Abstract

We demonstrate highly enhanced optical nonlinearity in a coupled-resonator optical waveguide (CROW) in a four-wave mixing experiment. Using a CROW consisting of 200 coupled resonators based on width-modulated photonic crystal nanocavities in a line defect, we obtained an effective nonlinear constant exceeding 10,000 /W/m, thanks to slow light propagation combined with a strong spatial confinement of light achieved by the wavelength-sized cavities.

© 2011 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
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2011 (1)

2010 (12)

C. Monat, M. Ebnali-Heidari, C. Grillet, B. Corcoran, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, L. O’Faolain, J. Li, and T. F. Krauss, “Four-wave mixing in slow light engineered silicon photonic crystal waveguides,” Opt. Express 18(22), 22915–22927 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Eckhouse, I. Cestier, G. Eisenstein, S. Combrié, P. Colman, A. De Rossi, M. Santagiustina, C. G. Someda, and G. Vadalà, “Highly efficient four wave mixing in GaInP photonic crystal waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 35(9), 1440–1442 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. F. McMillan, M. Yu, D.-L. Kwong, and C. W. Wong, “Observation of four-wave mixing in slow-light silicon photonic crystal waveguides,” Opt. Express 18(15), 15484–15497 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Santagiustina, C. G. Someda, G. Vadalà, S. Combrié, and A. De Rossi, “Theory of slow light enhanced four-wave mixing in photonic crystal waveguides,” Opt. Express 18(20), 21024–21029 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Notomi, “Manipulating light with strongly modulated photonic crystals,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 73(9), 096501 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Monat, B. Corcoran, D. Pudo, M. Ebnali-Heidari, C. Grillet, M. D. Pelusi, D. J. Moss, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, L. O’Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, “Slow-light enhanced nonlinear optics in silicon photonic crystal waveguide,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 344–356 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. Colman, C. Husko, S. Combrié, I. Sagnes, C. W. Wong, and A. De Rossi, “Temporal solitons and pulse compression in photonic crystal waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 4(12), 862–868 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. L. Cooper, G. Gupta, M. A. Schneider, W. M. J. Green, S. Assefa, F. Xia, D. K. Gifford, and S. Mookherjea, “Waveguide dispersion effects in silicon-on-insulator coupled-resonator optical waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 35(18), 3030–3032 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. L. Cooper, G. Gupta, M. A. Schneider, W. M. J. Green, S. Assefa, F. Xia, Y. A. Vlasov, and S. Mookherjea, “Statistics of light transport in 235-ring silicon coupled-resonator optical waveguides,” Opt. Express 18(25), 26505–26516 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Harada, H. Takesue, H. Fukuda, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, Y. Tokura, and S. Itabashi, “Frequency and polarization characteristics of correlated photon-pair generation using a silicon wire waveguide,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 325–331 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. Sun and R. M. Reano, “Low-power optical bistability in a free-standing silicon ring resonator,” Opt. Lett. 35(8), 1124–1126 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Suzuki and T. Baba, “Nonlinear light propagation in chalcogenide photonic crystal slow light waveguides,” Opt. Express 18(25), 26675–26685 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (6)

2008 (5)

Q. Lin, T. J. Johnson, C. P. Michael, and O. Painter, “Adiabatic self-tuning in a silicon microdisk optical resonator,” Opt. Express 16(19), 14801–14811 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Baba, “Slow light in photonic crystals,” Nat. Photonics 2(8), 465–473 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Notomi, E. Kuramochi, and T. Tanabe, “Large-scale arrays of ultrahigh-Q coupled nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics 2(12), 741–747 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Freeman, C. Grillet, M. W. Lee, C. L. C. Smith, Y. Ruan, A. Rode, M. Krolikowska, S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, C. M. De Sterke, M. J. Steel, B. Luther-Davies, S. Madden, D. J. Moss, Y. H. Lee, and B. J. Eggleton, “Chalcogenide glass photonic crystals,” Photon. Nanostructures 6(1), 3–11 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Mookherjea, J. S. Park, S.-Y. Yang, and P. R. Bandaru, “Localization in silicon nanophotonic slow-light waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 2(2), 90–93 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (3)

F. Xia, L. Sekaric, and Y. Vlasov, “Ultracompact optical buffers on a silicon chip,” Nat. Photonics 1(1), 65–71 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E.-K. Tien, N. S. Yuksek, F. Qian, and O. Boyraz, “Pulse compression and modelocking by using TPA in silicon waveguides,” Opt. Express 15(10), 6500–6506 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Tanabe, M. Notomi, E. Kuramochi, A. Shinya, and H. Taniyama, “Trapping and delaying photons for one nanosecond in an ultrasmall high-Q photonic crystal nanocavity,” Nat. Photonics 1(1), 49–52 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

E. Kuramochi, M. Notomi, S. Mitsugi, A. Shinya, T. Tanabe, and T. Watanabe, “Ultrahigh-Q photonic crystal nanocavities realized by the local width modulation of a line defect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(4), 041112 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

Y. Hara, T. Mukaiyama, K. Takeda, and M. Kuwata-Gonokami, “Heavy photon states in photonic chains of resonantly coupled cavities with supermonodispersive microspheres,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(20), 203905 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (3)

2002 (1)

S. Mookherjea and A. Yariv, “Coupled resonator optical waveguides,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(3), 448–456 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

S. Mookherjea and A. Yariv, “Optical pulse propagation in the tight-binding approximation,” Opt. Express 9(2), 91–96 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Notomi, K. Yamada, A. Shinya, J. Takahashi, C. Takahashi, and I. Yokohama, “Extremely large group-velocity dispersion of line-defect waveguides in photonic crystal slabs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87(25), 253902 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

1999 (1)

1982 (1)

B. Costa, D. Mazzoni, M. Puleo, and E. Vezzoni, “Phase shift technique for the measurement of chromatic dispersion in optical fibers using LEDs,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 18(10), 1509–1515 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Almeida, V. R.

Asakawa, K.

Assefa, S.

Baba, T.

Bandaru, P. R.

S. Mookherjea, J. S. Park, S.-Y. Yang, and P. R. Bandaru, “Localization in silicon nanophotonic slow-light waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 2(2), 90–93 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Boyraz, O.

Cestier, I.

Chai, Y. J.

Colman, P.

P. Colman, C. Husko, S. Combrié, I. Sagnes, C. W. Wong, and A. De Rossi, “Temporal solitons and pulse compression in photonic crystal waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 4(12), 862–868 (2010).
[CrossRef]

V. Eckhouse, I. Cestier, G. Eisenstein, S. Combrié, P. Colman, A. De Rossi, M. Santagiustina, C. G. Someda, and G. Vadalà, “Highly efficient four wave mixing in GaInP photonic crystal waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 35(9), 1440–1442 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Combrié, S.

Cooper, M. L.

Corcoran, B.

C. Monat, M. Ebnali-Heidari, C. Grillet, B. Corcoran, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, L. O’Faolain, J. Li, and T. F. Krauss, “Four-wave mixing in slow light engineered silicon photonic crystal waveguides,” Opt. Express 18(22), 22915–22927 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Monat, B. Corcoran, D. Pudo, M. Ebnali-Heidari, C. Grillet, M. D. Pelusi, D. J. Moss, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, L. O’Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, “Slow-light enhanced nonlinear optics in silicon photonic crystal waveguide,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 344–356 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. Corcoran, C. Monat, C. Grillet, D. J. Moss, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, L. O'Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, “Green light emission in silicon through slow-light enhanced third-harmonic generation in photonic-crystal waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 206–210 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Monat, B. Corcoran, M. Ebnali-Heidari, C. Grillet, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, L. O’Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, “Slow light enhancement of nonlinear effects in silicon engineered photonic crystal waveguides,” Opt. Express 17(4), 2944–2953 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Costa, B.

B. Costa, D. Mazzoni, M. Puleo, and E. Vezzoni, “Phase shift technique for the measurement of chromatic dispersion in optical fibers using LEDs,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 18(10), 1509–1515 (1982).
[CrossRef]

De Rossi, A.

De Sterke, C. M.

D. Freeman, C. Grillet, M. W. Lee, C. L. C. Smith, Y. Ruan, A. Rode, M. Krolikowska, S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, C. M. De Sterke, M. J. Steel, B. Luther-Davies, S. Madden, D. J. Moss, Y. H. Lee, and B. J. Eggleton, “Chalcogenide glass photonic crystals,” Photon. Nanostructures 6(1), 3–11 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ebnali-Heidari, M.

Eckhouse, V.

Eggleton, B. J.

C. Monat, B. Corcoran, D. Pudo, M. Ebnali-Heidari, C. Grillet, M. D. Pelusi, D. J. Moss, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, L. O’Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, “Slow-light enhanced nonlinear optics in silicon photonic crystal waveguide,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 344–356 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Monat, M. Ebnali-Heidari, C. Grillet, B. Corcoran, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, L. O’Faolain, J. Li, and T. F. Krauss, “Four-wave mixing in slow light engineered silicon photonic crystal waveguides,” Opt. Express 18(22), 22915–22927 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Corcoran, C. Monat, C. Grillet, D. J. Moss, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, L. O'Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, “Green light emission in silicon through slow-light enhanced third-harmonic generation in photonic-crystal waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 206–210 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Monat, B. Corcoran, M. Ebnali-Heidari, C. Grillet, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, L. O’Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, “Slow light enhancement of nonlinear effects in silicon engineered photonic crystal waveguides,” Opt. Express 17(4), 2944–2953 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Freeman, C. Grillet, M. W. Lee, C. L. C. Smith, Y. Ruan, A. Rode, M. Krolikowska, S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, C. M. De Sterke, M. J. Steel, B. Luther-Davies, S. Madden, D. J. Moss, Y. H. Lee, and B. J. Eggleton, “Chalcogenide glass photonic crystals,” Photon. Nanostructures 6(1), 3–11 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Eisenstein, G.

Freeman, D.

D. Freeman, C. Grillet, M. W. Lee, C. L. C. Smith, Y. Ruan, A. Rode, M. Krolikowska, S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, C. M. De Sterke, M. J. Steel, B. Luther-Davies, S. Madden, D. J. Moss, Y. H. Lee, and B. J. Eggleton, “Chalcogenide glass photonic crystals,” Photon. Nanostructures 6(1), 3–11 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fukuda, H.

K. Harada, H. Takesue, H. Fukuda, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, Y. Tokura, and S. Itabashi, “Frequency and polarization characteristics of correlated photon-pair generation using a silicon wire waveguide,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 325–331 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gifford, D. K.

Green, W. M. J.

Grillet, C.

C. Monat, M. Ebnali-Heidari, C. Grillet, B. Corcoran, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, L. O’Faolain, J. Li, and T. F. Krauss, “Four-wave mixing in slow light engineered silicon photonic crystal waveguides,” Opt. Express 18(22), 22915–22927 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Monat, B. Corcoran, D. Pudo, M. Ebnali-Heidari, C. Grillet, M. D. Pelusi, D. J. Moss, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, L. O’Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, “Slow-light enhanced nonlinear optics in silicon photonic crystal waveguide,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 344–356 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. Corcoran, C. Monat, C. Grillet, D. J. Moss, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, L. O'Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, “Green light emission in silicon through slow-light enhanced third-harmonic generation in photonic-crystal waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 206–210 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Ebnali-Heidari, C. Monat, C. Grillet, and M. K. Moravvej-Farshi, “A proposal for enhancing four-wave mixing in slow light engineered photonic crystal waveguides and its application to optical regeneration,” Opt. Express 17(20), 18340–18353 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Monat, B. Corcoran, M. Ebnali-Heidari, C. Grillet, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, L. O’Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, “Slow light enhancement of nonlinear effects in silicon engineered photonic crystal waveguides,” Opt. Express 17(4), 2944–2953 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Freeman, C. Grillet, M. W. Lee, C. L. C. Smith, Y. Ruan, A. Rode, M. Krolikowska, S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, C. M. De Sterke, M. J. Steel, B. Luther-Davies, S. Madden, D. J. Moss, Y. H. Lee, and B. J. Eggleton, “Chalcogenide glass photonic crystals,” Photon. Nanostructures 6(1), 3–11 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gupta, G.

Hamachi, Y.

Hara, Y.

Y. Hara, T. Mukaiyama, K. Takeda, and M. Kuwata-Gonokami, “Heavy photon states in photonic chains of resonantly coupled cavities with supermonodispersive microspheres,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(20), 203905 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Harada, K.

K. Harada, H. Takesue, H. Fukuda, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, Y. Tokura, and S. Itabashi, “Frequency and polarization characteristics of correlated photon-pair generation using a silicon wire waveguide,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 325–331 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Haret, L.-D.

Husko, C.

P. Colman, C. Husko, S. Combrié, I. Sagnes, C. W. Wong, and A. De Rossi, “Temporal solitons and pulse compression in photonic crystal waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 4(12), 862–868 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ikeda, N.

Inoue, K.

Itabashi, S.

K. Harada, H. Takesue, H. Fukuda, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, Y. Tokura, and S. Itabashi, “Frequency and polarization characteristics of correlated photon-pair generation using a silicon wire waveguide,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 325–331 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, T. J.

Karle, T. J.

Krauss, T. F.

J. Li, L. O’Faolain, I. H. Rey, and T. F. Krauss, “Four-wave mixing in photonic crystal waveguides: slow light enhancement and limitations,” Opt. Express 19(5), 4458–4463 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Monat, M. Ebnali-Heidari, C. Grillet, B. Corcoran, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, L. O’Faolain, J. Li, and T. F. Krauss, “Four-wave mixing in slow light engineered silicon photonic crystal waveguides,” Opt. Express 18(22), 22915–22927 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Monat, B. Corcoran, D. Pudo, M. Ebnali-Heidari, C. Grillet, M. D. Pelusi, D. J. Moss, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, L. O’Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, “Slow-light enhanced nonlinear optics in silicon photonic crystal waveguide,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 344–356 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. Corcoran, C. Monat, C. Grillet, D. J. Moss, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, L. O'Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, “Green light emission in silicon through slow-light enhanced third-harmonic generation in photonic-crystal waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 206–210 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Monat, B. Corcoran, M. Ebnali-Heidari, C. Grillet, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, L. O’Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, “Slow light enhancement of nonlinear effects in silicon engineered photonic crystal waveguides,” Opt. Express 17(4), 2944–2953 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. J. Karle, Y. J. Chai, C. N. Morgan, I. H. White, and T. F. Krauss, “Observation of pulse compression in photonic crystal coupled cavity waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 22(2), 514–519 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Krolikowska, M.

D. Freeman, C. Grillet, M. W. Lee, C. L. C. Smith, Y. Ruan, A. Rode, M. Krolikowska, S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, C. M. De Sterke, M. J. Steel, B. Luther-Davies, S. Madden, D. J. Moss, Y. H. Lee, and B. J. Eggleton, “Chalcogenide glass photonic crystals,” Photon. Nanostructures 6(1), 3–11 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kubo, S.

Kuramochi, E.

L.-D. Haret, T. Tanabe, E. Kuramochi, and M. Notomi, “Extremely low power optical bistability in silicon demonstrated using 1D photonic crystal nanocavity,” Opt. Express 17(23), 21108–21117 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Notomi, E. Kuramochi, and T. Tanabe, “Large-scale arrays of ultrahigh-Q coupled nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics 2(12), 741–747 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Tanabe, M. Notomi, E. Kuramochi, A. Shinya, and H. Taniyama, “Trapping and delaying photons for one nanosecond in an ultrasmall high-Q photonic crystal nanocavity,” Nat. Photonics 1(1), 49–52 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. Kuramochi, M. Notomi, S. Mitsugi, A. Shinya, T. Tanabe, and T. Watanabe, “Ultrahigh-Q photonic crystal nanocavities realized by the local width modulation of a line defect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(4), 041112 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Notomi, A. Shinya, S. Mitsugi, E. Kuramochi, and H.-Y. Ryu, “Waveguides, resonators and their coupled elements in photonic crystal slabs,” Opt. Express 12(8), 1551–1561 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kuwata-Gonokami, M.

Y. Hara, T. Mukaiyama, K. Takeda, and M. Kuwata-Gonokami, “Heavy photon states in photonic chains of resonantly coupled cavities with supermonodispersive microspheres,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(20), 203905 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kwong, D.-L.

Lee, M. W.

D. Freeman, C. Grillet, M. W. Lee, C. L. C. Smith, Y. Ruan, A. Rode, M. Krolikowska, S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, C. M. De Sterke, M. J. Steel, B. Luther-Davies, S. Madden, D. J. Moss, Y. H. Lee, and B. J. Eggleton, “Chalcogenide glass photonic crystals,” Photon. Nanostructures 6(1), 3–11 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lee, R. K.

Lee, Y. H.

D. Freeman, C. Grillet, M. W. Lee, C. L. C. Smith, Y. Ruan, A. Rode, M. Krolikowska, S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, C. M. De Sterke, M. J. Steel, B. Luther-Davies, S. Madden, D. J. Moss, Y. H. Lee, and B. J. Eggleton, “Chalcogenide glass photonic crystals,” Photon. Nanostructures 6(1), 3–11 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Li, J.

Lin, Q.

Lipson, M.

Luther-Davies, B.

D. Freeman, C. Grillet, M. W. Lee, C. L. C. Smith, Y. Ruan, A. Rode, M. Krolikowska, S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, C. M. De Sterke, M. J. Steel, B. Luther-Davies, S. Madden, D. J. Moss, Y. H. Lee, and B. J. Eggleton, “Chalcogenide glass photonic crystals,” Photon. Nanostructures 6(1), 3–11 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Madden, S.

D. Freeman, C. Grillet, M. W. Lee, C. L. C. Smith, Y. Ruan, A. Rode, M. Krolikowska, S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, C. M. De Sterke, M. J. Steel, B. Luther-Davies, S. Madden, D. J. Moss, Y. H. Lee, and B. J. Eggleton, “Chalcogenide glass photonic crystals,” Photon. Nanostructures 6(1), 3–11 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mazzoni, D.

B. Costa, D. Mazzoni, M. Puleo, and E. Vezzoni, “Phase shift technique for the measurement of chromatic dispersion in optical fibers using LEDs,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 18(10), 1509–1515 (1982).
[CrossRef]

McMillan, J. F.

Michael, C. P.

Mitsugi, S.

E. Kuramochi, M. Notomi, S. Mitsugi, A. Shinya, T. Tanabe, and T. Watanabe, “Ultrahigh-Q photonic crystal nanocavities realized by the local width modulation of a line defect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(4), 041112 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Notomi, A. Shinya, S. Mitsugi, E. Kuramochi, and H.-Y. Ryu, “Waveguides, resonators and their coupled elements in photonic crystal slabs,” Opt. Express 12(8), 1551–1561 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Monat, C.

C. Monat, B. Corcoran, D. Pudo, M. Ebnali-Heidari, C. Grillet, M. D. Pelusi, D. J. Moss, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, L. O’Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, “Slow-light enhanced nonlinear optics in silicon photonic crystal waveguide,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 344–356 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Monat, M. Ebnali-Heidari, C. Grillet, B. Corcoran, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, L. O’Faolain, J. Li, and T. F. Krauss, “Four-wave mixing in slow light engineered silicon photonic crystal waveguides,” Opt. Express 18(22), 22915–22927 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Corcoran, C. Monat, C. Grillet, D. J. Moss, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, L. O'Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, “Green light emission in silicon through slow-light enhanced third-harmonic generation in photonic-crystal waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 206–210 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Monat, B. Corcoran, M. Ebnali-Heidari, C. Grillet, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, L. O’Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, “Slow light enhancement of nonlinear effects in silicon engineered photonic crystal waveguides,” Opt. Express 17(4), 2944–2953 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Ebnali-Heidari, C. Monat, C. Grillet, and M. K. Moravvej-Farshi, “A proposal for enhancing four-wave mixing in slow light engineered photonic crystal waveguides and its application to optical regeneration,” Opt. Express 17(20), 18340–18353 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mookherjea, S.

Moravvej-Farshi, M. K.

Morgan, C. N.

Moss, D. J.

C. Monat, B. Corcoran, D. Pudo, M. Ebnali-Heidari, C. Grillet, M. D. Pelusi, D. J. Moss, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, L. O’Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, “Slow-light enhanced nonlinear optics in silicon photonic crystal waveguide,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 344–356 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. Corcoran, C. Monat, C. Grillet, D. J. Moss, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, L. O'Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, “Green light emission in silicon through slow-light enhanced third-harmonic generation in photonic-crystal waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 206–210 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Freeman, C. Grillet, M. W. Lee, C. L. C. Smith, Y. Ruan, A. Rode, M. Krolikowska, S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, C. M. De Sterke, M. J. Steel, B. Luther-Davies, S. Madden, D. J. Moss, Y. H. Lee, and B. J. Eggleton, “Chalcogenide glass photonic crystals,” Photon. Nanostructures 6(1), 3–11 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mukaiyama, T.

Y. Hara, T. Mukaiyama, K. Takeda, and M. Kuwata-Gonokami, “Heavy photon states in photonic chains of resonantly coupled cavities with supermonodispersive microspheres,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(20), 203905 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Notomi, M.

M. Notomi, “Manipulating light with strongly modulated photonic crystals,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 73(9), 096501 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L.-D. Haret, T. Tanabe, E. Kuramochi, and M. Notomi, “Extremely low power optical bistability in silicon demonstrated using 1D photonic crystal nanocavity,” Opt. Express 17(23), 21108–21117 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Notomi, E. Kuramochi, and T. Tanabe, “Large-scale arrays of ultrahigh-Q coupled nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics 2(12), 741–747 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Tanabe, M. Notomi, E. Kuramochi, A. Shinya, and H. Taniyama, “Trapping and delaying photons for one nanosecond in an ultrasmall high-Q photonic crystal nanocavity,” Nat. Photonics 1(1), 49–52 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. Kuramochi, M. Notomi, S. Mitsugi, A. Shinya, T. Tanabe, and T. Watanabe, “Ultrahigh-Q photonic crystal nanocavities realized by the local width modulation of a line defect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(4), 041112 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Notomi, A. Shinya, S. Mitsugi, E. Kuramochi, and H.-Y. Ryu, “Waveguides, resonators and their coupled elements in photonic crystal slabs,” Opt. Express 12(8), 1551–1561 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Notomi, K. Yamada, A. Shinya, J. Takahashi, C. Takahashi, and I. Yokohama, “Extremely large group-velocity dispersion of line-defect waveguides in photonic crystal slabs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87(25), 253902 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O’Faolain, L.

Oda, H.

O'Faolain, L.

B. Corcoran, C. Monat, C. Grillet, D. J. Moss, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, L. O'Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, “Green light emission in silicon through slow-light enhanced third-harmonic generation in photonic-crystal waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 206–210 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Painter, O.

Park, J. S.

S. Mookherjea, J. S. Park, S.-Y. Yang, and P. R. Bandaru, “Localization in silicon nanophotonic slow-light waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 2(2), 90–93 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pelusi, M. D.

C. Monat, B. Corcoran, D. Pudo, M. Ebnali-Heidari, C. Grillet, M. D. Pelusi, D. J. Moss, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, L. O’Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, “Slow-light enhanced nonlinear optics in silicon photonic crystal waveguide,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 344–356 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Pudo, D.

C. Monat, B. Corcoran, D. Pudo, M. Ebnali-Heidari, C. Grillet, M. D. Pelusi, D. J. Moss, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, L. O’Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, “Slow-light enhanced nonlinear optics in silicon photonic crystal waveguide,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 344–356 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Puleo, M.

B. Costa, D. Mazzoni, M. Puleo, and E. Vezzoni, “Phase shift technique for the measurement of chromatic dispersion in optical fibers using LEDs,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 18(10), 1509–1515 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Qian, F.

Reano, R. M.

Rey, I. H.

Rode, A.

D. Freeman, C. Grillet, M. W. Lee, C. L. C. Smith, Y. Ruan, A. Rode, M. Krolikowska, S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, C. M. De Sterke, M. J. Steel, B. Luther-Davies, S. Madden, D. J. Moss, Y. H. Lee, and B. J. Eggleton, “Chalcogenide glass photonic crystals,” Photon. Nanostructures 6(1), 3–11 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ruan, Y.

D. Freeman, C. Grillet, M. W. Lee, C. L. C. Smith, Y. Ruan, A. Rode, M. Krolikowska, S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, C. M. De Sterke, M. J. Steel, B. Luther-Davies, S. Madden, D. J. Moss, Y. H. Lee, and B. J. Eggleton, “Chalcogenide glass photonic crystals,” Photon. Nanostructures 6(1), 3–11 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ryu, H.-Y.

Sagnes, I.

P. Colman, C. Husko, S. Combrié, I. Sagnes, C. W. Wong, and A. De Rossi, “Temporal solitons and pulse compression in photonic crystal waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 4(12), 862–868 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Santagiustina, M.

Scherer, A.

Schneider, M. A.

Sekaric, L.

F. Xia, L. Sekaric, and Y. Vlasov, “Ultracompact optical buffers on a silicon chip,” Nat. Photonics 1(1), 65–71 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shinya, A.

T. Tanabe, M. Notomi, E. Kuramochi, A. Shinya, and H. Taniyama, “Trapping and delaying photons for one nanosecond in an ultrasmall high-Q photonic crystal nanocavity,” Nat. Photonics 1(1), 49–52 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. Kuramochi, M. Notomi, S. Mitsugi, A. Shinya, T. Tanabe, and T. Watanabe, “Ultrahigh-Q photonic crystal nanocavities realized by the local width modulation of a line defect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(4), 041112 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Notomi, A. Shinya, S. Mitsugi, E. Kuramochi, and H.-Y. Ryu, “Waveguides, resonators and their coupled elements in photonic crystal slabs,” Opt. Express 12(8), 1551–1561 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Notomi, K. Yamada, A. Shinya, J. Takahashi, C. Takahashi, and I. Yokohama, “Extremely large group-velocity dispersion of line-defect waveguides in photonic crystal slabs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87(25), 253902 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smith, C. L. C.

D. Freeman, C. Grillet, M. W. Lee, C. L. C. Smith, Y. Ruan, A. Rode, M. Krolikowska, S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, C. M. De Sterke, M. J. Steel, B. Luther-Davies, S. Madden, D. J. Moss, Y. H. Lee, and B. J. Eggleton, “Chalcogenide glass photonic crystals,” Photon. Nanostructures 6(1), 3–11 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Someda, C. G.

Steel, M. J.

D. Freeman, C. Grillet, M. W. Lee, C. L. C. Smith, Y. Ruan, A. Rode, M. Krolikowska, S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, C. M. De Sterke, M. J. Steel, B. Luther-Davies, S. Madden, D. J. Moss, Y. H. Lee, and B. J. Eggleton, “Chalcogenide glass photonic crystals,” Photon. Nanostructures 6(1), 3–11 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sun, P.

Suzuki, K.

Takahashi, C.

M. Notomi, K. Yamada, A. Shinya, J. Takahashi, C. Takahashi, and I. Yokohama, “Extremely large group-velocity dispersion of line-defect waveguides in photonic crystal slabs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87(25), 253902 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Takahashi, J.

M. Notomi, K. Yamada, A. Shinya, J. Takahashi, C. Takahashi, and I. Yokohama, “Extremely large group-velocity dispersion of line-defect waveguides in photonic crystal slabs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87(25), 253902 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Takeda, K.

Y. Hara, T. Mukaiyama, K. Takeda, and M. Kuwata-Gonokami, “Heavy photon states in photonic chains of resonantly coupled cavities with supermonodispersive microspheres,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(20), 203905 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Takesue, H.

K. Harada, H. Takesue, H. Fukuda, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, Y. Tokura, and S. Itabashi, “Frequency and polarization characteristics of correlated photon-pair generation using a silicon wire waveguide,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 325–331 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tanabe, T.

L.-D. Haret, T. Tanabe, E. Kuramochi, and M. Notomi, “Extremely low power optical bistability in silicon demonstrated using 1D photonic crystal nanocavity,” Opt. Express 17(23), 21108–21117 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Notomi, E. Kuramochi, and T. Tanabe, “Large-scale arrays of ultrahigh-Q coupled nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics 2(12), 741–747 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Tanabe, M. Notomi, E. Kuramochi, A. Shinya, and H. Taniyama, “Trapping and delaying photons for one nanosecond in an ultrasmall high-Q photonic crystal nanocavity,” Nat. Photonics 1(1), 49–52 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. Kuramochi, M. Notomi, S. Mitsugi, A. Shinya, T. Tanabe, and T. Watanabe, “Ultrahigh-Q photonic crystal nanocavities realized by the local width modulation of a line defect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(4), 041112 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Taniyama, H.

T. Tanabe, M. Notomi, E. Kuramochi, A. Shinya, and H. Taniyama, “Trapping and delaying photons for one nanosecond in an ultrasmall high-Q photonic crystal nanocavity,” Nat. Photonics 1(1), 49–52 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tien, E.-K.

Tokura, Y.

K. Harada, H. Takesue, H. Fukuda, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, Y. Tokura, and S. Itabashi, “Frequency and polarization characteristics of correlated photon-pair generation using a silicon wire waveguide,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 325–331 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tomljenovic-Hanic, S.

D. Freeman, C. Grillet, M. W. Lee, C. L. C. Smith, Y. Ruan, A. Rode, M. Krolikowska, S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, C. M. De Sterke, M. J. Steel, B. Luther-Davies, S. Madden, D. J. Moss, Y. H. Lee, and B. J. Eggleton, “Chalcogenide glass photonic crystals,” Photon. Nanostructures 6(1), 3–11 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tsuchizawa, T.

K. Harada, H. Takesue, H. Fukuda, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, Y. Tokura, and S. Itabashi, “Frequency and polarization characteristics of correlated photon-pair generation using a silicon wire waveguide,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 325–331 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Vadalà, G.

Vezzoni, E.

B. Costa, D. Mazzoni, M. Puleo, and E. Vezzoni, “Phase shift technique for the measurement of chromatic dispersion in optical fibers using LEDs,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 18(10), 1509–1515 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Vlasov, Y.

F. Xia, L. Sekaric, and Y. Vlasov, “Ultracompact optical buffers on a silicon chip,” Nat. Photonics 1(1), 65–71 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Vlasov, Y. A.

Watanabe, T.

K. Harada, H. Takesue, H. Fukuda, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, Y. Tokura, and S. Itabashi, “Frequency and polarization characteristics of correlated photon-pair generation using a silicon wire waveguide,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 325–331 (2010).
[CrossRef]

E. Kuramochi, M. Notomi, S. Mitsugi, A. Shinya, T. Tanabe, and T. Watanabe, “Ultrahigh-Q photonic crystal nanocavities realized by the local width modulation of a line defect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(4), 041112 (2006).
[CrossRef]

White, I. H.

White, T. P.

C. Monat, B. Corcoran, D. Pudo, M. Ebnali-Heidari, C. Grillet, M. D. Pelusi, D. J. Moss, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, L. O’Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, “Slow-light enhanced nonlinear optics in silicon photonic crystal waveguide,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 344–356 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Monat, M. Ebnali-Heidari, C. Grillet, B. Corcoran, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, L. O’Faolain, J. Li, and T. F. Krauss, “Four-wave mixing in slow light engineered silicon photonic crystal waveguides,” Opt. Express 18(22), 22915–22927 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Corcoran, C. Monat, C. Grillet, D. J. Moss, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, L. O'Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, “Green light emission in silicon through slow-light enhanced third-harmonic generation in photonic-crystal waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 206–210 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Monat, B. Corcoran, M. Ebnali-Heidari, C. Grillet, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, L. O’Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, “Slow light enhancement of nonlinear effects in silicon engineered photonic crystal waveguides,” Opt. Express 17(4), 2944–2953 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wong, C. W.

P. Colman, C. Husko, S. Combrié, I. Sagnes, C. W. Wong, and A. De Rossi, “Temporal solitons and pulse compression in photonic crystal waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 4(12), 862–868 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. F. McMillan, M. Yu, D.-L. Kwong, and C. W. Wong, “Observation of four-wave mixing in slow-light silicon photonic crystal waveguides,” Opt. Express 18(15), 15484–15497 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xia, F.

Xu, Y.

Yamada, K.

K. Harada, H. Takesue, H. Fukuda, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, Y. Tokura, and S. Itabashi, “Frequency and polarization characteristics of correlated photon-pair generation using a silicon wire waveguide,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 325–331 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Notomi, K. Yamada, A. Shinya, J. Takahashi, C. Takahashi, and I. Yokohama, “Extremely large group-velocity dispersion of line-defect waveguides in photonic crystal slabs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87(25), 253902 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, S.-Y.

S. Mookherjea, J. S. Park, S.-Y. Yang, and P. R. Bandaru, “Localization in silicon nanophotonic slow-light waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 2(2), 90–93 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yariv, A.

Yokohama, I.

M. Notomi, K. Yamada, A. Shinya, J. Takahashi, C. Takahashi, and I. Yokohama, “Extremely large group-velocity dispersion of line-defect waveguides in photonic crystal slabs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87(25), 253902 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yu, M.

Yuksek, N. S.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

E. Kuramochi, M. Notomi, S. Mitsugi, A. Shinya, T. Tanabe, and T. Watanabe, “Ultrahigh-Q photonic crystal nanocavities realized by the local width modulation of a line defect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(4), 041112 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

B. Costa, D. Mazzoni, M. Puleo, and E. Vezzoni, “Phase shift technique for the measurement of chromatic dispersion in optical fibers using LEDs,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 18(10), 1509–1515 (1982).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (3)

S. Mookherjea and A. Yariv, “Coupled resonator optical waveguides,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(3), 448–456 (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. Harada, H. Takesue, H. Fukuda, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, Y. Tokura, and S. Itabashi, “Frequency and polarization characteristics of correlated photon-pair generation using a silicon wire waveguide,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 325–331 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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S. Mookherjea, J. S. Park, S.-Y. Yang, and P. R. Bandaru, “Localization in silicon nanophotonic slow-light waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 2(2), 90–93 (2008).
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T. Tanabe, M. Notomi, E. Kuramochi, A. Shinya, and H. Taniyama, “Trapping and delaying photons for one nanosecond in an ultrasmall high-Q photonic crystal nanocavity,” Nat. Photonics 1(1), 49–52 (2007).
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F. Xia, L. Sekaric, and Y. Vlasov, “Ultracompact optical buffers on a silicon chip,” Nat. Photonics 1(1), 65–71 (2007).
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M. Notomi, E. Kuramochi, and T. Tanabe, “Large-scale arrays of ultrahigh-Q coupled nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics 2(12), 741–747 (2008).
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B. Corcoran, C. Monat, C. Grillet, D. J. Moss, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, L. O'Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, “Green light emission in silicon through slow-light enhanced third-harmonic generation in photonic-crystal waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 206–210 (2009).
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Opt. Express (14)

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic of a CROW comprised of width-modulated line-defect ultrahigh-Q nanocavities. W1.05 PhC line-defect waveguides and silicon access waveguides are introduced at each end of the CROW. We also indicate the optical powers at several important positions to clarify later discussions. (b) The reference waveguide was implemented without a CROW.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Top views of extended modes in a CROW for various Ncav by 3-D FDTD simulation (lower half) with corresponding PhC structures (upper half). Note that the color plot is in a logarithmic scale. The regions indicated by the dashed squares are the integration ranges used for supermode-volume calculation. (b) Effective supermode volume (left axis) and area (right axis) calculated from the electric field distribution under Eq. (2) and Eq. (1), respectively, as a function of cavity number.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Transmission spectra and (b) time-of-flight measurement of group-delay spectra for the CROW (left) and the reference PhC line-defect waveguide (right). (c) Group-index spectrum of the CROW extracted from the difference between the traveling-times of the CROW and the reference waveguide (using data of (b)), with the fitted polynomial function of λ (solid curve).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Density plots of the FWM spectrum for various signal wavelengths, exhibiting output idlers following FWM energy conservation (Eq. (4)). The resolution of the OSA was 0.05 nm. (b) Signal-wavelength-dependence of the idler power extracted from (a). Background noise of the incident pump and signal lasers is subtracted.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

FWM conversion efficiency dependence on signal wavelength measured for various pump wavelengths set in the CROW transmission band. The solid curve is the simulation underlying the model of uniform waveguide structure along the propagation axis of CROW.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Pump-power dependence of idler conversion efficiency. The solid curve is a fitting by Eq. (6) with γeff as a free parameter.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Nonlinear Constants of Silicon-Core Nonlinear Waveguides (evaluated at the telecom wavelength)

Equations (9)

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A eff = V eff N cav ( L cc 1) ,
V eff = ε( r ) | E( r ) | 2 d 3 r ε( r max ) | E( r max ) | 2 .
V eff = ( | E( r ) | 2 d 3 r ) 2 | E( r ) | 4 d 3 r
2 ω p = ω s + ω i ,
η FWM = P oR(i) P iR(s) = P o(i) / η R P i(s) η R = P o(i) P i(s) 1 η R 2 .
η FWM = ( γ eff P iR(p) L eff ) 2 ( sinh( gL ) gL ) 2 exp( α Ref L),
γ eff = 2π n 2 λ A eff .
g= ( γ eff P iR(p) L eff L ) 2 ( ΔβL+2 γ eff P iR(p) L eff 2L ) 2 ,
Δβ= m β 2m ( ω p ) ( 2m )! ( ω p ω s ) 2m ,

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