Abstract

Gallium Phosphide (GaP) reach-through avalanche photodiodes (APDs) are reported. The APDs exhibited dark current less than a pico-ampere at unity gain. A quantum efficiency of 70% was achieved with a recessed window structure; this is almost two times higher than previous work.

© 2011 OSA

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  1. T. V. Blank, Y. A. Gol'dberg, E. V. Kalinina, O. V. Konstantinov, and E. A. Posse, “Ultraviolet radiation photodetectors based on structures consisting of a metal and a wide-bandgap semiconductor,” Semiconductors 37(8), 944–948 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  2. E. Monroy, F. Omnes, and F. Calle, “Wide-bandgap semiconductor ultraviolet photodetectors,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 18(4), R33–R51 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  3. E. Muñoz, E. Monroy, J. L. Pau, F. Calle, F. Omnes, and P. Gibart, “III nitrides and UV detection,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 13(32), 7115–7137 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  4. D. McIntosh, Q. G. Zhou, F. J. Lara, J. Landers, and J. C. Campbell, “Flip-Chip Bonded GaP Photodiodes for Detection of 400-to 480-nm Fluorescence,” IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 23(13), 878–880 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  5. R. C. Hughes, T. E. Zipperian, L. R. Dawson, R. M. Biefeld, R. J. Walko, and M. A. Dvorack, “Gallium phosphide junctions with low leakage for energy conversion and near ultraviolet detectors,” J. Appl. Phys. 69(9), 6500–6505 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  6. A. L. Beck, B. Yang, S. Wang, C. J. Collins, J. C. Campbell, A. Yulius, A. Chen, and J. M. Woodall, “Quasi-direct UV/blue GaP avalanche photodetectors,” IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. 40(12), 1695–1699 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  7. H. W. Ruegg, “An optimized avalanche photodiode,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 14(5), 239–251 (1967).
    [CrossRef]
  8. Q. Zhou, D. McIntosh, H.-D. Liu, and J. C. Campbell, “Proton-Implantation-Isolated Separate Absorption Charge and Multiplication 4H-SiC Avalanche Photodiodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(5), 299–301 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  9. T. Li, A. L. Beck, C. Collins, R. D. Dupuis, J. C. Campbell, J. C. Carrano, M. J. Schurman, and I. A. Ferguson, “Improved ultraviolet quantum efficiency using a semitransparent recessed window AlGaN/GaN heterojunction p-i-n photodiode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(16), 2421–2423 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  10. A. R. Clawson, “Guide to references on III-V semiconductor chemical etching,” Mater. Sci. Eng. Rep. 31(1-6), 1–438 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  11. H. Nie, K. A. Anselm, C. Lenox, P. Yuan, C. Hu, G. Kinsey, B. G. Streetman, and J. C. Campbell, “Resonant-cavity separate absorption, charge and multiplication avalanche photodiodes with high-speed and high gain-bandwidth product,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10(3), 409–411 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  12. H. D. Liu, D. Mcintosh, X. G. Bai, H. P. Pan, M. G. Liu, J. C. Campbell, and H. Y. Cha, “4H-SiC PIN Recessed-Window Avalanche Photodiode With High Quantum Efficiency,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(18), 1551–1553 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  13. D. E. Aspnes and A. A. Studna, “Dielectric Functions and Optical-Parameters of Si, Ge, Gap, Gaas, Gasb, Inp, Inas, and Insb from 1.5 to 6.0 Ev,” Phys. Rev. B 27(2), 985–1009 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  14. S. M. Sze and K. K. Ng, Physics of semiconductor devices, 3rd ed. (Wiley-Interscience, Hoboken, NJ, 2007), pp. x, 815 p.
  15. B. K. Ng, F. Yan, J. P. R. David, R. C. Tozer, G. J. Rees, C. Qin, and J. H. Zhao, “Multiplication and excess noise characteristics of thin 4H-SiC UV avalanche photodiodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14(9), 1342–1344 (2002).
    [CrossRef]

2011 (2)

D. McIntosh, Q. G. Zhou, F. J. Lara, J. Landers, and J. C. Campbell, “Flip-Chip Bonded GaP Photodiodes for Detection of 400-to 480-nm Fluorescence,” IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 23(13), 878–880 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Q. Zhou, D. McIntosh, H.-D. Liu, and J. C. Campbell, “Proton-Implantation-Isolated Separate Absorption Charge and Multiplication 4H-SiC Avalanche Photodiodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(5), 299–301 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

H. D. Liu, D. Mcintosh, X. G. Bai, H. P. Pan, M. G. Liu, J. C. Campbell, and H. Y. Cha, “4H-SiC PIN Recessed-Window Avalanche Photodiode With High Quantum Efficiency,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(18), 1551–1553 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

A. L. Beck, B. Yang, S. Wang, C. J. Collins, J. C. Campbell, A. Yulius, A. Chen, and J. M. Woodall, “Quasi-direct UV/blue GaP avalanche photodetectors,” IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. 40(12), 1695–1699 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

T. V. Blank, Y. A. Gol'dberg, E. V. Kalinina, O. V. Konstantinov, and E. A. Posse, “Ultraviolet radiation photodetectors based on structures consisting of a metal and a wide-bandgap semiconductor,” Semiconductors 37(8), 944–948 (2003).
[CrossRef]

E. Monroy, F. Omnes, and F. Calle, “Wide-bandgap semiconductor ultraviolet photodetectors,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 18(4), R33–R51 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

B. K. Ng, F. Yan, J. P. R. David, R. C. Tozer, G. J. Rees, C. Qin, and J. H. Zhao, “Multiplication and excess noise characteristics of thin 4H-SiC UV avalanche photodiodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14(9), 1342–1344 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

A. R. Clawson, “Guide to references on III-V semiconductor chemical etching,” Mater. Sci. Eng. Rep. 31(1-6), 1–438 (2001).
[CrossRef]

E. Muñoz, E. Monroy, J. L. Pau, F. Calle, F. Omnes, and P. Gibart, “III nitrides and UV detection,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 13(32), 7115–7137 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

T. Li, A. L. Beck, C. Collins, R. D. Dupuis, J. C. Campbell, J. C. Carrano, M. J. Schurman, and I. A. Ferguson, “Improved ultraviolet quantum efficiency using a semitransparent recessed window AlGaN/GaN heterojunction p-i-n photodiode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(16), 2421–2423 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

H. Nie, K. A. Anselm, C. Lenox, P. Yuan, C. Hu, G. Kinsey, B. G. Streetman, and J. C. Campbell, “Resonant-cavity separate absorption, charge and multiplication avalanche photodiodes with high-speed and high gain-bandwidth product,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10(3), 409–411 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

R. C. Hughes, T. E. Zipperian, L. R. Dawson, R. M. Biefeld, R. J. Walko, and M. A. Dvorack, “Gallium phosphide junctions with low leakage for energy conversion and near ultraviolet detectors,” J. Appl. Phys. 69(9), 6500–6505 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

D. E. Aspnes and A. A. Studna, “Dielectric Functions and Optical-Parameters of Si, Ge, Gap, Gaas, Gasb, Inp, Inas, and Insb from 1.5 to 6.0 Ev,” Phys. Rev. B 27(2), 985–1009 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1967 (1)

H. W. Ruegg, “An optimized avalanche photodiode,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 14(5), 239–251 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Anselm, K. A.

H. Nie, K. A. Anselm, C. Lenox, P. Yuan, C. Hu, G. Kinsey, B. G. Streetman, and J. C. Campbell, “Resonant-cavity separate absorption, charge and multiplication avalanche photodiodes with high-speed and high gain-bandwidth product,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10(3), 409–411 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Aspnes, D. E.

D. E. Aspnes and A. A. Studna, “Dielectric Functions and Optical-Parameters of Si, Ge, Gap, Gaas, Gasb, Inp, Inas, and Insb from 1.5 to 6.0 Ev,” Phys. Rev. B 27(2), 985–1009 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Bai, X. G.

H. D. Liu, D. Mcintosh, X. G. Bai, H. P. Pan, M. G. Liu, J. C. Campbell, and H. Y. Cha, “4H-SiC PIN Recessed-Window Avalanche Photodiode With High Quantum Efficiency,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(18), 1551–1553 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Beck, A. L.

A. L. Beck, B. Yang, S. Wang, C. J. Collins, J. C. Campbell, A. Yulius, A. Chen, and J. M. Woodall, “Quasi-direct UV/blue GaP avalanche photodetectors,” IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. 40(12), 1695–1699 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Li, A. L. Beck, C. Collins, R. D. Dupuis, J. C. Campbell, J. C. Carrano, M. J. Schurman, and I. A. Ferguson, “Improved ultraviolet quantum efficiency using a semitransparent recessed window AlGaN/GaN heterojunction p-i-n photodiode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(16), 2421–2423 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Biefeld, R. M.

R. C. Hughes, T. E. Zipperian, L. R. Dawson, R. M. Biefeld, R. J. Walko, and M. A. Dvorack, “Gallium phosphide junctions with low leakage for energy conversion and near ultraviolet detectors,” J. Appl. Phys. 69(9), 6500–6505 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Blank, T. V.

T. V. Blank, Y. A. Gol'dberg, E. V. Kalinina, O. V. Konstantinov, and E. A. Posse, “Ultraviolet radiation photodetectors based on structures consisting of a metal and a wide-bandgap semiconductor,” Semiconductors 37(8), 944–948 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Calle, F.

E. Monroy, F. Omnes, and F. Calle, “Wide-bandgap semiconductor ultraviolet photodetectors,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 18(4), R33–R51 (2003).
[CrossRef]

E. Muñoz, E. Monroy, J. L. Pau, F. Calle, F. Omnes, and P. Gibart, “III nitrides and UV detection,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 13(32), 7115–7137 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Campbell, J. C.

D. McIntosh, Q. G. Zhou, F. J. Lara, J. Landers, and J. C. Campbell, “Flip-Chip Bonded GaP Photodiodes for Detection of 400-to 480-nm Fluorescence,” IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 23(13), 878–880 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Q. Zhou, D. McIntosh, H.-D. Liu, and J. C. Campbell, “Proton-Implantation-Isolated Separate Absorption Charge and Multiplication 4H-SiC Avalanche Photodiodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(5), 299–301 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. D. Liu, D. Mcintosh, X. G. Bai, H. P. Pan, M. G. Liu, J. C. Campbell, and H. Y. Cha, “4H-SiC PIN Recessed-Window Avalanche Photodiode With High Quantum Efficiency,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(18), 1551–1553 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Beck, B. Yang, S. Wang, C. J. Collins, J. C. Campbell, A. Yulius, A. Chen, and J. M. Woodall, “Quasi-direct UV/blue GaP avalanche photodetectors,” IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. 40(12), 1695–1699 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Li, A. L. Beck, C. Collins, R. D. Dupuis, J. C. Campbell, J. C. Carrano, M. J. Schurman, and I. A. Ferguson, “Improved ultraviolet quantum efficiency using a semitransparent recessed window AlGaN/GaN heterojunction p-i-n photodiode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(16), 2421–2423 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. Nie, K. A. Anselm, C. Lenox, P. Yuan, C. Hu, G. Kinsey, B. G. Streetman, and J. C. Campbell, “Resonant-cavity separate absorption, charge and multiplication avalanche photodiodes with high-speed and high gain-bandwidth product,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10(3), 409–411 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Carrano, J. C.

T. Li, A. L. Beck, C. Collins, R. D. Dupuis, J. C. Campbell, J. C. Carrano, M. J. Schurman, and I. A. Ferguson, “Improved ultraviolet quantum efficiency using a semitransparent recessed window AlGaN/GaN heterojunction p-i-n photodiode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(16), 2421–2423 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Cha, H. Y.

H. D. Liu, D. Mcintosh, X. G. Bai, H. P. Pan, M. G. Liu, J. C. Campbell, and H. Y. Cha, “4H-SiC PIN Recessed-Window Avalanche Photodiode With High Quantum Efficiency,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(18), 1551–1553 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chen, A.

A. L. Beck, B. Yang, S. Wang, C. J. Collins, J. C. Campbell, A. Yulius, A. Chen, and J. M. Woodall, “Quasi-direct UV/blue GaP avalanche photodetectors,” IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. 40(12), 1695–1699 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Clawson, A. R.

A. R. Clawson, “Guide to references on III-V semiconductor chemical etching,” Mater. Sci. Eng. Rep. 31(1-6), 1–438 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Collins, C.

T. Li, A. L. Beck, C. Collins, R. D. Dupuis, J. C. Campbell, J. C. Carrano, M. J. Schurman, and I. A. Ferguson, “Improved ultraviolet quantum efficiency using a semitransparent recessed window AlGaN/GaN heterojunction p-i-n photodiode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(16), 2421–2423 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Collins, C. J.

A. L. Beck, B. Yang, S. Wang, C. J. Collins, J. C. Campbell, A. Yulius, A. Chen, and J. M. Woodall, “Quasi-direct UV/blue GaP avalanche photodetectors,” IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. 40(12), 1695–1699 (2004).
[CrossRef]

David, J. P. R.

B. K. Ng, F. Yan, J. P. R. David, R. C. Tozer, G. J. Rees, C. Qin, and J. H. Zhao, “Multiplication and excess noise characteristics of thin 4H-SiC UV avalanche photodiodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14(9), 1342–1344 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Dawson, L. R.

R. C. Hughes, T. E. Zipperian, L. R. Dawson, R. M. Biefeld, R. J. Walko, and M. A. Dvorack, “Gallium phosphide junctions with low leakage for energy conversion and near ultraviolet detectors,” J. Appl. Phys. 69(9), 6500–6505 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Dupuis, R. D.

T. Li, A. L. Beck, C. Collins, R. D. Dupuis, J. C. Campbell, J. C. Carrano, M. J. Schurman, and I. A. Ferguson, “Improved ultraviolet quantum efficiency using a semitransparent recessed window AlGaN/GaN heterojunction p-i-n photodiode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(16), 2421–2423 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Dvorack, M. A.

R. C. Hughes, T. E. Zipperian, L. R. Dawson, R. M. Biefeld, R. J. Walko, and M. A. Dvorack, “Gallium phosphide junctions with low leakage for energy conversion and near ultraviolet detectors,” J. Appl. Phys. 69(9), 6500–6505 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Ferguson, I. A.

T. Li, A. L. Beck, C. Collins, R. D. Dupuis, J. C. Campbell, J. C. Carrano, M. J. Schurman, and I. A. Ferguson, “Improved ultraviolet quantum efficiency using a semitransparent recessed window AlGaN/GaN heterojunction p-i-n photodiode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(16), 2421–2423 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gibart, P.

E. Muñoz, E. Monroy, J. L. Pau, F. Calle, F. Omnes, and P. Gibart, “III nitrides and UV detection,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 13(32), 7115–7137 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Gol'dberg, Y. A.

T. V. Blank, Y. A. Gol'dberg, E. V. Kalinina, O. V. Konstantinov, and E. A. Posse, “Ultraviolet radiation photodetectors based on structures consisting of a metal and a wide-bandgap semiconductor,” Semiconductors 37(8), 944–948 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hu, C.

H. Nie, K. A. Anselm, C. Lenox, P. Yuan, C. Hu, G. Kinsey, B. G. Streetman, and J. C. Campbell, “Resonant-cavity separate absorption, charge and multiplication avalanche photodiodes with high-speed and high gain-bandwidth product,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10(3), 409–411 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hughes, R. C.

R. C. Hughes, T. E. Zipperian, L. R. Dawson, R. M. Biefeld, R. J. Walko, and M. A. Dvorack, “Gallium phosphide junctions with low leakage for energy conversion and near ultraviolet detectors,” J. Appl. Phys. 69(9), 6500–6505 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Kalinina, E. V.

T. V. Blank, Y. A. Gol'dberg, E. V. Kalinina, O. V. Konstantinov, and E. A. Posse, “Ultraviolet radiation photodetectors based on structures consisting of a metal and a wide-bandgap semiconductor,” Semiconductors 37(8), 944–948 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kinsey, G.

H. Nie, K. A. Anselm, C. Lenox, P. Yuan, C. Hu, G. Kinsey, B. G. Streetman, and J. C. Campbell, “Resonant-cavity separate absorption, charge and multiplication avalanche photodiodes with high-speed and high gain-bandwidth product,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10(3), 409–411 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Konstantinov, O. V.

T. V. Blank, Y. A. Gol'dberg, E. V. Kalinina, O. V. Konstantinov, and E. A. Posse, “Ultraviolet radiation photodetectors based on structures consisting of a metal and a wide-bandgap semiconductor,” Semiconductors 37(8), 944–948 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Landers, J.

D. McIntosh, Q. G. Zhou, F. J. Lara, J. Landers, and J. C. Campbell, “Flip-Chip Bonded GaP Photodiodes for Detection of 400-to 480-nm Fluorescence,” IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 23(13), 878–880 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lara, F. J.

D. McIntosh, Q. G. Zhou, F. J. Lara, J. Landers, and J. C. Campbell, “Flip-Chip Bonded GaP Photodiodes for Detection of 400-to 480-nm Fluorescence,” IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 23(13), 878–880 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lenox, C.

H. Nie, K. A. Anselm, C. Lenox, P. Yuan, C. Hu, G. Kinsey, B. G. Streetman, and J. C. Campbell, “Resonant-cavity separate absorption, charge and multiplication avalanche photodiodes with high-speed and high gain-bandwidth product,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10(3), 409–411 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Li, T.

T. Li, A. L. Beck, C. Collins, R. D. Dupuis, J. C. Campbell, J. C. Carrano, M. J. Schurman, and I. A. Ferguson, “Improved ultraviolet quantum efficiency using a semitransparent recessed window AlGaN/GaN heterojunction p-i-n photodiode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(16), 2421–2423 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Liu, H. D.

H. D. Liu, D. Mcintosh, X. G. Bai, H. P. Pan, M. G. Liu, J. C. Campbell, and H. Y. Cha, “4H-SiC PIN Recessed-Window Avalanche Photodiode With High Quantum Efficiency,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(18), 1551–1553 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Liu, H.-D.

Q. Zhou, D. McIntosh, H.-D. Liu, and J. C. Campbell, “Proton-Implantation-Isolated Separate Absorption Charge and Multiplication 4H-SiC Avalanche Photodiodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(5), 299–301 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Liu, M. G.

H. D. Liu, D. Mcintosh, X. G. Bai, H. P. Pan, M. G. Liu, J. C. Campbell, and H. Y. Cha, “4H-SiC PIN Recessed-Window Avalanche Photodiode With High Quantum Efficiency,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(18), 1551–1553 (2008).
[CrossRef]

McIntosh, D.

Q. Zhou, D. McIntosh, H.-D. Liu, and J. C. Campbell, “Proton-Implantation-Isolated Separate Absorption Charge and Multiplication 4H-SiC Avalanche Photodiodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(5), 299–301 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. McIntosh, Q. G. Zhou, F. J. Lara, J. Landers, and J. C. Campbell, “Flip-Chip Bonded GaP Photodiodes for Detection of 400-to 480-nm Fluorescence,” IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 23(13), 878–880 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. D. Liu, D. Mcintosh, X. G. Bai, H. P. Pan, M. G. Liu, J. C. Campbell, and H. Y. Cha, “4H-SiC PIN Recessed-Window Avalanche Photodiode With High Quantum Efficiency,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(18), 1551–1553 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Monroy, E.

E. Monroy, F. Omnes, and F. Calle, “Wide-bandgap semiconductor ultraviolet photodetectors,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 18(4), R33–R51 (2003).
[CrossRef]

E. Muñoz, E. Monroy, J. L. Pau, F. Calle, F. Omnes, and P. Gibart, “III nitrides and UV detection,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 13(32), 7115–7137 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Muñoz, E.

E. Muñoz, E. Monroy, J. L. Pau, F. Calle, F. Omnes, and P. Gibart, “III nitrides and UV detection,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 13(32), 7115–7137 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ng, B. K.

B. K. Ng, F. Yan, J. P. R. David, R. C. Tozer, G. J. Rees, C. Qin, and J. H. Zhao, “Multiplication and excess noise characteristics of thin 4H-SiC UV avalanche photodiodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14(9), 1342–1344 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nie, H.

H. Nie, K. A. Anselm, C. Lenox, P. Yuan, C. Hu, G. Kinsey, B. G. Streetman, and J. C. Campbell, “Resonant-cavity separate absorption, charge and multiplication avalanche photodiodes with high-speed and high gain-bandwidth product,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10(3), 409–411 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Omnes, F.

E. Monroy, F. Omnes, and F. Calle, “Wide-bandgap semiconductor ultraviolet photodetectors,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 18(4), R33–R51 (2003).
[CrossRef]

E. Muñoz, E. Monroy, J. L. Pau, F. Calle, F. Omnes, and P. Gibart, “III nitrides and UV detection,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 13(32), 7115–7137 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Pan, H. P.

H. D. Liu, D. Mcintosh, X. G. Bai, H. P. Pan, M. G. Liu, J. C. Campbell, and H. Y. Cha, “4H-SiC PIN Recessed-Window Avalanche Photodiode With High Quantum Efficiency,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(18), 1551–1553 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pau, J. L.

E. Muñoz, E. Monroy, J. L. Pau, F. Calle, F. Omnes, and P. Gibart, “III nitrides and UV detection,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 13(32), 7115–7137 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Posse, E. A.

T. V. Blank, Y. A. Gol'dberg, E. V. Kalinina, O. V. Konstantinov, and E. A. Posse, “Ultraviolet radiation photodetectors based on structures consisting of a metal and a wide-bandgap semiconductor,” Semiconductors 37(8), 944–948 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Qin, C.

B. K. Ng, F. Yan, J. P. R. David, R. C. Tozer, G. J. Rees, C. Qin, and J. H. Zhao, “Multiplication and excess noise characteristics of thin 4H-SiC UV avalanche photodiodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14(9), 1342–1344 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Rees, G. J.

B. K. Ng, F. Yan, J. P. R. David, R. C. Tozer, G. J. Rees, C. Qin, and J. H. Zhao, “Multiplication and excess noise characteristics of thin 4H-SiC UV avalanche photodiodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14(9), 1342–1344 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ruegg, H. W.

H. W. Ruegg, “An optimized avalanche photodiode,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 14(5), 239–251 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Schurman, M. J.

T. Li, A. L. Beck, C. Collins, R. D. Dupuis, J. C. Campbell, J. C. Carrano, M. J. Schurman, and I. A. Ferguson, “Improved ultraviolet quantum efficiency using a semitransparent recessed window AlGaN/GaN heterojunction p-i-n photodiode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(16), 2421–2423 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Streetman, B. G.

H. Nie, K. A. Anselm, C. Lenox, P. Yuan, C. Hu, G. Kinsey, B. G. Streetman, and J. C. Campbell, “Resonant-cavity separate absorption, charge and multiplication avalanche photodiodes with high-speed and high gain-bandwidth product,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10(3), 409–411 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Studna, A. A.

D. E. Aspnes and A. A. Studna, “Dielectric Functions and Optical-Parameters of Si, Ge, Gap, Gaas, Gasb, Inp, Inas, and Insb from 1.5 to 6.0 Ev,” Phys. Rev. B 27(2), 985–1009 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Tozer, R. C.

B. K. Ng, F. Yan, J. P. R. David, R. C. Tozer, G. J. Rees, C. Qin, and J. H. Zhao, “Multiplication and excess noise characteristics of thin 4H-SiC UV avalanche photodiodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14(9), 1342–1344 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Walko, R. J.

R. C. Hughes, T. E. Zipperian, L. R. Dawson, R. M. Biefeld, R. J. Walko, and M. A. Dvorack, “Gallium phosphide junctions with low leakage for energy conversion and near ultraviolet detectors,” J. Appl. Phys. 69(9), 6500–6505 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Wang, S.

A. L. Beck, B. Yang, S. Wang, C. J. Collins, J. C. Campbell, A. Yulius, A. Chen, and J. M. Woodall, “Quasi-direct UV/blue GaP avalanche photodetectors,” IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. 40(12), 1695–1699 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Woodall, J. M.

A. L. Beck, B. Yang, S. Wang, C. J. Collins, J. C. Campbell, A. Yulius, A. Chen, and J. M. Woodall, “Quasi-direct UV/blue GaP avalanche photodetectors,” IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. 40(12), 1695–1699 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yan, F.

B. K. Ng, F. Yan, J. P. R. David, R. C. Tozer, G. J. Rees, C. Qin, and J. H. Zhao, “Multiplication and excess noise characteristics of thin 4H-SiC UV avalanche photodiodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14(9), 1342–1344 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yang, B.

A. L. Beck, B. Yang, S. Wang, C. J. Collins, J. C. Campbell, A. Yulius, A. Chen, and J. M. Woodall, “Quasi-direct UV/blue GaP avalanche photodetectors,” IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. 40(12), 1695–1699 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yuan, P.

H. Nie, K. A. Anselm, C. Lenox, P. Yuan, C. Hu, G. Kinsey, B. G. Streetman, and J. C. Campbell, “Resonant-cavity separate absorption, charge and multiplication avalanche photodiodes with high-speed and high gain-bandwidth product,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10(3), 409–411 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Yulius, A.

A. L. Beck, B. Yang, S. Wang, C. J. Collins, J. C. Campbell, A. Yulius, A. Chen, and J. M. Woodall, “Quasi-direct UV/blue GaP avalanche photodetectors,” IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. 40(12), 1695–1699 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, J. H.

B. K. Ng, F. Yan, J. P. R. David, R. C. Tozer, G. J. Rees, C. Qin, and J. H. Zhao, “Multiplication and excess noise characteristics of thin 4H-SiC UV avalanche photodiodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14(9), 1342–1344 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, Q.

Q. Zhou, D. McIntosh, H.-D. Liu, and J. C. Campbell, “Proton-Implantation-Isolated Separate Absorption Charge and Multiplication 4H-SiC Avalanche Photodiodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(5), 299–301 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, Q. G.

D. McIntosh, Q. G. Zhou, F. J. Lara, J. Landers, and J. C. Campbell, “Flip-Chip Bonded GaP Photodiodes for Detection of 400-to 480-nm Fluorescence,” IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 23(13), 878–880 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zipperian, T. E.

R. C. Hughes, T. E. Zipperian, L. R. Dawson, R. M. Biefeld, R. J. Walko, and M. A. Dvorack, “Gallium phosphide junctions with low leakage for energy conversion and near ultraviolet detectors,” J. Appl. Phys. 69(9), 6500–6505 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

T. Li, A. L. Beck, C. Collins, R. D. Dupuis, J. C. Campbell, J. C. Carrano, M. J. Schurman, and I. A. Ferguson, “Improved ultraviolet quantum efficiency using a semitransparent recessed window AlGaN/GaN heterojunction p-i-n photodiode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(16), 2421–2423 (1999).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. (1)

A. L. Beck, B. Yang, S. Wang, C. J. Collins, J. C. Campbell, A. Yulius, A. Chen, and J. M. Woodall, “Quasi-direct UV/blue GaP avalanche photodetectors,” IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. 40(12), 1695–1699 (2004).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. (1)

D. McIntosh, Q. G. Zhou, F. J. Lara, J. Landers, and J. C. Campbell, “Flip-Chip Bonded GaP Photodiodes for Detection of 400-to 480-nm Fluorescence,” IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 23(13), 878–880 (2011).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (4)

Q. Zhou, D. McIntosh, H.-D. Liu, and J. C. Campbell, “Proton-Implantation-Isolated Separate Absorption Charge and Multiplication 4H-SiC Avalanche Photodiodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(5), 299–301 (2011).
[CrossRef]

B. K. Ng, F. Yan, J. P. R. David, R. C. Tozer, G. J. Rees, C. Qin, and J. H. Zhao, “Multiplication and excess noise characteristics of thin 4H-SiC UV avalanche photodiodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14(9), 1342–1344 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. Nie, K. A. Anselm, C. Lenox, P. Yuan, C. Hu, G. Kinsey, B. G. Streetman, and J. C. Campbell, “Resonant-cavity separate absorption, charge and multiplication avalanche photodiodes with high-speed and high gain-bandwidth product,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10(3), 409–411 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. D. Liu, D. Mcintosh, X. G. Bai, H. P. Pan, M. G. Liu, J. C. Campbell, and H. Y. Cha, “4H-SiC PIN Recessed-Window Avalanche Photodiode With High Quantum Efficiency,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(18), 1551–1553 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. (1)

H. W. Ruegg, “An optimized avalanche photodiode,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 14(5), 239–251 (1967).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

R. C. Hughes, T. E. Zipperian, L. R. Dawson, R. M. Biefeld, R. J. Walko, and M. A. Dvorack, “Gallium phosphide junctions with low leakage for energy conversion and near ultraviolet detectors,” J. Appl. Phys. 69(9), 6500–6505 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Condens. Matter (1)

E. Muñoz, E. Monroy, J. L. Pau, F. Calle, F. Omnes, and P. Gibart, “III nitrides and UV detection,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 13(32), 7115–7137 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Mater. Sci. Eng. Rep. (1)

A. R. Clawson, “Guide to references on III-V semiconductor chemical etching,” Mater. Sci. Eng. Rep. 31(1-6), 1–438 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

D. E. Aspnes and A. A. Studna, “Dielectric Functions and Optical-Parameters of Si, Ge, Gap, Gaas, Gasb, Inp, Inas, and Insb from 1.5 to 6.0 Ev,” Phys. Rev. B 27(2), 985–1009 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Semicond. Sci. Technol. (1)

E. Monroy, F. Omnes, and F. Calle, “Wide-bandgap semiconductor ultraviolet photodetectors,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 18(4), R33–R51 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Semiconductors (1)

T. V. Blank, Y. A. Gol'dberg, E. V. Kalinina, O. V. Konstantinov, and E. A. Posse, “Ultraviolet radiation photodetectors based on structures consisting of a metal and a wide-bandgap semiconductor,” Semiconductors 37(8), 944–948 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

S. M. Sze and K. K. Ng, Physics of semiconductor devices, 3rd ed. (Wiley-Interscience, Hoboken, NJ, 2007), pp. x, 815 p.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Cross-section of device structure a) non- recessed device b) recessed device.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Current-Voltage Characteristic for a recessed device.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Responsivity vs. wavelength for non-recessed and recessed devices, the dotted line shows the respective quantum efficiency.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Rasterscan of a recessed device at different gains.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Excess noise factor versus Multiplication gain for both non-recessed and recessed devices for illumination with 351 and 515 nm wavelengths light.

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