflected to a focused transducer (f = 19mm). AL: glass aspheric lenses, UST: ultrasound transducer, P: prism, IMF: index-matching fluid. (c) The prototype of the handheld probe. AL: glass aspheric lenses, UST: ultrasound transducer, P: prism, IMF: index-matching fluid.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) and (b) network of carbon fibers with ~7.5µm diameter which are as small as capillary sized blood vessels. (c) Human hair with a diameter of ~100µm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Microvasculature in the ear of a Swiss Webster mouse.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

FWHM due to fitting individual carbon fiber signal amplitude to a Gaussian function.

Equations (2)

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ΔX= FO V x × π× FR× PR R 1 ,
ΔY= FO V y × 2 × FR   1 × SR,

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