Abstract

Nanofibres, optical fibres narrower than the wavelength of light, degrade in hours on exposure to air. We show that encapsulation in hydrophobic silica aerogel (refractive index 1.05) provides protection and stability (over 2 months) without sacrificing low attenuation, strong confinement and accessible evanescent field. The measured attenuation was <0.03 dB/mm, over 10 × lower than reported with other encapsulants. This enables many nanofibre applications based on their extreme small size and strong external evanescent field, such as optical sensors, nonlinear optics, nanofibre circuits and high-Q resonators. The aerogel is more than a waterproof box, it is a completely-compatible gas-permeable material in intimate contact with the nanofibre and hydrophobic on both the macroscopic and molecular scales. Its benefits are illustrated by experiments on gas sensing (exploiting the aerogel's porosity) and supercontinuum generation (exploiting its ultra-low index).

© 2011 OSA

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. H. S. MacKenzie and F. P. Payne, “Evanescent field amplification in a tapered single-mode optical fibre,” Electron. Lett. 26(2), 130–132 (1990).
    [Crossref]
  2. J. Bures and R. J. Ghosh, “Power density of the evanescent field in the vicinity of a tapered fiber,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 16(8), 1992–1996 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  3. L. M. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. L. He, J. Y. Lou, M. Y. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, “Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding,” Nature 426(6968), 816–819 (2003).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. G. Brambilla, F. Xu, P. Horak, Y. Jung, F. Koizumi, N. P. Sessions, E. Koukharenko, X. Feng, G. S. Murugan, J. S. Wilkinson, and D. J. Richardson, “Optical fiber nanowires and microwires: fabrication and applications,” Adv. Opt. Photon. 1(1), 107–161 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  5. S. G. Leon-Saval, T. A. Birks, W. J. Wadsworth, P. St. J. Russell, and M. W. Mason, “Supercontinuum generation in submicron fibre waveguides,” Opt. Express 12(13), 2864–2869 (2004).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. G. Brambilla and D. N. Payne, “The ultimate strength of glass silica nanowires,” Nano Lett. 9(2), 831–835 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. P. Polynkin, A. Polynkin, N. Peyghambarian, and M. Mansuripur, “Evanescent field-based optical fiber sensing device for measuring the refractive index of liquids in microfluidic channels,” Opt. Lett. 30(11), 1273–1275 (2005).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. J. Villatoro and D. Monzón-Hernández, “Fast detection of hydrogen with nano fiber tapers coated with ultra thin palladium layers,” Opt. Express 13(13), 5087–5092 (2005).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. L. M. Tong, J. Y. Lou, R. R. Gattass, S. L. He, X. W. Chen, L. Liu, and E. Mazur, “Assembly of silica nanowires on silica aerogels for microphotonic devices,” Nano Lett. 5(2), 259–262 (2005).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. Y. Li and L. M. Tong, “Mach-Zehnder interferometers assembled with optical microfibers or nanofibers,” Opt. Lett. 33(4), 303–305 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. D. I. Yeom, E. C. Mägi, M. R. E. Lamont, M. A. F. Roelens, L. Fu, and B. J. Eggleton, “Low-threshold supercontinuum generation in highly nonlinear chalcogenide nanowires,” Opt. Lett. 33(7), 660–662 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. M. Sumetsky, “Basic Elements for Microfiber Photonics: Micro/Nanofibers and Microfiber Coil Resonators,” J. Lightwave Technol. 26(1), 21–27 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  13. G. Vienne, Y. Li, and L. M. Tong, “Effect of Host Polymer on Microfiber Resonator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(18), 1386–1388 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  14. G. Brambilla, F. Xu, and X. Feng, “Fabrication of optical fibre nanowires and their optical and mechanical characterization,” Electron. Lett. 42(9), 517–519 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  15. F. Xu and G. Brambilla, “Preservation of micro-optical fibers by embedding,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47(8), 6675–6677 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  16. N. Lou, R. Jha, J. L. Domínguez-Juárez, V. Finazzi, J. Villatoro, G. Badenes, and V. Pruneri, “Embedded optical micro/nano-fibers for stable devices,” Opt. Lett. 35(4), 571–573 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  17. G. M. Pajonk, “Transparent silica aerogels,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 225(1), 307–314 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  18. L. M. Xiao, M. D. W. Grogan, S. G. Leon-Saval, R. Williams, R. England, W. J. Wadsworth, and T. A. Birks, “Tapered fibers embedded in silica aerogel,” Opt. Lett. 34(18), 2724–2726 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  19. H. Yokogawa and M. Yokoyama, “Hydrophobic silica aerogels,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 186, 23–29 (1995).
    [Crossref]
  20. M. Sumetsky, “How thin can a microfiber be and still guide light?” Opt. Lett. 31(7), 870–872 (2006).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  21. N. Leventis, I. A. Elder, D. R. Rolison, M. L. Anderson, and C. I. Merzbacher, “Durable Modification of Silica Aerogel Monoliths with Fluorescent 2,7-Diazapyrenium Moieties. Sensing Oxygen near the Speed of Open-Air Diffusion,” Chem. Mater. 11(10), 2837–2845 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  22. Y. L. Hoo, W. Jin, C. Z. Shi, H. L. Ho, D. N. Wang, and S. C. Ruan, “Design and modeling of a photonic crystal fiber gas sensor,” Appl. Opt. 42(18), 3509–3515 (2003).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  23. A. van Brakel, C. Grivas, M. N. Petrovich, and D. J. Richardson, “Micro-channels machined in microstructured optical fibers by femtosecond laser,” Opt. Express 15(14), 8731–8736 (2007).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  24. A. Roig, E. Molins, E. Rodríguez, S. Martínez, M. Moreno-Mañas, and A. Vallribera, “Superhydrophobic silica aerogels by fluorination at the gel stage,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 20(20), 2316–2317 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  25. T. Y. Wei, S. Y. Lu, and Y. C. J. Chang, “Transparent, hydrophobic composite aerogels with high mechanical strength and low high-temperature thermal conductivities,” J. Phys. Chem. B 112(38), 11881–11886 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  26. C. A. Morris, M. L. Anderson, R. M. Stroud, C. I. Merzbacher, and D. R. Rolison, “Silica sol as a nanoglue: flexible synthesis of composite aerogels,” Science 284(5414), 622–624 (1999).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  27. M. K. Yang, R. H. French, and E. W. J. Tokarsky, “Optical properties of Teflon AF amorphous fluoropolymers,” J. Micro/Nanolith. MEMS MOEMS 7(3), 033010 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  28. T. Bellunato, M. Calvi, C. Matteuzzi, M. Musy, D. L. Perego, and B. Storaci, “Refractive index dispersion law of silica aerogel,” Eur. Phys. J. C 52(3), 759–764 (2007).
    [Crossref]

2010 (1)

2009 (3)

2008 (6)

T. Y. Wei, S. Y. Lu, and Y. C. J. Chang, “Transparent, hydrophobic composite aerogels with high mechanical strength and low high-temperature thermal conductivities,” J. Phys. Chem. B 112(38), 11881–11886 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. K. Yang, R. H. French, and E. W. J. Tokarsky, “Optical properties of Teflon AF amorphous fluoropolymers,” J. Micro/Nanolith. MEMS MOEMS 7(3), 033010 (2008).
[Crossref]

F. Xu and G. Brambilla, “Preservation of micro-optical fibers by embedding,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47(8), 6675–6677 (2008).
[Crossref]

Y. Li and L. M. Tong, “Mach-Zehnder interferometers assembled with optical microfibers or nanofibers,” Opt. Lett. 33(4), 303–305 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. I. Yeom, E. C. Mägi, M. R. E. Lamont, M. A. F. Roelens, L. Fu, and B. J. Eggleton, “Low-threshold supercontinuum generation in highly nonlinear chalcogenide nanowires,” Opt. Lett. 33(7), 660–662 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Sumetsky, “Basic Elements for Microfiber Photonics: Micro/Nanofibers and Microfiber Coil Resonators,” J. Lightwave Technol. 26(1), 21–27 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (3)

G. Vienne, Y. Li, and L. M. Tong, “Effect of Host Polymer on Microfiber Resonator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(18), 1386–1388 (2007).
[Crossref]

T. Bellunato, M. Calvi, C. Matteuzzi, M. Musy, D. L. Perego, and B. Storaci, “Refractive index dispersion law of silica aerogel,” Eur. Phys. J. C 52(3), 759–764 (2007).
[Crossref]

A. van Brakel, C. Grivas, M. N. Petrovich, and D. J. Richardson, “Micro-channels machined in microstructured optical fibers by femtosecond laser,” Opt. Express 15(14), 8731–8736 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (2)

M. Sumetsky, “How thin can a microfiber be and still guide light?” Opt. Lett. 31(7), 870–872 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Brambilla, F. Xu, and X. Feng, “Fabrication of optical fibre nanowires and their optical and mechanical characterization,” Electron. Lett. 42(9), 517–519 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (3)

2004 (2)

S. G. Leon-Saval, T. A. Birks, W. J. Wadsworth, P. St. J. Russell, and M. W. Mason, “Supercontinuum generation in submicron fibre waveguides,” Opt. Express 12(13), 2864–2869 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Roig, E. Molins, E. Rodríguez, S. Martínez, M. Moreno-Mañas, and A. Vallribera, “Superhydrophobic silica aerogels by fluorination at the gel stage,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 20(20), 2316–2317 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (2)

Y. L. Hoo, W. Jin, C. Z. Shi, H. L. Ho, D. N. Wang, and S. C. Ruan, “Design and modeling of a photonic crystal fiber gas sensor,” Appl. Opt. 42(18), 3509–3515 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. M. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. L. He, J. Y. Lou, M. Y. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, “Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding,” Nature 426(6968), 816–819 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1999 (3)

J. Bures and R. J. Ghosh, “Power density of the evanescent field in the vicinity of a tapered fiber,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 16(8), 1992–1996 (1999).
[Crossref]

C. A. Morris, M. L. Anderson, R. M. Stroud, C. I. Merzbacher, and D. R. Rolison, “Silica sol as a nanoglue: flexible synthesis of composite aerogels,” Science 284(5414), 622–624 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Leventis, I. A. Elder, D. R. Rolison, M. L. Anderson, and C. I. Merzbacher, “Durable Modification of Silica Aerogel Monoliths with Fluorescent 2,7-Diazapyrenium Moieties. Sensing Oxygen near the Speed of Open-Air Diffusion,” Chem. Mater. 11(10), 2837–2845 (1999).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

G. M. Pajonk, “Transparent silica aerogels,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 225(1), 307–314 (1998).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

H. Yokogawa and M. Yokoyama, “Hydrophobic silica aerogels,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 186, 23–29 (1995).
[Crossref]

1990 (1)

H. S. MacKenzie and F. P. Payne, “Evanescent field amplification in a tapered single-mode optical fibre,” Electron. Lett. 26(2), 130–132 (1990).
[Crossref]

Anderson, M. L.

N. Leventis, I. A. Elder, D. R. Rolison, M. L. Anderson, and C. I. Merzbacher, “Durable Modification of Silica Aerogel Monoliths with Fluorescent 2,7-Diazapyrenium Moieties. Sensing Oxygen near the Speed of Open-Air Diffusion,” Chem. Mater. 11(10), 2837–2845 (1999).
[Crossref]

C. A. Morris, M. L. Anderson, R. M. Stroud, C. I. Merzbacher, and D. R. Rolison, “Silica sol as a nanoglue: flexible synthesis of composite aerogels,” Science 284(5414), 622–624 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ashcom, J. B.

L. M. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. L. He, J. Y. Lou, M. Y. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, “Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding,” Nature 426(6968), 816–819 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Badenes, G.

Bellunato, T.

T. Bellunato, M. Calvi, C. Matteuzzi, M. Musy, D. L. Perego, and B. Storaci, “Refractive index dispersion law of silica aerogel,” Eur. Phys. J. C 52(3), 759–764 (2007).
[Crossref]

Birks, T. A.

Brambilla, G.

G. Brambilla and D. N. Payne, “The ultimate strength of glass silica nanowires,” Nano Lett. 9(2), 831–835 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Brambilla, F. Xu, P. Horak, Y. Jung, F. Koizumi, N. P. Sessions, E. Koukharenko, X. Feng, G. S. Murugan, J. S. Wilkinson, and D. J. Richardson, “Optical fiber nanowires and microwires: fabrication and applications,” Adv. Opt. Photon. 1(1), 107–161 (2009).
[Crossref]

F. Xu and G. Brambilla, “Preservation of micro-optical fibers by embedding,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47(8), 6675–6677 (2008).
[Crossref]

G. Brambilla, F. Xu, and X. Feng, “Fabrication of optical fibre nanowires and their optical and mechanical characterization,” Electron. Lett. 42(9), 517–519 (2006).
[Crossref]

Bures, J.

Calvi, M.

T. Bellunato, M. Calvi, C. Matteuzzi, M. Musy, D. L. Perego, and B. Storaci, “Refractive index dispersion law of silica aerogel,” Eur. Phys. J. C 52(3), 759–764 (2007).
[Crossref]

Chang, Y. C. J.

T. Y. Wei, S. Y. Lu, and Y. C. J. Chang, “Transparent, hydrophobic composite aerogels with high mechanical strength and low high-temperature thermal conductivities,” J. Phys. Chem. B 112(38), 11881–11886 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, X. W.

L. M. Tong, J. Y. Lou, R. R. Gattass, S. L. He, X. W. Chen, L. Liu, and E. Mazur, “Assembly of silica nanowires on silica aerogels for microphotonic devices,” Nano Lett. 5(2), 259–262 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Domínguez-Juárez, J. L.

Eggleton, B. J.

Elder, I. A.

N. Leventis, I. A. Elder, D. R. Rolison, M. L. Anderson, and C. I. Merzbacher, “Durable Modification of Silica Aerogel Monoliths with Fluorescent 2,7-Diazapyrenium Moieties. Sensing Oxygen near the Speed of Open-Air Diffusion,” Chem. Mater. 11(10), 2837–2845 (1999).
[Crossref]

England, R.

Feng, X.

Finazzi, V.

French, R. H.

M. K. Yang, R. H. French, and E. W. J. Tokarsky, “Optical properties of Teflon AF amorphous fluoropolymers,” J. Micro/Nanolith. MEMS MOEMS 7(3), 033010 (2008).
[Crossref]

Fu, L.

Gattass, R. R.

L. M. Tong, J. Y. Lou, R. R. Gattass, S. L. He, X. W. Chen, L. Liu, and E. Mazur, “Assembly of silica nanowires on silica aerogels for microphotonic devices,” Nano Lett. 5(2), 259–262 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. M. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. L. He, J. Y. Lou, M. Y. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, “Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding,” Nature 426(6968), 816–819 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ghosh, R. J.

Grivas, C.

Grogan, M. D. W.

He, S. L.

L. M. Tong, J. Y. Lou, R. R. Gattass, S. L. He, X. W. Chen, L. Liu, and E. Mazur, “Assembly of silica nanowires on silica aerogels for microphotonic devices,” Nano Lett. 5(2), 259–262 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. M. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. L. He, J. Y. Lou, M. Y. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, “Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding,” Nature 426(6968), 816–819 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ho, H. L.

Hoo, Y. L.

Horak, P.

Jha, R.

Jin, W.

Jung, Y.

Koizumi, F.

Koukharenko, E.

Lamont, M. R. E.

Leon-Saval, S. G.

Leventis, N.

N. Leventis, I. A. Elder, D. R. Rolison, M. L. Anderson, and C. I. Merzbacher, “Durable Modification of Silica Aerogel Monoliths with Fluorescent 2,7-Diazapyrenium Moieties. Sensing Oxygen near the Speed of Open-Air Diffusion,” Chem. Mater. 11(10), 2837–2845 (1999).
[Crossref]

Li, Y.

Y. Li and L. M. Tong, “Mach-Zehnder interferometers assembled with optical microfibers or nanofibers,” Opt. Lett. 33(4), 303–305 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Vienne, Y. Li, and L. M. Tong, “Effect of Host Polymer on Microfiber Resonator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(18), 1386–1388 (2007).
[Crossref]

Liu, L.

L. M. Tong, J. Y. Lou, R. R. Gattass, S. L. He, X. W. Chen, L. Liu, and E. Mazur, “Assembly of silica nanowires on silica aerogels for microphotonic devices,” Nano Lett. 5(2), 259–262 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lou, J. Y.

L. M. Tong, J. Y. Lou, R. R. Gattass, S. L. He, X. W. Chen, L. Liu, and E. Mazur, “Assembly of silica nanowires on silica aerogels for microphotonic devices,” Nano Lett. 5(2), 259–262 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. M. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. L. He, J. Y. Lou, M. Y. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, “Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding,” Nature 426(6968), 816–819 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lou, N.

Lu, S. Y.

T. Y. Wei, S. Y. Lu, and Y. C. J. Chang, “Transparent, hydrophobic composite aerogels with high mechanical strength and low high-temperature thermal conductivities,” J. Phys. Chem. B 112(38), 11881–11886 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

MacKenzie, H. S.

H. S. MacKenzie and F. P. Payne, “Evanescent field amplification in a tapered single-mode optical fibre,” Electron. Lett. 26(2), 130–132 (1990).
[Crossref]

Mägi, E. C.

Mansuripur, M.

Martínez, S.

A. Roig, E. Molins, E. Rodríguez, S. Martínez, M. Moreno-Mañas, and A. Vallribera, “Superhydrophobic silica aerogels by fluorination at the gel stage,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 20(20), 2316–2317 (2004).
[Crossref]

Mason, M. W.

Matteuzzi, C.

T. Bellunato, M. Calvi, C. Matteuzzi, M. Musy, D. L. Perego, and B. Storaci, “Refractive index dispersion law of silica aerogel,” Eur. Phys. J. C 52(3), 759–764 (2007).
[Crossref]

Maxwell, I.

L. M. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. L. He, J. Y. Lou, M. Y. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, “Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding,” Nature 426(6968), 816–819 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mazur, E.

L. M. Tong, J. Y. Lou, R. R. Gattass, S. L. He, X. W. Chen, L. Liu, and E. Mazur, “Assembly of silica nanowires on silica aerogels for microphotonic devices,” Nano Lett. 5(2), 259–262 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. M. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. L. He, J. Y. Lou, M. Y. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, “Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding,” Nature 426(6968), 816–819 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Merzbacher, C. I.

N. Leventis, I. A. Elder, D. R. Rolison, M. L. Anderson, and C. I. Merzbacher, “Durable Modification of Silica Aerogel Monoliths with Fluorescent 2,7-Diazapyrenium Moieties. Sensing Oxygen near the Speed of Open-Air Diffusion,” Chem. Mater. 11(10), 2837–2845 (1999).
[Crossref]

C. A. Morris, M. L. Anderson, R. M. Stroud, C. I. Merzbacher, and D. R. Rolison, “Silica sol as a nanoglue: flexible synthesis of composite aerogels,” Science 284(5414), 622–624 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Molins, E.

A. Roig, E. Molins, E. Rodríguez, S. Martínez, M. Moreno-Mañas, and A. Vallribera, “Superhydrophobic silica aerogels by fluorination at the gel stage,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 20(20), 2316–2317 (2004).
[Crossref]

Monzón-Hernández, D.

Moreno-Mañas, M.

A. Roig, E. Molins, E. Rodríguez, S. Martínez, M. Moreno-Mañas, and A. Vallribera, “Superhydrophobic silica aerogels by fluorination at the gel stage,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 20(20), 2316–2317 (2004).
[Crossref]

Morris, C. A.

C. A. Morris, M. L. Anderson, R. M. Stroud, C. I. Merzbacher, and D. R. Rolison, “Silica sol as a nanoglue: flexible synthesis of composite aerogels,” Science 284(5414), 622–624 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Murugan, G. S.

Musy, M.

T. Bellunato, M. Calvi, C. Matteuzzi, M. Musy, D. L. Perego, and B. Storaci, “Refractive index dispersion law of silica aerogel,” Eur. Phys. J. C 52(3), 759–764 (2007).
[Crossref]

Pajonk, G. M.

G. M. Pajonk, “Transparent silica aerogels,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 225(1), 307–314 (1998).
[Crossref]

Payne, D. N.

G. Brambilla and D. N. Payne, “The ultimate strength of glass silica nanowires,” Nano Lett. 9(2), 831–835 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Payne, F. P.

H. S. MacKenzie and F. P. Payne, “Evanescent field amplification in a tapered single-mode optical fibre,” Electron. Lett. 26(2), 130–132 (1990).
[Crossref]

Perego, D. L.

T. Bellunato, M. Calvi, C. Matteuzzi, M. Musy, D. L. Perego, and B. Storaci, “Refractive index dispersion law of silica aerogel,” Eur. Phys. J. C 52(3), 759–764 (2007).
[Crossref]

Petrovich, M. N.

Peyghambarian, N.

Polynkin, A.

Polynkin, P.

Pruneri, V.

Richardson, D. J.

Rodríguez, E.

A. Roig, E. Molins, E. Rodríguez, S. Martínez, M. Moreno-Mañas, and A. Vallribera, “Superhydrophobic silica aerogels by fluorination at the gel stage,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 20(20), 2316–2317 (2004).
[Crossref]

Roelens, M. A. F.

Roig, A.

A. Roig, E. Molins, E. Rodríguez, S. Martínez, M. Moreno-Mañas, and A. Vallribera, “Superhydrophobic silica aerogels by fluorination at the gel stage,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 20(20), 2316–2317 (2004).
[Crossref]

Rolison, D. R.

N. Leventis, I. A. Elder, D. R. Rolison, M. L. Anderson, and C. I. Merzbacher, “Durable Modification of Silica Aerogel Monoliths with Fluorescent 2,7-Diazapyrenium Moieties. Sensing Oxygen near the Speed of Open-Air Diffusion,” Chem. Mater. 11(10), 2837–2845 (1999).
[Crossref]

C. A. Morris, M. L. Anderson, R. M. Stroud, C. I. Merzbacher, and D. R. Rolison, “Silica sol as a nanoglue: flexible synthesis of composite aerogels,” Science 284(5414), 622–624 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ruan, S. C.

Sessions, N. P.

Shen, M. Y.

L. M. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. L. He, J. Y. Lou, M. Y. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, “Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding,” Nature 426(6968), 816–819 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shi, C. Z.

St. J. Russell, P.

Storaci, B.

T. Bellunato, M. Calvi, C. Matteuzzi, M. Musy, D. L. Perego, and B. Storaci, “Refractive index dispersion law of silica aerogel,” Eur. Phys. J. C 52(3), 759–764 (2007).
[Crossref]

Stroud, R. M.

C. A. Morris, M. L. Anderson, R. M. Stroud, C. I. Merzbacher, and D. R. Rolison, “Silica sol as a nanoglue: flexible synthesis of composite aerogels,” Science 284(5414), 622–624 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sumetsky, M.

Tokarsky, E. W. J.

M. K. Yang, R. H. French, and E. W. J. Tokarsky, “Optical properties of Teflon AF amorphous fluoropolymers,” J. Micro/Nanolith. MEMS MOEMS 7(3), 033010 (2008).
[Crossref]

Tong, L. M.

Y. Li and L. M. Tong, “Mach-Zehnder interferometers assembled with optical microfibers or nanofibers,” Opt. Lett. 33(4), 303–305 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Vienne, Y. Li, and L. M. Tong, “Effect of Host Polymer on Microfiber Resonator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(18), 1386–1388 (2007).
[Crossref]

L. M. Tong, J. Y. Lou, R. R. Gattass, S. L. He, X. W. Chen, L. Liu, and E. Mazur, “Assembly of silica nanowires on silica aerogels for microphotonic devices,” Nano Lett. 5(2), 259–262 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. M. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. L. He, J. Y. Lou, M. Y. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, “Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding,” Nature 426(6968), 816–819 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vallribera, A.

A. Roig, E. Molins, E. Rodríguez, S. Martínez, M. Moreno-Mañas, and A. Vallribera, “Superhydrophobic silica aerogels by fluorination at the gel stage,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 20(20), 2316–2317 (2004).
[Crossref]

van Brakel, A.

Vienne, G.

G. Vienne, Y. Li, and L. M. Tong, “Effect of Host Polymer on Microfiber Resonator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(18), 1386–1388 (2007).
[Crossref]

Villatoro, J.

Wadsworth, W. J.

Wang, D. N.

Wei, T. Y.

T. Y. Wei, S. Y. Lu, and Y. C. J. Chang, “Transparent, hydrophobic composite aerogels with high mechanical strength and low high-temperature thermal conductivities,” J. Phys. Chem. B 112(38), 11881–11886 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wilkinson, J. S.

Williams, R.

Xiao, L. M.

Xu, F.

G. Brambilla, F. Xu, P. Horak, Y. Jung, F. Koizumi, N. P. Sessions, E. Koukharenko, X. Feng, G. S. Murugan, J. S. Wilkinson, and D. J. Richardson, “Optical fiber nanowires and microwires: fabrication and applications,” Adv. Opt. Photon. 1(1), 107–161 (2009).
[Crossref]

F. Xu and G. Brambilla, “Preservation of micro-optical fibers by embedding,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47(8), 6675–6677 (2008).
[Crossref]

G. Brambilla, F. Xu, and X. Feng, “Fabrication of optical fibre nanowires and their optical and mechanical characterization,” Electron. Lett. 42(9), 517–519 (2006).
[Crossref]

Yang, M. K.

M. K. Yang, R. H. French, and E. W. J. Tokarsky, “Optical properties of Teflon AF amorphous fluoropolymers,” J. Micro/Nanolith. MEMS MOEMS 7(3), 033010 (2008).
[Crossref]

Yeom, D. I.

Yokogawa, H.

H. Yokogawa and M. Yokoyama, “Hydrophobic silica aerogels,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 186, 23–29 (1995).
[Crossref]

Yokoyama, M.

H. Yokogawa and M. Yokoyama, “Hydrophobic silica aerogels,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 186, 23–29 (1995).
[Crossref]

Adv. Opt. Photon. (1)

Appl. Opt. (1)

Chem. Commun. (Camb.) (1)

A. Roig, E. Molins, E. Rodríguez, S. Martínez, M. Moreno-Mañas, and A. Vallribera, “Superhydrophobic silica aerogels by fluorination at the gel stage,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 20(20), 2316–2317 (2004).
[Crossref]

Chem. Mater. (1)

N. Leventis, I. A. Elder, D. R. Rolison, M. L. Anderson, and C. I. Merzbacher, “Durable Modification of Silica Aerogel Monoliths with Fluorescent 2,7-Diazapyrenium Moieties. Sensing Oxygen near the Speed of Open-Air Diffusion,” Chem. Mater. 11(10), 2837–2845 (1999).
[Crossref]

Electron. Lett. (2)

H. S. MacKenzie and F. P. Payne, “Evanescent field amplification in a tapered single-mode optical fibre,” Electron. Lett. 26(2), 130–132 (1990).
[Crossref]

G. Brambilla, F. Xu, and X. Feng, “Fabrication of optical fibre nanowires and their optical and mechanical characterization,” Electron. Lett. 42(9), 517–519 (2006).
[Crossref]

Eur. Phys. J. C (1)

T. Bellunato, M. Calvi, C. Matteuzzi, M. Musy, D. L. Perego, and B. Storaci, “Refractive index dispersion law of silica aerogel,” Eur. Phys. J. C 52(3), 759–764 (2007).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

G. Vienne, Y. Li, and L. M. Tong, “Effect of Host Polymer on Microfiber Resonator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(18), 1386–1388 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

J. Micro/Nanolith. MEMS MOEMS (1)

M. K. Yang, R. H. French, and E. W. J. Tokarsky, “Optical properties of Teflon AF amorphous fluoropolymers,” J. Micro/Nanolith. MEMS MOEMS 7(3), 033010 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Non-Cryst. Solids (2)

G. M. Pajonk, “Transparent silica aerogels,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 225(1), 307–314 (1998).
[Crossref]

H. Yokogawa and M. Yokoyama, “Hydrophobic silica aerogels,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 186, 23–29 (1995).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

J. Phys. Chem. B (1)

T. Y. Wei, S. Y. Lu, and Y. C. J. Chang, “Transparent, hydrophobic composite aerogels with high mechanical strength and low high-temperature thermal conductivities,” J. Phys. Chem. B 112(38), 11881–11886 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

F. Xu and G. Brambilla, “Preservation of micro-optical fibers by embedding,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47(8), 6675–6677 (2008).
[Crossref]

Nano Lett. (2)

G. Brambilla and D. N. Payne, “The ultimate strength of glass silica nanowires,” Nano Lett. 9(2), 831–835 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. M. Tong, J. Y. Lou, R. R. Gattass, S. L. He, X. W. Chen, L. Liu, and E. Mazur, “Assembly of silica nanowires on silica aerogels for microphotonic devices,” Nano Lett. 5(2), 259–262 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nature (1)

L. M. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. L. He, J. Y. Lou, M. Y. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, “Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding,” Nature 426(6968), 816–819 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (6)

Science (1)

C. A. Morris, M. L. Anderson, R. M. Stroud, C. I. Merzbacher, and D. R. Rolison, “Silica sol as a nanoglue: flexible synthesis of composite aerogels,” Science 284(5414), 622–624 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cited By

OSA participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic internal surface structures of (a) hydrophilic aerogel with hydroxyl groups and (b) hydrophobic aerogel with trimethylsilyl groups. The horizontal lines distinguish the surface groups above from the bulk glass below. (c) Hydrophilic aerogel is turned to white powder by a 2.6 mm diameter drop of water. (d) A similar water drop sits without reacting on the surface of hydrophobic aerogel with a contact angle of ~160°.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) A nanofibre 20 mm long and 800 nm in diameter embedded in hydrophobic aerogel. The fibre carries red laser light from left to right, to reveal the nanofibre waist by the weak scattering of the evanescent field by the aerogel. Scanning electron micrographs (SEMs) of nanofibres with diameters of (b) 28 µm and (c) 700 nm emerging from aerogel blocks that were broken to show the intimate contact between fibre and aerogel. Inset: SEM of an aerogel surface (500 nm scale bar) with pore structure small compared to optical wavelengths. (d) The loss spectrum of the nanofibre immediately after encapsulation. Inset: detail between 1510 and 1545 nm immediately after encapsulation and 15 days later.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Calculated fraction of power in the fundamental mode's evanescent field at 1550 nm wavelength versus external index, for the nanofibre diameters marked. (b) Corresponding intensity distributions (normalised to a common peak value) along an axis perpendicular to the direction of the electrical field, for an 800 nm diameter nanofibre in air, aerogel and Teflon. The dotted lines mark the boundary of the nanofibre.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Steady-state transmission spectra of a nanofibre with waist length 20 mm and diameter 800 nm embedded in aerogel, after the surrounding air was replaced by acetylene gas at atmospheric pressure, and after the acetylene was replaced by air again. The spectra are both relative to the transmission before the acetylene was first introduced.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Calculated dispersion spectra of a silica nanofibre of diameter 800 nm in air, aerogel and Teflon. The material dispersion of silica and Teflon [27] are included, but that of aerogel was ignored because its index variation with wavelength is small compared to bulk silica [28]. (b) The output supercontinuum spectrum from a nanofibre 20 mm long and 800 nm in diameter embedded in aerogel, pumped by ~300 fs pulses of 540 nm wavelength with a repetition rate of 20 MHz. The total output power measured with a thermal power meter was 5.7 mW. Inset is a photograph of the output far field pattern.

Metrics