Abstract

Coupling of broadband terahertz pulses into metal-metal terahertz quantum cascade lasers is presented. Mode matched terahertz transients are generated on the quantum cascade laser facet of subwavelength dimension. This method provides a full overlap of optical mode and active laser medium. A longitudinal optical-phonon depletion based active region design is investigated in a coupled cavity configuration. Modulation experiments reveal spectral gain and (broadband) losses. The observed gain shows high dynamic behavior when switching from loss to gain around threshold and is clamped at total laser losses.

© 2011 OSA

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  1. J. Kröll, J. Darmo, S. S. Dhillon, X. Marcadet, M. Calligaro, C. Sirtori, and K. Unterrainer, “Phase-resolved measurements of stimulated emission in a laser,” Nature 449(7163), 698–701 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. J. Kröll, J. Darmo, K. Unterrainer, S. S. Dhillon, C. Sirtori, X. Marcadet, and M. Calligaro, “Longitudinal spatial hole burning in terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(16), 161108 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  3. N. Jukam, S. S. Dhillon, Z. Y. Zhao, G. Duerr, J. Armijo, N. Sirmons, S. Hameau, S. Barbieri, P. Filloux, C. Sirtori, X. Marcadet, and J. Tignon, “Gain Measurements of THz Quantum Cascade Lasers using THz Time-Domain Spectroscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14(2), 436–442 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  4. N. Jukam, S. S. Dhillon, D. Oustinov, J. Madéo, J. Tignon, R. Colombelli, P. Dean, M. Salih, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Terahertz time domain spectroscopy of phonon-depopulation based quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(25), 251108 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. Lloyd-Hughes, Y. L. Delley, G. Scalari, M. Fischer, V. Liverini, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Spectroscopic determination of the doping and mobility of terahertz quantum cascade structures,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(9), 093104 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  6. S. Barbieri, J. Alton, H. E. Beere, J. Fowler, E. H. Linfield, and D. A. Ritchie, “2.9 THz quantum cascade lasers operating up to 70 K in continuous wave,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(10), 1674 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  7. B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, H. Callebaut, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Terahertz quantum-cascade laser at λ=100µm using metal waveguide for mode confinement,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(11), 2124 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  8. S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “186 K operation of terahertz quantum-cascade lasers based on a diagonal design,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(13), 131105 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. Lloyd-Hughes, G. Scalari, A. van Kolck, M. Fischer, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Coupling terahertz radiation between sub-wavelength metal-metal waveguides and free space using monolithically integrated horn antennae,” Opt. Express 17(20), 18387–18393 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. N. Yu, Q. J. Wang, M. A. Kats, J. A. Fan, S. P. Khanna, L. Li, A. G. Davies, E. H. Linfield, and F. Capasso, “Designer spoof surface plasmon structures collimate terahertz laser beams,” Nat. Mater. 9(9), 730–735 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. M. Martl, J. Darmo, D. Dietze, K. Unterrainer, and E. Gornik, “Terahertz waveguide emitter with subwavelength confinement,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(1), 013110 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  12. S. S. Dhillon, S. Sawallich, N. Jukam, D. Oustinov, J. Madeo, S. Barbieri, P. Filloux, C. Sirtori, X. Marcadet, and J. Tignon, “Integrated terahertz pulse generation and amplification in quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(6), 061107 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  13. B. S. Williams, H. Callebaut, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “3.4-THz quantum cascade laser based on longitudinal-optical-phonon scattering for depopulation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(7), 1015 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  14. Fabry-Perot resonances of QCL section A are apparent at f = 1.2 THz and f = 2.4 THz (corresponding to slightly smaller size of emitter which may be explained by underetching).
  15. D. Dietze, J. Darmo, and K. Unterrainer, “Guided Modes in Layered Semiconductor Terahertz Structures,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46(5), 618–625 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  16. N. Jukam, S. S. Dhillon, D. Oustinov, J. Madeo, C. Manquest, S. Barbieri, C. Sirtori, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and J. Tignon, “Terahertz amplifier based on gain switching in a quantum cascade laser,” Nature Phot. 3(12), 715–719 (2009).
    [CrossRef]

2010

N. Yu, Q. J. Wang, M. A. Kats, J. A. Fan, S. P. Khanna, L. Li, A. G. Davies, E. H. Linfield, and F. Capasso, “Designer spoof surface plasmon structures collimate terahertz laser beams,” Nat. Mater. 9(9), 730–735 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Martl, J. Darmo, D. Dietze, K. Unterrainer, and E. Gornik, “Terahertz waveguide emitter with subwavelength confinement,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(1), 013110 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. S. Dhillon, S. Sawallich, N. Jukam, D. Oustinov, J. Madeo, S. Barbieri, P. Filloux, C. Sirtori, X. Marcadet, and J. Tignon, “Integrated terahertz pulse generation and amplification in quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(6), 061107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Dietze, J. Darmo, and K. Unterrainer, “Guided Modes in Layered Semiconductor Terahertz Structures,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46(5), 618–625 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

N. Jukam, S. S. Dhillon, D. Oustinov, J. Madeo, C. Manquest, S. Barbieri, C. Sirtori, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and J. Tignon, “Terahertz amplifier based on gain switching in a quantum cascade laser,” Nature Phot. 3(12), 715–719 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. Jukam, S. S. Dhillon, D. Oustinov, J. Madéo, J. Tignon, R. Colombelli, P. Dean, M. Salih, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Terahertz time domain spectroscopy of phonon-depopulation based quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(25), 251108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Lloyd-Hughes, Y. L. Delley, G. Scalari, M. Fischer, V. Liverini, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Spectroscopic determination of the doping and mobility of terahertz quantum cascade structures,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(9), 093104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “186 K operation of terahertz quantum-cascade lasers based on a diagonal design,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(13), 131105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Lloyd-Hughes, G. Scalari, A. van Kolck, M. Fischer, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Coupling terahertz radiation between sub-wavelength metal-metal waveguides and free space using monolithically integrated horn antennae,” Opt. Express 17(20), 18387–18393 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

N. Jukam, S. S. Dhillon, Z. Y. Zhao, G. Duerr, J. Armijo, N. Sirmons, S. Hameau, S. Barbieri, P. Filloux, C. Sirtori, X. Marcadet, and J. Tignon, “Gain Measurements of THz Quantum Cascade Lasers using THz Time-Domain Spectroscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14(2), 436–442 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

J. Kröll, J. Darmo, S. S. Dhillon, X. Marcadet, M. Calligaro, C. Sirtori, and K. Unterrainer, “Phase-resolved measurements of stimulated emission in a laser,” Nature 449(7163), 698–701 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Kröll, J. Darmo, K. Unterrainer, S. S. Dhillon, C. Sirtori, X. Marcadet, and M. Calligaro, “Longitudinal spatial hole burning in terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(16), 161108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2004

S. Barbieri, J. Alton, H. E. Beere, J. Fowler, E. H. Linfield, and D. A. Ritchie, “2.9 THz quantum cascade lasers operating up to 70 K in continuous wave,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(10), 1674 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, H. Callebaut, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Terahertz quantum-cascade laser at λ=100µm using metal waveguide for mode confinement,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(11), 2124 (2003).
[CrossRef]

B. S. Williams, H. Callebaut, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “3.4-THz quantum cascade laser based on longitudinal-optical-phonon scattering for depopulation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(7), 1015 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Alton, J.

S. Barbieri, J. Alton, H. E. Beere, J. Fowler, E. H. Linfield, and D. A. Ritchie, “2.9 THz quantum cascade lasers operating up to 70 K in continuous wave,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(10), 1674 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Armijo, J.

N. Jukam, S. S. Dhillon, Z. Y. Zhao, G. Duerr, J. Armijo, N. Sirmons, S. Hameau, S. Barbieri, P. Filloux, C. Sirtori, X. Marcadet, and J. Tignon, “Gain Measurements of THz Quantum Cascade Lasers using THz Time-Domain Spectroscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14(2), 436–442 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Barbieri, S.

S. S. Dhillon, S. Sawallich, N. Jukam, D. Oustinov, J. Madeo, S. Barbieri, P. Filloux, C. Sirtori, X. Marcadet, and J. Tignon, “Integrated terahertz pulse generation and amplification in quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(6), 061107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. Jukam, S. S. Dhillon, D. Oustinov, J. Madeo, C. Manquest, S. Barbieri, C. Sirtori, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and J. Tignon, “Terahertz amplifier based on gain switching in a quantum cascade laser,” Nature Phot. 3(12), 715–719 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. Jukam, S. S. Dhillon, Z. Y. Zhao, G. Duerr, J. Armijo, N. Sirmons, S. Hameau, S. Barbieri, P. Filloux, C. Sirtori, X. Marcadet, and J. Tignon, “Gain Measurements of THz Quantum Cascade Lasers using THz Time-Domain Spectroscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14(2), 436–442 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Barbieri, J. Alton, H. E. Beere, J. Fowler, E. H. Linfield, and D. A. Ritchie, “2.9 THz quantum cascade lasers operating up to 70 K in continuous wave,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(10), 1674 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Beck, M.

J. Lloyd-Hughes, Y. L. Delley, G. Scalari, M. Fischer, V. Liverini, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Spectroscopic determination of the doping and mobility of terahertz quantum cascade structures,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(9), 093104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Lloyd-Hughes, G. Scalari, A. van Kolck, M. Fischer, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Coupling terahertz radiation between sub-wavelength metal-metal waveguides and free space using monolithically integrated horn antennae,” Opt. Express 17(20), 18387–18393 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Beere, H. E.

S. Barbieri, J. Alton, H. E. Beere, J. Fowler, E. H. Linfield, and D. A. Ritchie, “2.9 THz quantum cascade lasers operating up to 70 K in continuous wave,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(10), 1674 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Callebaut, H.

B. S. Williams, H. Callebaut, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “3.4-THz quantum cascade laser based on longitudinal-optical-phonon scattering for depopulation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(7), 1015 (2003).
[CrossRef]

B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, H. Callebaut, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Terahertz quantum-cascade laser at λ=100µm using metal waveguide for mode confinement,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(11), 2124 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Calligaro, M.

J. Kröll, J. Darmo, S. S. Dhillon, X. Marcadet, M. Calligaro, C. Sirtori, and K. Unterrainer, “Phase-resolved measurements of stimulated emission in a laser,” Nature 449(7163), 698–701 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Kröll, J. Darmo, K. Unterrainer, S. S. Dhillon, C. Sirtori, X. Marcadet, and M. Calligaro, “Longitudinal spatial hole burning in terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(16), 161108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Capasso, F.

N. Yu, Q. J. Wang, M. A. Kats, J. A. Fan, S. P. Khanna, L. Li, A. G. Davies, E. H. Linfield, and F. Capasso, “Designer spoof surface plasmon structures collimate terahertz laser beams,” Nat. Mater. 9(9), 730–735 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Colombelli, R.

N. Jukam, S. S. Dhillon, D. Oustinov, J. Madéo, J. Tignon, R. Colombelli, P. Dean, M. Salih, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Terahertz time domain spectroscopy of phonon-depopulation based quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(25), 251108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Darmo, J.

M. Martl, J. Darmo, D. Dietze, K. Unterrainer, and E. Gornik, “Terahertz waveguide emitter with subwavelength confinement,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(1), 013110 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Dietze, J. Darmo, and K. Unterrainer, “Guided Modes in Layered Semiconductor Terahertz Structures,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46(5), 618–625 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Kröll, J. Darmo, K. Unterrainer, S. S. Dhillon, C. Sirtori, X. Marcadet, and M. Calligaro, “Longitudinal spatial hole burning in terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(16), 161108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Kröll, J. Darmo, S. S. Dhillon, X. Marcadet, M. Calligaro, C. Sirtori, and K. Unterrainer, “Phase-resolved measurements of stimulated emission in a laser,” Nature 449(7163), 698–701 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Davies, A. G.

N. Yu, Q. J. Wang, M. A. Kats, J. A. Fan, S. P. Khanna, L. Li, A. G. Davies, E. H. Linfield, and F. Capasso, “Designer spoof surface plasmon structures collimate terahertz laser beams,” Nat. Mater. 9(9), 730–735 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Jukam, S. S. Dhillon, D. Oustinov, J. Madeo, C. Manquest, S. Barbieri, C. Sirtori, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and J. Tignon, “Terahertz amplifier based on gain switching in a quantum cascade laser,” Nature Phot. 3(12), 715–719 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. Jukam, S. S. Dhillon, D. Oustinov, J. Madéo, J. Tignon, R. Colombelli, P. Dean, M. Salih, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Terahertz time domain spectroscopy of phonon-depopulation based quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(25), 251108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dean, P.

N. Jukam, S. S. Dhillon, D. Oustinov, J. Madéo, J. Tignon, R. Colombelli, P. Dean, M. Salih, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Terahertz time domain spectroscopy of phonon-depopulation based quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(25), 251108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Delley, Y. L.

J. Lloyd-Hughes, Y. L. Delley, G. Scalari, M. Fischer, V. Liverini, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Spectroscopic determination of the doping and mobility of terahertz quantum cascade structures,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(9), 093104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dhillon, S. S.

S. S. Dhillon, S. Sawallich, N. Jukam, D. Oustinov, J. Madeo, S. Barbieri, P. Filloux, C. Sirtori, X. Marcadet, and J. Tignon, “Integrated terahertz pulse generation and amplification in quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(6), 061107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. Jukam, S. S. Dhillon, D. Oustinov, J. Madeo, C. Manquest, S. Barbieri, C. Sirtori, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and J. Tignon, “Terahertz amplifier based on gain switching in a quantum cascade laser,” Nature Phot. 3(12), 715–719 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. Jukam, S. S. Dhillon, D. Oustinov, J. Madéo, J. Tignon, R. Colombelli, P. Dean, M. Salih, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Terahertz time domain spectroscopy of phonon-depopulation based quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(25), 251108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. Jukam, S. S. Dhillon, Z. Y. Zhao, G. Duerr, J. Armijo, N. Sirmons, S. Hameau, S. Barbieri, P. Filloux, C. Sirtori, X. Marcadet, and J. Tignon, “Gain Measurements of THz Quantum Cascade Lasers using THz Time-Domain Spectroscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14(2), 436–442 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Kröll, J. Darmo, S. S. Dhillon, X. Marcadet, M. Calligaro, C. Sirtori, and K. Unterrainer, “Phase-resolved measurements of stimulated emission in a laser,” Nature 449(7163), 698–701 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Kröll, J. Darmo, K. Unterrainer, S. S. Dhillon, C. Sirtori, X. Marcadet, and M. Calligaro, “Longitudinal spatial hole burning in terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(16), 161108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dietze, D.

D. Dietze, J. Darmo, and K. Unterrainer, “Guided Modes in Layered Semiconductor Terahertz Structures,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46(5), 618–625 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Martl, J. Darmo, D. Dietze, K. Unterrainer, and E. Gornik, “Terahertz waveguide emitter with subwavelength confinement,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(1), 013110 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Duerr, G.

N. Jukam, S. S. Dhillon, Z. Y. Zhao, G. Duerr, J. Armijo, N. Sirmons, S. Hameau, S. Barbieri, P. Filloux, C. Sirtori, X. Marcadet, and J. Tignon, “Gain Measurements of THz Quantum Cascade Lasers using THz Time-Domain Spectroscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14(2), 436–442 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Faist, J.

J. Lloyd-Hughes, G. Scalari, A. van Kolck, M. Fischer, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Coupling terahertz radiation between sub-wavelength metal-metal waveguides and free space using monolithically integrated horn antennae,” Opt. Express 17(20), 18387–18393 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Lloyd-Hughes, Y. L. Delley, G. Scalari, M. Fischer, V. Liverini, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Spectroscopic determination of the doping and mobility of terahertz quantum cascade structures,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(9), 093104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fan, J. A.

N. Yu, Q. J. Wang, M. A. Kats, J. A. Fan, S. P. Khanna, L. Li, A. G. Davies, E. H. Linfield, and F. Capasso, “Designer spoof surface plasmon structures collimate terahertz laser beams,” Nat. Mater. 9(9), 730–735 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Filloux, P.

S. S. Dhillon, S. Sawallich, N. Jukam, D. Oustinov, J. Madeo, S. Barbieri, P. Filloux, C. Sirtori, X. Marcadet, and J. Tignon, “Integrated terahertz pulse generation and amplification in quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(6), 061107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. Jukam, S. S. Dhillon, Z. Y. Zhao, G. Duerr, J. Armijo, N. Sirmons, S. Hameau, S. Barbieri, P. Filloux, C. Sirtori, X. Marcadet, and J. Tignon, “Gain Measurements of THz Quantum Cascade Lasers using THz Time-Domain Spectroscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14(2), 436–442 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fischer, M.

J. Lloyd-Hughes, Y. L. Delley, G. Scalari, M. Fischer, V. Liverini, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Spectroscopic determination of the doping and mobility of terahertz quantum cascade structures,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(9), 093104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Lloyd-Hughes, G. Scalari, A. van Kolck, M. Fischer, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Coupling terahertz radiation between sub-wavelength metal-metal waveguides and free space using monolithically integrated horn antennae,” Opt. Express 17(20), 18387–18393 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fowler, J.

S. Barbieri, J. Alton, H. E. Beere, J. Fowler, E. H. Linfield, and D. A. Ritchie, “2.9 THz quantum cascade lasers operating up to 70 K in continuous wave,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(10), 1674 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gornik, E.

M. Martl, J. Darmo, D. Dietze, K. Unterrainer, and E. Gornik, “Terahertz waveguide emitter with subwavelength confinement,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(1), 013110 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hameau, S.

N. Jukam, S. S. Dhillon, Z. Y. Zhao, G. Duerr, J. Armijo, N. Sirmons, S. Hameau, S. Barbieri, P. Filloux, C. Sirtori, X. Marcadet, and J. Tignon, “Gain Measurements of THz Quantum Cascade Lasers using THz Time-Domain Spectroscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14(2), 436–442 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hu, Q.

S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “186 K operation of terahertz quantum-cascade lasers based on a diagonal design,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(13), 131105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, H. Callebaut, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Terahertz quantum-cascade laser at λ=100µm using metal waveguide for mode confinement,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(11), 2124 (2003).
[CrossRef]

B. S. Williams, H. Callebaut, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “3.4-THz quantum cascade laser based on longitudinal-optical-phonon scattering for depopulation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(7), 1015 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jukam, N.

S. S. Dhillon, S. Sawallich, N. Jukam, D. Oustinov, J. Madeo, S. Barbieri, P. Filloux, C. Sirtori, X. Marcadet, and J. Tignon, “Integrated terahertz pulse generation and amplification in quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(6), 061107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. Jukam, S. S. Dhillon, D. Oustinov, J. Madeo, C. Manquest, S. Barbieri, C. Sirtori, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and J. Tignon, “Terahertz amplifier based on gain switching in a quantum cascade laser,” Nature Phot. 3(12), 715–719 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. Jukam, S. S. Dhillon, D. Oustinov, J. Madéo, J. Tignon, R. Colombelli, P. Dean, M. Salih, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Terahertz time domain spectroscopy of phonon-depopulation based quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(25), 251108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. Jukam, S. S. Dhillon, Z. Y. Zhao, G. Duerr, J. Armijo, N. Sirmons, S. Hameau, S. Barbieri, P. Filloux, C. Sirtori, X. Marcadet, and J. Tignon, “Gain Measurements of THz Quantum Cascade Lasers using THz Time-Domain Spectroscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14(2), 436–442 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kats, M. A.

N. Yu, Q. J. Wang, M. A. Kats, J. A. Fan, S. P. Khanna, L. Li, A. G. Davies, E. H. Linfield, and F. Capasso, “Designer spoof surface plasmon structures collimate terahertz laser beams,” Nat. Mater. 9(9), 730–735 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Khanna, S. P.

N. Yu, Q. J. Wang, M. A. Kats, J. A. Fan, S. P. Khanna, L. Li, A. G. Davies, E. H. Linfield, and F. Capasso, “Designer spoof surface plasmon structures collimate terahertz laser beams,” Nat. Mater. 9(9), 730–735 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Jukam, S. S. Dhillon, D. Oustinov, J. Madeo, C. Manquest, S. Barbieri, C. Sirtori, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and J. Tignon, “Terahertz amplifier based on gain switching in a quantum cascade laser,” Nature Phot. 3(12), 715–719 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. Jukam, S. S. Dhillon, D. Oustinov, J. Madéo, J. Tignon, R. Colombelli, P. Dean, M. Salih, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Terahertz time domain spectroscopy of phonon-depopulation based quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(25), 251108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kröll, J.

J. Kröll, J. Darmo, S. S. Dhillon, X. Marcadet, M. Calligaro, C. Sirtori, and K. Unterrainer, “Phase-resolved measurements of stimulated emission in a laser,” Nature 449(7163), 698–701 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Kröll, J. Darmo, K. Unterrainer, S. S. Dhillon, C. Sirtori, X. Marcadet, and M. Calligaro, “Longitudinal spatial hole burning in terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(16), 161108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kumar, S.

S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “186 K operation of terahertz quantum-cascade lasers based on a diagonal design,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(13), 131105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, H. Callebaut, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Terahertz quantum-cascade laser at λ=100µm using metal waveguide for mode confinement,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(11), 2124 (2003).
[CrossRef]

B. S. Williams, H. Callebaut, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “3.4-THz quantum cascade laser based on longitudinal-optical-phonon scattering for depopulation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(7), 1015 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Li, L.

N. Yu, Q. J. Wang, M. A. Kats, J. A. Fan, S. P. Khanna, L. Li, A. G. Davies, E. H. Linfield, and F. Capasso, “Designer spoof surface plasmon structures collimate terahertz laser beams,” Nat. Mater. 9(9), 730–735 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Linfield, E. H.

N. Yu, Q. J. Wang, M. A. Kats, J. A. Fan, S. P. Khanna, L. Li, A. G. Davies, E. H. Linfield, and F. Capasso, “Designer spoof surface plasmon structures collimate terahertz laser beams,” Nat. Mater. 9(9), 730–735 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Jukam, S. S. Dhillon, D. Oustinov, J. Madeo, C. Manquest, S. Barbieri, C. Sirtori, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and J. Tignon, “Terahertz amplifier based on gain switching in a quantum cascade laser,” Nature Phot. 3(12), 715–719 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. Jukam, S. S. Dhillon, D. Oustinov, J. Madéo, J. Tignon, R. Colombelli, P. Dean, M. Salih, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Terahertz time domain spectroscopy of phonon-depopulation based quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(25), 251108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Barbieri, J. Alton, H. E. Beere, J. Fowler, E. H. Linfield, and D. A. Ritchie, “2.9 THz quantum cascade lasers operating up to 70 K in continuous wave,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(10), 1674 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Liverini, V.

J. Lloyd-Hughes, Y. L. Delley, G. Scalari, M. Fischer, V. Liverini, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Spectroscopic determination of the doping and mobility of terahertz quantum cascade structures,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(9), 093104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lloyd-Hughes, J.

J. Lloyd-Hughes, Y. L. Delley, G. Scalari, M. Fischer, V. Liverini, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Spectroscopic determination of the doping and mobility of terahertz quantum cascade structures,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(9), 093104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Lloyd-Hughes, G. Scalari, A. van Kolck, M. Fischer, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Coupling terahertz radiation between sub-wavelength metal-metal waveguides and free space using monolithically integrated horn antennae,” Opt. Express 17(20), 18387–18393 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Madeo, J.

S. S. Dhillon, S. Sawallich, N. Jukam, D. Oustinov, J. Madeo, S. Barbieri, P. Filloux, C. Sirtori, X. Marcadet, and J. Tignon, “Integrated terahertz pulse generation and amplification in quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(6), 061107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. Jukam, S. S. Dhillon, D. Oustinov, J. Madeo, C. Manquest, S. Barbieri, C. Sirtori, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and J. Tignon, “Terahertz amplifier based on gain switching in a quantum cascade laser,” Nature Phot. 3(12), 715–719 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Madéo, J.

N. Jukam, S. S. Dhillon, D. Oustinov, J. Madéo, J. Tignon, R. Colombelli, P. Dean, M. Salih, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Terahertz time domain spectroscopy of phonon-depopulation based quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(25), 251108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Manquest, C.

N. Jukam, S. S. Dhillon, D. Oustinov, J. Madeo, C. Manquest, S. Barbieri, C. Sirtori, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and J. Tignon, “Terahertz amplifier based on gain switching in a quantum cascade laser,” Nature Phot. 3(12), 715–719 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Marcadet, X.

S. S. Dhillon, S. Sawallich, N. Jukam, D. Oustinov, J. Madeo, S. Barbieri, P. Filloux, C. Sirtori, X. Marcadet, and J. Tignon, “Integrated terahertz pulse generation and amplification in quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(6), 061107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. Jukam, S. S. Dhillon, Z. Y. Zhao, G. Duerr, J. Armijo, N. Sirmons, S. Hameau, S. Barbieri, P. Filloux, C. Sirtori, X. Marcadet, and J. Tignon, “Gain Measurements of THz Quantum Cascade Lasers using THz Time-Domain Spectroscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14(2), 436–442 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Kröll, J. Darmo, S. S. Dhillon, X. Marcadet, M. Calligaro, C. Sirtori, and K. Unterrainer, “Phase-resolved measurements of stimulated emission in a laser,” Nature 449(7163), 698–701 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Kröll, J. Darmo, K. Unterrainer, S. S. Dhillon, C. Sirtori, X. Marcadet, and M. Calligaro, “Longitudinal spatial hole burning in terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(16), 161108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Martl, M.

M. Martl, J. Darmo, D. Dietze, K. Unterrainer, and E. Gornik, “Terahertz waveguide emitter with subwavelength confinement,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(1), 013110 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Oustinov, D.

S. S. Dhillon, S. Sawallich, N. Jukam, D. Oustinov, J. Madeo, S. Barbieri, P. Filloux, C. Sirtori, X. Marcadet, and J. Tignon, “Integrated terahertz pulse generation and amplification in quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(6), 061107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. Jukam, S. S. Dhillon, D. Oustinov, J. Madeo, C. Manquest, S. Barbieri, C. Sirtori, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and J. Tignon, “Terahertz amplifier based on gain switching in a quantum cascade laser,” Nature Phot. 3(12), 715–719 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. Jukam, S. S. Dhillon, D. Oustinov, J. Madéo, J. Tignon, R. Colombelli, P. Dean, M. Salih, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Terahertz time domain spectroscopy of phonon-depopulation based quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(25), 251108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Reno, J. L.

S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “186 K operation of terahertz quantum-cascade lasers based on a diagonal design,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(13), 131105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, H. Callebaut, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Terahertz quantum-cascade laser at λ=100µm using metal waveguide for mode confinement,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(11), 2124 (2003).
[CrossRef]

B. S. Williams, H. Callebaut, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “3.4-THz quantum cascade laser based on longitudinal-optical-phonon scattering for depopulation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(7), 1015 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ritchie, D. A.

S. Barbieri, J. Alton, H. E. Beere, J. Fowler, E. H. Linfield, and D. A. Ritchie, “2.9 THz quantum cascade lasers operating up to 70 K in continuous wave,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(10), 1674 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Salih, M.

N. Jukam, S. S. Dhillon, D. Oustinov, J. Madéo, J. Tignon, R. Colombelli, P. Dean, M. Salih, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Terahertz time domain spectroscopy of phonon-depopulation based quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(25), 251108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sawallich, S.

S. S. Dhillon, S. Sawallich, N. Jukam, D. Oustinov, J. Madeo, S. Barbieri, P. Filloux, C. Sirtori, X. Marcadet, and J. Tignon, “Integrated terahertz pulse generation and amplification in quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(6), 061107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Scalari, G.

J. Lloyd-Hughes, Y. L. Delley, G. Scalari, M. Fischer, V. Liverini, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Spectroscopic determination of the doping and mobility of terahertz quantum cascade structures,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(9), 093104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Lloyd-Hughes, G. Scalari, A. van Kolck, M. Fischer, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Coupling terahertz radiation between sub-wavelength metal-metal waveguides and free space using monolithically integrated horn antennae,” Opt. Express 17(20), 18387–18393 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sirmons, N.

N. Jukam, S. S. Dhillon, Z. Y. Zhao, G. Duerr, J. Armijo, N. Sirmons, S. Hameau, S. Barbieri, P. Filloux, C. Sirtori, X. Marcadet, and J. Tignon, “Gain Measurements of THz Quantum Cascade Lasers using THz Time-Domain Spectroscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14(2), 436–442 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sirtori, C.

S. S. Dhillon, S. Sawallich, N. Jukam, D. Oustinov, J. Madeo, S. Barbieri, P. Filloux, C. Sirtori, X. Marcadet, and J. Tignon, “Integrated terahertz pulse generation and amplification in quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(6), 061107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. Jukam, S. S. Dhillon, D. Oustinov, J. Madeo, C. Manquest, S. Barbieri, C. Sirtori, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and J. Tignon, “Terahertz amplifier based on gain switching in a quantum cascade laser,” Nature Phot. 3(12), 715–719 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. Jukam, S. S. Dhillon, Z. Y. Zhao, G. Duerr, J. Armijo, N. Sirmons, S. Hameau, S. Barbieri, P. Filloux, C. Sirtori, X. Marcadet, and J. Tignon, “Gain Measurements of THz Quantum Cascade Lasers using THz Time-Domain Spectroscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14(2), 436–442 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Kröll, J. Darmo, S. S. Dhillon, X. Marcadet, M. Calligaro, C. Sirtori, and K. Unterrainer, “Phase-resolved measurements of stimulated emission in a laser,” Nature 449(7163), 698–701 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Kröll, J. Darmo, K. Unterrainer, S. S. Dhillon, C. Sirtori, X. Marcadet, and M. Calligaro, “Longitudinal spatial hole burning in terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(16), 161108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tignon, J.

S. S. Dhillon, S. Sawallich, N. Jukam, D. Oustinov, J. Madeo, S. Barbieri, P. Filloux, C. Sirtori, X. Marcadet, and J. Tignon, “Integrated terahertz pulse generation and amplification in quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(6), 061107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. Jukam, S. S. Dhillon, D. Oustinov, J. Madeo, C. Manquest, S. Barbieri, C. Sirtori, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and J. Tignon, “Terahertz amplifier based on gain switching in a quantum cascade laser,” Nature Phot. 3(12), 715–719 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. Jukam, S. S. Dhillon, D. Oustinov, J. Madéo, J. Tignon, R. Colombelli, P. Dean, M. Salih, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Terahertz time domain spectroscopy of phonon-depopulation based quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(25), 251108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. Jukam, S. S. Dhillon, Z. Y. Zhao, G. Duerr, J. Armijo, N. Sirmons, S. Hameau, S. Barbieri, P. Filloux, C. Sirtori, X. Marcadet, and J. Tignon, “Gain Measurements of THz Quantum Cascade Lasers using THz Time-Domain Spectroscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14(2), 436–442 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Unterrainer, K.

M. Martl, J. Darmo, D. Dietze, K. Unterrainer, and E. Gornik, “Terahertz waveguide emitter with subwavelength confinement,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(1), 013110 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Dietze, J. Darmo, and K. Unterrainer, “Guided Modes in Layered Semiconductor Terahertz Structures,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46(5), 618–625 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Kröll, J. Darmo, K. Unterrainer, S. S. Dhillon, C. Sirtori, X. Marcadet, and M. Calligaro, “Longitudinal spatial hole burning in terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(16), 161108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Kröll, J. Darmo, S. S. Dhillon, X. Marcadet, M. Calligaro, C. Sirtori, and K. Unterrainer, “Phase-resolved measurements of stimulated emission in a laser,” Nature 449(7163), 698–701 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van Kolck, A.

J. Lloyd-Hughes, G. Scalari, A. van Kolck, M. Fischer, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Coupling terahertz radiation between sub-wavelength metal-metal waveguides and free space using monolithically integrated horn antennae,” Opt. Express 17(20), 18387–18393 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, Q. J.

N. Yu, Q. J. Wang, M. A. Kats, J. A. Fan, S. P. Khanna, L. Li, A. G. Davies, E. H. Linfield, and F. Capasso, “Designer spoof surface plasmon structures collimate terahertz laser beams,” Nat. Mater. 9(9), 730–735 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Williams, B. S.

B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, H. Callebaut, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Terahertz quantum-cascade laser at λ=100µm using metal waveguide for mode confinement,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(11), 2124 (2003).
[CrossRef]

B. S. Williams, H. Callebaut, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “3.4-THz quantum cascade laser based on longitudinal-optical-phonon scattering for depopulation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(7), 1015 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yu, N.

N. Yu, Q. J. Wang, M. A. Kats, J. A. Fan, S. P. Khanna, L. Li, A. G. Davies, E. H. Linfield, and F. Capasso, “Designer spoof surface plasmon structures collimate terahertz laser beams,” Nat. Mater. 9(9), 730–735 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhao, Z. Y.

N. Jukam, S. S. Dhillon, Z. Y. Zhao, G. Duerr, J. Armijo, N. Sirmons, S. Hameau, S. Barbieri, P. Filloux, C. Sirtori, X. Marcadet, and J. Tignon, “Gain Measurements of THz Quantum Cascade Lasers using THz Time-Domain Spectroscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14(2), 436–442 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

J. Kröll, J. Darmo, K. Unterrainer, S. S. Dhillon, C. Sirtori, X. Marcadet, and M. Calligaro, “Longitudinal spatial hole burning in terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(16), 161108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

N. Jukam, S. S. Dhillon, D. Oustinov, J. Madéo, J. Tignon, R. Colombelli, P. Dean, M. Salih, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Terahertz time domain spectroscopy of phonon-depopulation based quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(25), 251108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Barbieri, J. Alton, H. E. Beere, J. Fowler, E. H. Linfield, and D. A. Ritchie, “2.9 THz quantum cascade lasers operating up to 70 K in continuous wave,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(10), 1674 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, H. Callebaut, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Terahertz quantum-cascade laser at λ=100µm using metal waveguide for mode confinement,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(11), 2124 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “186 K operation of terahertz quantum-cascade lasers based on a diagonal design,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(13), 131105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. S. Dhillon, S. Sawallich, N. Jukam, D. Oustinov, J. Madeo, S. Barbieri, P. Filloux, C. Sirtori, X. Marcadet, and J. Tignon, “Integrated terahertz pulse generation and amplification in quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(6), 061107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. S. Williams, H. Callebaut, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “3.4-THz quantum cascade laser based on longitudinal-optical-phonon scattering for depopulation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(7), 1015 (2003).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

D. Dietze, J. Darmo, and K. Unterrainer, “Guided Modes in Layered Semiconductor Terahertz Structures,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46(5), 618–625 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

N. Jukam, S. S. Dhillon, Z. Y. Zhao, G. Duerr, J. Armijo, N. Sirmons, S. Hameau, S. Barbieri, P. Filloux, C. Sirtori, X. Marcadet, and J. Tignon, “Gain Measurements of THz Quantum Cascade Lasers using THz Time-Domain Spectroscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14(2), 436–442 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

J. Lloyd-Hughes, Y. L. Delley, G. Scalari, M. Fischer, V. Liverini, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Spectroscopic determination of the doping and mobility of terahertz quantum cascade structures,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(9), 093104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Martl, J. Darmo, D. Dietze, K. Unterrainer, and E. Gornik, “Terahertz waveguide emitter with subwavelength confinement,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(1), 013110 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Mater.

N. Yu, Q. J. Wang, M. A. Kats, J. A. Fan, S. P. Khanna, L. Li, A. G. Davies, E. H. Linfield, and F. Capasso, “Designer spoof surface plasmon structures collimate terahertz laser beams,” Nat. Mater. 9(9), 730–735 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature

J. Kröll, J. Darmo, S. S. Dhillon, X. Marcadet, M. Calligaro, C. Sirtori, and K. Unterrainer, “Phase-resolved measurements of stimulated emission in a laser,” Nature 449(7163), 698–701 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature Phot.

N. Jukam, S. S. Dhillon, D. Oustinov, J. Madeo, C. Manquest, S. Barbieri, C. Sirtori, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and J. Tignon, “Terahertz amplifier based on gain switching in a quantum cascade laser,” Nature Phot. 3(12), 715–719 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

J. Lloyd-Hughes, G. Scalari, A. van Kolck, M. Fischer, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Coupling terahertz radiation between sub-wavelength metal-metal waveguides and free space using monolithically integrated horn antennae,” Opt. Express 17(20), 18387–18393 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

Fabry-Perot resonances of QCL section A are apparent at f = 1.2 THz and f = 2.4 THz (corresponding to slightly smaller size of emitter which may be explained by underetching).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

a) Bandstructure of QCL structure obtained by a Schrödinger-Poisson solver. The layer sequence of one period is 32/97/57/84/31/70/43/163 Å (AlGaAs barriers with 15% Al content are indicated in bold). The widest well is homogeneously doped with 3.5 ✕ 1015cm−3; b) schematic drawing of sample geometry (w = 100 µm, h = 16 µm, l A = 39 µm, d = 3 µm and l B = 1340 µm).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Voltage-current and THz light-current characteristics of QCL section B with section A unbiased (dashed line) and biased at 14 V (full line). Inset: THz emission spectrum for common bias mode V A = V B = 13.5 V.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Experimental setup used for time-domain spectroscopy study of a double-metal THz QCL including beamsplitter (BS), parabolic mirrors (PM), Wollaston prism (WP). The sink temperature is 6 K for all measurements.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Observed THz pulses: a) spoof plasmon generated on the facet of THz emitter section A at bias of 14 V; b) THz pulse after two passes through the unbiased laser cavity. Their modulated counterparts are shown in c) and d). The modulation is measured with the THz emitter biased at V A = 14 V and for the QCL section B driven with 20 μs long rectangular pulses of V B = 13.5 V at 18 kHz.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

a) Measured spectral gain in THz-QCL at different operating conditions. The arrows show the resonances of the emitter section A behaving effectively as an external cavity for the QCL section B. b) Bias dependence of the gain at f = 2.12 THz. c) the LI and VI characteristics of QCL section B.

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